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Oliphant, Anderson and Ferrier, 

List of Notable Books oh China. 

A Mission in China. By W. F,. Soothill, 
translator of the Wenchow New Testa 
ment, author of "The Student s Pocket 
Dictionary," compiler of the Wenchow 
" Romanised System, etc. Large crown 
8vo. , with numerous illustrations, and 
in artistic binding. Price 55. net. Post 
age 4d. 

Chinese Characteristics. By the Rev. 
ARTHUR H. SMITH, D.D. Fifth Edition. 
Revised, with additional illustrations. 
Demy 8vo. 7s. 6d. 

The Original Religion of China. By JOHN 
Ross, D.D., author of "Mission Methods 
in Manchuria." With diagrams from 
original plans and other illustrations. 
Price 5S. net. Postage 4d. 

Village Life in China. A Study in So 
ciology. By ARTHUR H. SMITH, D.D., 
author of "Chinese Characteristics." 
Demy 8vo., art binding, with 9 full-page 
illustrations, ys. 6d. 

The Athcyuxum says: "Gives a more 
faithful representation of village life in 
China than any that has ever yet been 
attempted." 

China in Legend and Story. By C. CAMP 
BELL BROWN. Illustrated, large crown 
8vo., with antique native design. 33. 6d. 
net. Postage 4d. 

The Lore of Cathay ; or, The Intellect of 
China. In five parts. Arts and Sciences, 
Literature, Philosophy and Religion, 
Education, History. By Rev. W. A. P. 
Martin, D.D., L,L,.D., author of "Cycle 
of Cathay," etc. Demy 8vo., cloth extra, 
with illustrations. IDS. 6d. 



Fleming H. Revell Company. 

Court Life in China. The Capital : Its 
Officials and People. By Isaac Taylor 
Headland, author of " Chinese Mother 
Goose Rhymes " and " The Chinese Boy 
and Girl." Price6s.net. Postage sd. 

Chinese Mother Goose Rhymes. By ISAAC 
TAYLOR HEADLAND. Illustrated, dec 
orated boards, 43. net. Postage. 4d. 

Professor Headland has done more than 
anyone else to bring us into sympathy 
with Chinese life by showing us how 
like our own it is in those features of 
child life and folklore, which, after all, 
are the true test. 

Chinese Boy and Girl. By ISAAC TAYLOR 
HEADLAND. Illustrated, decorated 
boards. 45. net. Postage 4d. 

Following on the Chinese Mother Goose, 
this gives even closer glimpses of child 
life among the Celestials (how the name 
has dropped out !). 

Christianity and The Nations. Being the 
Duff Lectures for 1910. By ROBERT F<. 
SPEKR, secretary of the Board of Foreign 
Missions of the Presbyterian Church 
in the United States. Cloth. Price ics. 
net. Postage 6d. 

A History of Christianity in Japan. By 

OTIS CARY. In 2 vols., cloth. Price 
153. net. Postage icd. 

Vol. I. A History of Roman Catholic 
and Greek Orthodox Missions in 
Japan. 

Vol. II. A History of Protestant Mis 
sions in Japan. 

The Foreign Missionary. By ARTHUR J. 
BROWN, author of " New Forces in Old 
China." Cloth. 53. net. 



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\ STUDIA IN / 



THE LIBRARY 

of 
VICTORIA UNIVERSITY 

Toronto 



THE 

CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK 



BEING 



The Christian Movement in China" 
191O 

EDITED BY 

D. MacGlLLlVRAY, 

FOR THE C. L. S. 



SHANGHAI : 

CHRISTIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY FOR CHINA 
1910 



34-10 
,& 



PREFACE. 



first attempt to deal exhaustivel} with the 
history of the various missions in China was 
11 The China Mission Handbook," which appeared 
hi .1896. The circulars which were sent out asking for 
material were signed by a committee of Shanghai mis 
sionaries, but the bulk of the editorial work fell to Dr. 
T. Richard. To judge by the words on the first page, 
it appears that the promoters hoped that it was the first 
of a series to appear at regular intervals. This hope, 
however, was never actualized. 

The next important historical work dealing with 
China missions was the Centenary Conference historical 
volume, entitled "A Century of Missions in China," 
which was prepared for the Conference by the writer at 
the request of the Executive Committee. 

Since that time events have moved rapidly in China. 
Much progress has been made in many directions in 
Church and State, but nothing in continuation of this 
volume has appeared since 1907. In this respect the 
Cooperating Christian Missions of Japan have far out 
stripped us. This year sees the eighth annual issue of 
their "Christian Movement in Japan," an invaluable 
digest of the missionary work there. The stimulating 
example thus set up was not lost, and finally precipitated 
action along the line of the present Year Book. Dr. A. 
H. Smith, in the Chinese Recorder, had voiced the 
general feeling when he loudly called for a Chinese 
Annual. 

In the absence of any body corresponding to the 
Cooperating Missions in Japan, the Christian Literature 
Society, which happily possessed the necessary niachiu- 



ll CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

ery, undertook to begin a series of Year Books for 
China, and the present editor was requested to inaugurate 
the work. The thought had occurred to many minds, 
but the difficulty was in the execution. Japan might be 
manageable, but China was a vaster field. The pros 
pectus frankly admitted that it might be found impos 
sible to do for China what had been so well done for 
Japan. The imperfections of a first attempt naturally 
appear in the book, but we are glad to say that some 300 
advance orders, given in simple faith, showed that people 
want such a book. 

We are particularly thankful to the forty or fifty 
able writers who have furnished the signed articles. 
Back of these again are the workers who gladly assisted 
them in their investigations. The time has come when 
questionnaires on serious subjects will receive serious 
attention and not lazily be thrown into the limbus of 
forgotten duties. 

The Year Book, as will be seen at a glance, totally 
differs from anything else that has appeared. It is the 
first attempt to describe the present state of the work, 
not historically, but in successive chapters, each on a 
particular phase and covering vast areas in one pur 
view. Here can be seen where we are successful and 
where \ve fail. It is "The Kingdom of God in China," 
and the faith that the labor of preparing the book 
will further that Kingdom is the only justification of its 
existence. 

Plans for the Year Book of 1911 are already under 
way. It will continue some of the features of 1910, but 
without repetition. Only movements that are going 
ahead rapidly will receive separate treatment, and the 
various chapters, as will be seen by the appended list, 
are planned to give the second Year Book a value of its 
own quite apart from the first. Other additional chap 
ters may be added on new subjects as they may emerge 
between this and the time of publication. 



PREFACE. 

Tentative List of Chapters. 

1. General vSurvey. 

2. Important Edicts and National Movements. 

3. The Chinese Government Schools. 

4. The Problem of Educational Work in China. 

5. What is being done to reach the Higher Classes. 

6. Problems of the Chinese Church. 

7. Student Volunteer Movement in China. 

8. The Problems of Evangelistic Work. 

9. Unoccupied Fields. A list of neglected towns and cities 

in each province. 

10. Paper on some Live Subject, by a Chinese. 

11. The Work of the Missions, from their Reports. 

12. Special chapter on Work in Hunan. 

13. Special chapter on Work of the C. I. M. 

14. Special chapter on Work of the German Missions. 

15. The Special Work of Anglicans in China. 

16. Work for the Moslems of China. 

17. Work among the Aboriginal Tribes. 

18. Problems in Literature. 

19. Hymnology of the Chinese Church. 

20. Problems in Sunday School Work. 

21. The Ideal Translation of the Bible into Chinese. 

22. Y. M. C. A., Y. W. C. A., and W. C. T. U. 

23. Problem of Learning the Chinese Language. 

24. General Paper on Women s Work. 

25. Anti-footbinding and Anti-opium. 

26. Buddhism in Public and Private Life. 

27. Missionary Opinion as Reflected in the pages of the 

Chinese Recorder. 
Obituaries. 
Statistics. 
Appendices. 
Directory. 

By the above, some obvious omissions of 1910 will 
be supplied. It is our hope that Mission Boards, mission 
aries, aud others may become annual subscribers. 

D. MACGlLUVKAY. 



CONTENTS. 



PREFACE. 

CHAPTER I. GENERAL SURVEY. ARTHUR H. SMITH. 1-22 

CHAPTER II. IMPORTANT EDICTS AND GOVERN 
MENT CHANGES W. SHELDON RIDGE. 23-37 

CHAPTER III. THE GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS OF 

CHINA j. c. FERGUSON. 38-49 

Supplement : Bureau of Educational Mission to U. S. A. 49-55 
Hongkong University ... ... ... ... ... 56-57 

Government Education in N. China. R. R. GAII.EY. 57-60 

CHAPTER IV. WORK FOR THE HIGHER CLASSES. 
Institutional and Evangelistic : 

Tlie International Institute, Shanghai. G. REID. 61-68 
Tsinaufu Institute ... J, S. WHITEWRIGHT. 68-72 

CHAPTER V. MISSION SCHOOLS, COLLEGES, AND 
UNIVERSITIES FOR MEN AND BOYS : 

Chihli, Shantung, Manchuria EDITOR. 73-83 

West China E. J. CARSON. 83-95 

South China P. W. PITCHER. 95-104 

Central and East China J.A. SILSBY. 104-112 



CHAPTER VI. EVANGELISTIC WORK: 113-173 


A. B. M. U. 


. 113-116 


F. F. M. 


I45-H7 


A. B. C. F. M. 


116-121 


M. E. M., North 


147-150 


A. P. M., North 


. 121-129 


C. I. M. 


150-153 


S. B. C. ... 


129-133 


F. C.M. 


153-154 


A. P. E. ... 


133-135 


R. C. in A. ... 


**** W T 

154-156 


C. M. M.... 


135-137 


U. M. M. ... 


156-159 


M. E. M M So. 


. 137-140 


Pres. Church of E. 


159-163 


E. B. M. ... 


. 140-142 


C. and M. A.... 


163-164 


W. M. S. ... 


. 142-144 


L. M.S. 


164-169 


U. F. C. S. 


144-145 


C. M. S. 


170-173 



CHAPTER VII. I. Evangelization in the Cities. , 

C. G. SPAJLBAM. 174-179 
II. Evangelistic Work in the Country. 

A. R. SAUNDERS. 180 188 



VI 



CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 



CHAPTER VIII. INDEPENDENCE AND SELF-SUP 
PORT : 



North China ... 
South China ... 
Central China... 
West China ... 
East Central China 



...J. WHERRY. 

J.SPKICHER. 
W r . C. LONGDEN. 
A. E. CLAXTON. 

F. GARRETT, 



CHAPTER IX. MEDICAL MISSIONARY WORK. 

CECIL J. DAVENPORT. 



189-195 
195-199 
199-205 
205-206 
206-209 



210-215 



CHAPTER X. MEDICAL EDUCATION : 

North China T. COCHRANE. 216-221 

Central China W. H. JEFFERYS. 221-225 

South China P. J. TODD. 225-228 

MEDICAL EDUCATION FOR WOMEN : 

North China ... Miss ELIZA E. LEONARD. 228-229 

Canton Miss MARY H. FULTON. 229-232 

MEDICAL RESEARCH WORK. H. S.HOUGHTON. 232-234 

CHAPTER XL THEOLOGICAL EDUCATION : 

North China C. H. FENN. 235-239 

Central China J. C. GARRITT. 239-246 

South China H. W. OLDHAM. 247-253 

CHAPTER XII. THE BIBLE STUDY MOVEMENT. 

A. E. CORY. 254-260 

CHAPTER XIII. I. Sunday School ...W. H. LACY. 261-263 

II. Christian Endeavor. Mr. and Mrs. STROTHER. 264-267 

CHAPTER XIV. WOMEN S WORK IN GENERAL 
(exclusive of educational and medical) : 

Mid-China ... Mrs. ELSIE SITES RAVEN. 268-274 

South China Miss E. BENHAM. 274-277 

North China Miss MARY H. PORTER. 278-287 

CHAPTER XV. WOMEN S WORK, EDUCATIONAL : 

Central China ... Miss LUELLA HUELSTER. 288-296 

North China Miss LUELLA MINER. 296-304 

South China ... Miss HARRIET N. NOYES. 305-311 

Supplement : Hongkong ... EDITOR. 311-312 



CONTENTS, vii 

CHAPTER XVI. REVIVALS. WM, N. BRKWSTER. 313-319 

CHAPTER XVII. FEDERATION AND UNION. 

\V. N. BITTON. 320-324 

CHAPTER XVIIL CHRISTIAN LITERATURE 

SOCIETY EDITOR. 325-333 

CHAPTER XIX. TRACT SOCIETIES IN CHINA. 

J. DARROCH. 334-342 

CHAPTER XX. CHRISTIAN PERIODICALS. 

\V. A. CORNABY. 343-350 

CHAPTER XXI. MISSION PRESSES, G. MclNTosn. 351-362 

CHAPTER XXII. BIBLE SOCIETIES : 

British and Foreign Bible Society. 

G. H. BONDFIEI.B. 363-370 
National Bible Society of Scotland. 

J. ARCHIBALD. 370-372 
American Bible Society. (Annual Report.) 

J. R. HYKKS. 372-37? 

CHAPTER XXIII. BIBLE TRANSLATION AND RE 
VISION G. H. BONDFIKI.D. 378 379 

CHAPTER XXIV. -SPECIAL PHILANTHROPY : 

The Blind G. A. CF.AYTON. 380-383 

The Deaf and Dumb ... Miss A. E. CARTER. 384 
Christian Herald Orphanage Committee. 

LIKBUKN MRRRIT^. 385-387 

Leprosy in China HKNRY FOWLER. 388-390 

John G. Kerr Refuge for Insane. C.C. SEI,DEN. 391-393 

CHAPTER XXV. INDUSTRIAL WORK. 

\v. N. BREWSTER. 394-397 

CHAPTER XXVI. OPIUM REFORM ... EDITOR. 398-402 

CHAPTER XXVII. Y. M. C. A. : 

In China. (From Report) 403-413 

In Japan. ^ Among Chinese students.) 

J. M. CUNTON. 413-418 



Vlll 



CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. CHINESE ABROAD. 

G. F. MOSHER. 419-424 

CHAPTER XXIX. THE GREEK CHURCH. 

O. FlGOUROVSKV. 425-426 

CHAPTER XXX. STATISTICS OF ROMAN CATHO 
LIC WORK IN CHINA 427-431 



APPENDICES. 



I. IMPORTANT EVENTS Pages i-vi 

II. OBITUARIES vii-xvi 

III. NEW BOOKS ON CHINA xvii-xxii 

IV. ARTICLES ON CHINA xxiii-xxvi 

V. ADDENDA TO " A CENTURY OF 

MISSIONS" xxvii-xxx 

VI. CHURCH OFFICIALS xxxi-xxxiii 

VII. ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY xxxiv 

VIII. CENTENARY CONFERENCE COM 
MITTEE S FINAL REPORT xxxv-xxxvii 

IX. LIST OF NEW STATIONS xxxviii-xxxix 

X. HALLEY S COMET .. xl-liii 



DIRECTORY OF MISSIONARIES. 

STATISTICAL TABLE. 



CHAPTER L 



GENERAL SURVEY (1907-WO). 

N the attempt to comprehend things Chinese (or 
any other things) three questions must first be faced : 
What are the facts ? Why are they ? and What of 
them ? It is next to certain that there are more people 
who know much about China than there ever were 
before, and also that they know more about China 
than was ever before known, yet the difficulty of com 
prehending China is not only not diminished but is 
actually increased as compared with say two decades 
ago. For this there are obvious reasons. The forces 
operating upon the China of that day while numerous 
and complex were relatively homogeneous and some of 
them comparatively passive. To-day all China is ting 
ling with a consciousness or a semi-consciousness of a 
new life. Its homogeneity is as evident as it has ever 
been, but its heterogeneity is far more so. The cur 
rents and the cross currents mingle confusedly, but they 
are beneath the surface, and often the only evidence of 
their existence to the outsider is the emergence of new 
sandbars, the opening of new and intricate channels, and 
the partial or complete closing of those which have been 
long in use. 

It is not the purpose of the following notes on 
existing conditions in China to furnish information as to 
events that the reader is supposed already to possess, or 
if not, he can obtain it from the chapters which follow, 
but to give a commentary on some of the more impor 
tant internal aspects of China during the three years 
which have elapsed since the Centennial Conference of 
1907. China s relations to other powers do not fall 
within the scope of our present survey. 



2 CHINA MISSION YKAR BOOK. 

If any "Old China hand" had been told before 
hand that ilie Kniperor and the Empress-Dowager would 
die within twenty-four hours of each other, yet that 
the succession would be quietly arranged with no sug 
gestion of outward discontent, he would have smiled a 
knowing smile and would have outlined a much more 
probable line of events, but he would have been quite 
astray. It is no novelty in China to have long minorities 
in the palace, and the past hundred years has had fully 
its share. Yet in this instance the selection both of 
a new Emperor and a Regent seemed so clearly the best 
possible that after it became obvious that there was to 
be no uprising or popular clamor, we seemed indeed to 
be entering upon a lagoon of peace, such as China had 
not known for more than a century. A year and a half 
of the rule of the Prince Regent, however, made it ob 
vious that far too much had been expected from his 
good intentions, and that his qualifications for the diffi 
cult task laid upon him were extremely inadequate. 
The sudden and curt dismissal of Yuan Shih-k ai opened 
a new window into the central machinery of the Chinese 
government and made it plain that personal considera 
tions overtop the interests of the state, as has so often 
although by no means uniformly been the case through 
the long course of Chinese history. Before the year 
closed the abrupt ejection of the capable Manchu gov 
ernor-General, Tuau Fang, furnished another signifi 
cant object-lesson of the inherent weakness of China. 
At a time when the empire needs the services in some 
capacity of every able man available, not merely these 
two but many others of less importance are shelved, 
not because they are not needed, but because they are 
not wanted. 

The death of the aged and highly-honored Chang 
Chih-tung removed from the stage a conspicuous figure 
to whom it is probably impossible for foreigners to do 
justice. From one point of view he was a liberal and 
an enlightened statesman who had served as a rudder to 



GENERAL SURVEY. 3 

the junk of state for many decades. From another he 
was a venerable fossil partly but quite superficially 
covered with thin precipitates of "modernism," and 
these were always at inconvenient times scaling off and 
showing the interesting figure of a Confucian doctrinaire 
with " his feet in the Sung dynasty and his head in the 
clouds." If China had the supply of able men which 
might be expected, the loss of Chang Chih-tung might 
not have been felt, but as it is, he removed one of the 
not too numerous balance-wheels from the state ma 
chinery. 

The aged Sun Chia-nai was a man of weight and 
importance in his way, but he belonged to an age which 
had never comprehended the new era in which he could 
not be classed as a leading figure. Yang Shih-hsiang, 
Governor-General of the Chihli province, was not a man 
of great abilities, but a substantial and a useful official. 
The fact that he retained his post after his patron Yuan 
had fallen, may be taken as an indication that China is 
increasingly sensitive to the opinions of the outside 
world. Tai Hung-tze, one of the Imperial Commission 
ers sent abroad five years ago to investigate " Constitu 
tional Government" seemed to be a rising man, whose 
untimely disappearance left a vacancy apparently not 
easy to fill. 

The opening decade of the twentieth century has 
been marked in China by one of the most singular 
phenomena in history the relatively rapid rise to self- 
consciousness and to world-consciousness of the Chinese 
people as a whole. It has long been recognized that 
the Chinese have always been in many of their social 
habits essentially democratic ; the theoretically absolute 
rule resting (theoretically) upon popular approbation. 
But this approbation has always been comparatively 
inarticulate. What were the real motives that led the 
late Grand-Dowager Empress to give her cordial ap 
proval to the introduction of a " Constitution " in China 
we have no means of knowing, but whatever they may 



4 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

have been the step was one of far-reaching importance, 
certainly for China and perhaps for the world. It is 
evident that but a microscopic fraction of the people 
of China have any idea at all what is connoted by the 
word "constitution" now so incessantly on the lips of 
talkers and the pens of writers, but they look forward to 
its introduction as the opening of a golden era, instead 
of an embarkation on " the storm-tossed sea of liberty." 
By what processes are these innumerable millions to 
learn the meaning of that mighty and mystic term, to 
distinguish between liberty and license- to be schooled 
in that self-restraint which involves cooperation, the 
subordination of the present to the future, and especially 
that of the individual to the community ? The provin 
cial assemblies which met on the i4th of last October 
constituted the initial step in this great experiment 
which is of interest and of more or less importance to all 
China s contemporaries. Those who had the oppor 
tunity of witnessing this beginning were struck with the 
dignity and the poise of the newly-chosen delegates, 
imperfectly informed as they were of the ends in view, 
of the means by which they were to be obtained, and of 
the methods of overcoming the bristling obstacles which 
already begin to appear. It seems certain that as soon 
as they find themselves, these assemblies will begin to 
inquire why the people are so heavily taxed, and what 
becomes of the vast sums which are now so lightly 
wrested from them. The next step will be an impeach 
ment of the inordinately large number of thoroughly 
inefficient officials against whom there has hitherto been 
practically no redress. When that day comes district 
magistrates will be obliged to give prompt attention to 
suits-at-law, to decide with some measure of fairness, 
and the rudiments of a writ of habeas corpus act will 
emerge, preventing the indiscriminate detention of both 
guilty and innocent for months and years until all track 
of the original case has been lost to the public. Whether 
the reformed code of Chinese law which is promised 



GENERAL SURVEY. 5 

at an early day is to take cognizance of matters like 
these, no one seems able as yet to say with certainty, 
but whether it does or does not, the old tyrannies and 
disregard of individual right are doomed. 

Among the exhibitions of the new spirit in China 
is the frequent outcry against Chinese officials who have 
rendered themselves unpopular, especially by truckling 
to foreigners, and the resolution to prevent them from 
returning to the towns, the cities, and the provinces where 
they were born, but which they have disgraced in the 
estimation of their fellows. Liable to abuse as this senti 
ment no doubt is, it yet shows a wholesome interest in 
the general welfare hitherto quite unknown. There has 
been an agelong struggle in China between the right of 
the Central Government to govern and the right of the 
various provinces to govern themselves. There is no 
question that certain provinces notably Hunan stand 
upon special footing, due in part to their history which 
has led to certain prescriptive privileges and immunities 
and in part to the temper of their people. Discrimina 
tion of this sort is thoroughly consonant with the Chi 
nese theory and practice of government. But when 
the provinces omit or even refuse to remit taxes to the 
court, when the gentry take upon themselves to decide 
what loans shall or shall not be made by the govern 
ment, and when they insist upon the right to build their 
own railways as well as to manage them when built, we 
seem to have our modern civilization confronted with the 
feudalism which preceded the Bmperor Ch in Shih- 
huang. From the point of view of science, of political 
economy and of sound finance there can be no question 
as to how the struggle must end, but the pitiful weak 
ness of the government in Peking tends to yield on vital 
points and to temporize where a prompt and definite 
assertion of ultimate authority would appear imperative. 
What will happen when the national parliament so 
greatly thirsted after really meets cannot be foreseen, 
but sooner or later a process of disillusionment must be 



6 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

looked for. Then may perhaps occur the fulfillment of 
a prophecy of one of the Taotais who accompanied 
H. K. Tuan* Fang around the world five years since : 
"No nation ever yet got its liberties without shedding 
much blood, and China will be no exception." In the 
meantime popular pressure everywhere curtails and 
eventually extinguishes all foreign concessions which 
can be got hold of. By this kind of combined pressure 
the Peking Syndicate was bought off from Shansi, and 
the capable official who engineered the negotiations was 
the most popular man of the day, and is now the 
efficient governor of that province. The relinquishment 
for a fair consideration of the claim of Sir Lister Kaye 
in Anhui probably marks the terminal moraine of all 
enterprises of this sort. The general unrest throughout 
China during the past year has been greatly stimulated 
by the widespread report (from some unknown source) 
that China is again on the point of being "carved up 
like a melon." The repeated attempts on the life of the 
Prince Regent show that the evil spirit which entered 
China in a foreign guise just before the Constitutional 
Commission left Peking late in 1905, is still an unwel 
come and sinister guest in the Celestial Krnpire, whose 
departure may perhaps be long delayed. 

The military riots of the last winter were a grave 
symptom that the best trained troops may not inprobably 
prove a source of fatal weakness in the hour of direst 
need. It is not the army, but the spirit behind the 
army that counts, and this remains more or less of an 
enigma. The recent explosion at the capital of Hunan 
is an impressive demonstration how thin is the shell 
which separates us from volcanic fires which for aught 
that we know rage widely, but until this ominous 
occurrence has been thoroughly investigated, it is vain 
to dogmatize upon it. An exception to the constitu 
tional weakness of the Central Government appears to 
exist in its firmness in dealing with the spectacular and 
peripatetic divinity known as the Dalai Lama, who was 



GENERAL SURVEY, 7 

enticed to Peking, flattered (and snubbed) while there, 
ostentatiously honored, sent on his way, reproved, 
exhorted, and suddenly degraded. China seems bent 
upon making herself felt in Thibet as never before, but 
in this as in all Chinese affairs " prophecy is a lost art." 
But there is evidently a great and a growing respect 
for miltarism as an essential condition of the securit) of 
China, a change in sentiment so great as to be itself a 
revolution. 

With the greatest of all her economic problems 
the currency China shows no disposition to deal, the 
treaties of the early years of the decade to the contrary 
notwithstanding. The early Brnperors of the Yuan 
dynasty distinguished themselves by flooding the empire 
with bank notes made from mulberry bark, leading to a 
financial catastrophe. The later years ot the reign of 
Kuang Hsii will be remembered as the period when the 
Central Government, the various provinces, and many 
officials found a Golconda in the minting of copper coins 
worth from 2^ to perhaps four or five brass cash, and 
passing them on the people for ten cash. But for the 
promise that they would be taken in payment for taxes 
a promise no sooner made than broken they might not 
have got into circulation at all. But the mischief was 
soon done. The Statistical Secretary of the Imperial 
Maritime Customs estimated five years ago that the 
amount coined at the scores of mints then in operation 
(now closed down) could not be less than sixteen 
thousand millions annually. Meantime, Gresham and 
his * Law " promptly arrived on the scene, and the good 
old clumsy round brass cash with a square hole in it 
(one of the few illustrations of the " round and the 
square" meeting each other in China) quietly disap 
peared. (This is a general but not a universal occurrence 
since some localities positively refused to have any 
copper cash within their bounds.) China shares with 
the rest of the world the burden of rising prices of every 
kind, but this particular calamity is a copyright of her 



8 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

own with no prospect of an infringement. The aggre 
gate loss thus suffered unintelligently and helplessly by a 
longsuffering people is quite beyond calculation. In the 
meantime rumors abound, have abounded, and probably 
will abound as to the new and " uniform " coin which is 
about to be minted. It is to be a single coin on a tael 
basis. It is two coins both on a dollar basis. China is 
to have a gold basis. And all one knows is that one 
knows nothing, and things are as they ever have been, 
and apparently ever are to be. 

H. E. T ang Shao-i was sent on an important 
mission all round the globe, where he dispersed the 
proper number of Imperial gifts, and was everywhere 
received with almost royal honors. When Yuan was 
deposed, Yang halted to be reappointed, and resumed his 
triumphant course. He was reported to have had many 
important interviews, he was an expert on currency 
and other reforms. He returned to China, and except 
for an initial crop of rumors that has been apparently 
the end of him, and he is said to be in failing health, 
and no wonder. 

The body known as the Censorate, which has 
served an important function in China in calling atten 
tion to flagrant wrongs in high places, but which has at 
times if not invariably been regarded as a kind of 
authorized blackmail department of the government, 
has recently displayed remarkable activity, but few 
know what the phenomena really connote. The tenure 
of office seems to grow shorter, and a governor or 
governor-general is often hardly seated before he is 
transferred elsewhere. There is no continuity either of 
personnel or of plan ; each incumbent adjusting his acts 
to his own ideas and ideals. The people are so accus 
tomed to this shuffling that it causes no surprise, but the 
aggregate effect is an almost universal paralysis of any 
thing like real progress. 

The railway development of China proceeds despite 
many setbacks. The British-built line from Shanghai 



GENERA^ SURVEY. 9 

to Nanking, the French trunk route to Yunnanfu, the 
Japanese line from Swatow to Ch aochoufu, the 
Belgian line from the Peking-Hankow road into Shansi, 
that from Shanghai to Hangchow, the one from Peking 
to Kalgan, the extension of the Manchurian road to 
Moukden, besides the " Pien-Lo " from Chengchou, 
Honan, eastward to K aifengfu and westward to Ho- 
naiifu, the Chinese road to Samshui, near Canton, the 
extension of the Yueh-han across Kuangtting, and the 
beginning of a most difficult railway from Ich ang to 
Szch uan all these and some others show that in this 
department at least there is no stagnation. The first 
stage on the important through route between Tientsin 
and P uk ou, opposite Nanking, has just been opened 
to Techou, and the road is promised within three 
or four years, except perhaps for a costly bridge at 
Lok ou below Chiiianfu, the capital of Shantung. 
China is thoroughly converted to railways, a change of 
sentiment which to one who remembers three decades 
ago or even two seems like a transformation scene from 
the Arabian Nights. But there is no mystery about it. 
The Chinese have a proverbial saying about a " money- 
shaking tree" which rains its coppers on its fortunate 
owner. Railways, however, have proved an ever flow 
ing fountain of liquid silver automatically enriching the 
government without impoverishing the people one of 
the few enterprises whicn the Chinese have found to be 
of this class in the ages of their history. The effect has 
been electric. Dead men have not only turned in their 
graves but have hastened to vacate them. Feng Shui is 
110 longer a " live issue" either to those who are buried 
or to those above ground. 

That the railways, such as the Peking-Hankow 
line, taken over from the Belgians, are grossly misman 
aged, is to be assumed, but this is part of the general 
scheme of things, and may be righted in the coining 
Celestial millennium. But even so railways are a source 
of unirnagined and hitherto unimaginable wealth. Their 



IO CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

economic effects are as yet but dimly discernible as 
relates to the country as a whole, not having been as 
yet studied intelligently. It is reported in Russian 
journals that the Trans-Siberian line which was to have 
been the means for the subjugation by Russia of Man 
churia, is maintained at vast expense by that empire 
with the result that perhaps half a million of Chinese are 
annually poured into the Hei-lung-chiaug province, the 
total emigration being said to be already between three 
and four millions. Extensive parts of China are greatly 
overpopulated, notably the ancient province of Shantung, 
whose people might advantageously be transplanted to 
the great regions now opened up beyond the Great Wall. 
A constant stream of trekking of this sort is indeed 
kept up, but it should be assisted by the provincial and 
the general governments, and should be conducted reg 
ularly and permanently. For this the high officials 
tell us no funds are forthcoming (though they appear 
to be found for numerous objects of far less importance), 
but the real difficulty is lack of statesmanship and initia 
tive and an indifference to the condition of the people. 
The ravages of the great famine of thirty-two years ago 
have been fully made up ; nothing but emigration can, 
from the economic point of view, save Shantung, but so 
far as we know no Chinese official has even considered 
the matter. Coincident with the extension of the rail 
way system of China, her waterways of great antiquity 
and of priceless value, are going to ruin. The lower 
reaches of the Peiho, on which Tientsin is built, have 
been straightened and dredged by successful skill, but 
all this is the work of foreigners. The Paotingfu 
river, the Hsiahsiho, the Hunho, are all absolutely 
neglected and a source of peril to the whole country 
about, when they might be deepened and regulated so 
as to be a perennial blessing. The Peiho, which a 
decade ago bore the tribute-rice to the capital, is now 
either dried up in its old habitat (having run off some 
where else in default of anything to do), or it is a raging 



GENERAL SURVEV. II 

torrent inundating whole counties. A year ago hun 
dreds of boatmen were stranded at T ungchou unable 
to get anywhere. Yet this is w thin an hour s ride of 
the Imperial Palace ! The Grand Canal, throughout ^ 
large part of its northern course, is a venerable and a 
melancholy ruin. In northern Kiangsu the choking of 
its channels for drainage to the sea directly caused the 
floods which ended in the terrible famine of 1906-7. 
Yet nothing is anywhere undertaken, or if work is begun, 
it is isolated, sporadic, and fruitless. According to the 
best foreign opinion it can be but a matter of a decade 
more or less before the ancient foe of China (which 
might be converted into its staunch friend) the Yellow 
River will once more break away by reason of the 
silting up of its bed, and we shall have a repetition of 
the scenes of 1887-8, with wails about the will of 
heaven and the helplessness of man against fate. 

After protracted squabbling between the rulers of two 
adjacent provinces (as if they had been rival European 
kingdoms instead of constituent parts of one empire) 
we have at last the " promise and potency " of practical 
steam navigation of the Upper Yangtze. When the 
Imperial province of Szch uan is joined by rail and 
steamboat to the rest of China, and likewise with the 
vast almost unpenetrated regions beyond, there will be 
a new world for the whole empire. 

Nothing has so showed the temper of the new 
China as her treatment of the opium reform, to which 
a few sentences must be devoted. It is important to 
remember that the avowed object is to "make China 
strong." Five years ago it was something of a risk 
to assume (as some of us did assume) that the Chinese 
government was in earnest. This is now everywhere 
admitted by those whose opinion is of any value. The 
great opium conference in Shanghai in 1909 may be said 
to have focused the sentiment of the world against this 
deadly drug, and seems to have been the means of a slow 
but definite change of view among the journals of the 



12 CHINA MISSION YKAR BOOK. 

Far East, many of which had maintained an attitude of 
invincible skepticism as to the real intentions of China. 
She has proved ready to sacrifice between one hundred 
and one hundred and fifty million taels of revenue, which 
is the highest proof of her intentions. That the poppy 
plant is no longer grown in several of the provinces which 
most largely produced it, seems to be matter of trust 
worthy testimony. That many opium-smokers have 
been induced to leave off smoking, and that some have 
died in the attempt, is also well known. The drug has 
enormously increased in price, and it can no longer be 
afforded by the poor. Great quantities of morphia have 
found their way into China, a substitute much worse 
than the original. Against this it is difficult effectively 
to guard. None of these facts, nor all of them combined, 
prove that China has given up opium, or that she will do 
so. That is a matter which of necessity must require 
at least another decade or two after all growth or visible 
importation ceases. China is full of buried opium totally 
beyond the reach of assessors or inquisitors, sufficient 
to furnish a moderate supply for a long time to come. 
There may for aught that appears be a steady leakage 
from Persia, etc., through Central Asia. And in any case 
the problem is so vast that it can no more be undertaken 
off hand and achieved like the building of the Great Wall 
under the Ch in Emperor than can any other reform 
which is as much a moral as an economic question. 
That China will be successful in the end we have faith to 
believe, but it is a distant goal and will require strong 
and steady efforts. When \ve remember that the Chinese 
were once a nation of heavy drinkers, and completely 
threw off that vice, we can see the moral stamina funded 
in the Chinese people. To all friends of China it is (or 
ought to be) a matter of regret that just as the country is 
struggling to free itself from the Opium Laocoon, a great 
syndicate should appear upon the scene flooding every 
province with its insidious (and often hideous) posters, 
striving to fix upon the Chinese the cigarette habit. 



GENERAL SURVEY, 13 

The general introduction of foreign liquors also can 
not prove other than an injury to the physical constitu 
tion of the Chinese and the morale of China. 

The status of the Chinese Press is a matter of the 
gravest concern both to the people of China and to the 
rulers. At present it seems difficult to know what to 
expect ; some journals being summarily suppressed, and 
then reincarnated under other names. The control of 
important organs by wealthy officials is an evil of great 
importance, which is apparently less in evidence than a 
year or two ago. But in this as an other lines it is 
dangerous to give too much liberty before there is 
sufficient self-restraint to prevent its abuse. 

Rumors regarding numerous social reforms which 
are supposed to be just below the dip of the horizon 
continue to abound, and some of them may be not far 
off. Among them are the abolition of the eunuch sys 
tem, the discontinuance of girl slavery, permission for 
the removal of the queue, and the like. The Occidental 
bow has been recognized as a useful compromise between 
the varying Chinese and Manchu salutations in Peking. 
Hand-shaking between Chinese and foreigners has (so 
to speak) made great strides, and the increasing opportu 
nities of meeting gentry and officials afford numerous 
valuable opportunities for mutual adjustments. 

It is greatly to be regretted that one is unable to 
detect any signs of improvement in the administration 
of the national system of education. As a whole it 
appears to be unsystematized, uncoordinated, expensive, 
and inefficient. In the eighteen provinces there are 
thought to be about 350 foreigners employed in Chinese 
schools, of whom perhaps six-sevenths are Japanese. 
There is, as there has been from the outset, a great 
dearth of competent teachers, and especially of those 
trained for their work and interested in it. The adop 
tion of the Western Sunday as a school holiday, so widely 
hailed as a bright sign of promise, has probably proved 
an almost unmixed evil in periodically removing pupils 



14 CHINA MISSION YKA& BOOK. 

from all restraint at an age and under conditions requir 
ing very different treatment. 

The Shansi Provincial College, under the care of 
Dr. Timothy Richard, stands in a class by itself, but at 
the impending expiration of the ten-year period no one 
can predict under what influences it may fall. Except 
ional likewise is the Tientsin University, founded by Dr. 
Tenney, which has a large foreign staff. The Provincial 
College at Paotingfu has been for more than a year 
and a half under the presidency of Mr. Fei Ch i-hao, a 
Christian graduate of Oberlin and of Yale. Dr. Fergu 
son, of Shanghai, has well pointed out one of the fatal 
weaknesses of government institutions in China in their 
divided control. Every school is in the hands of four 
sets of managers : the Board of Education, which may 
include the central board and a local board, the directors 
of the special school, the faculty, and the students. 
The latter by playing off against one or both of the 
other two, are in almost every case able to decide the 
policy of the school, and are almost always able to 
procure the dismissal of a teacher, foreign or native, to 
whom they may have taken a dislike. Such schools 
may hardly be said to pursue an enlightened and 
continuous policy for two consecutive years." Compul 
sory education which the government has announced as 
a policy for both boys and girls, remains, and seems 
likely long to remain an unmeaning phrase. 

In the Chihli province, where education is held to 
be most advanced, primary schools seem outside of large 
centres to be either altogether non-existent, or else 
simply of the old type, but with less coherency and with 
a laxer discipline. Like all other Boards the Board of 
Education issues with intermittent sequence a bewilder 
ing number of "Regulations;" among them some 
prescribing modest and inexpensive dress for girls and 
(so it is reported) unbound feet. The anti-foot-binding 
enterprise, which seems stationary, is probably quietly 
making some headway, and although the aggregate 



GENERAL SURVEY. 15 

number thus far affected is certainly a fraction too 
insignificant to be taken into numerical account, the 
movement is well established, and appears to be thus far 
the only Western reform thoroughly naturalized in China. 
The number of Chinese students in Japan has greatly 
lessened, while the quality has decidedly improved. 
Perhaps the most expensive "educational system" of 
modern times is that by which young Manchti princes 
(and other youth) are constantly sent abroad with a large 
suite to "study" this and that, returning from their 
junketing tours with a well established zest for more edu 
cation of the same description. Mention should be made 
of the evolution under our very eyes, of a new Chinese 
language, largely "made in Japan," the acquirement of 
which is essential to any one wishing to keep in touch 
with the new China. The publication two years ago in 
Shanghai of an English-Chinese dictionary in two huge 
volumes, was in itself an important educational event. 
A Bureau of Terminology (Miug-tz u-ktian) has been 
opened in the Board of Education, to which Dr. Yen Fu, 
perhaps the most competent scholar in China, was called. 

A curious feature of the past year has been a wide 
spread eifort on the part of great numbers of Chinese to 
raise sufficient funds to pay off all China s national debts, 
a spasmodic symptom of the general irritation at the 
yoke of the hated foreigner. The scheme is obviously 
doomed to failure by reason of the want of cooperation, 
the want of confidence, and the want of cash, and if it 
succeeded it would so disturb the financial equilibrium 
as to work more harm than good. 

The city of Peking is rapidly becoming transformed 
into a strange blend of the East and the West acceptable 
to neither. Hundreds of new buildings have been put 
up ; many of them covered with inartistic roofs of galvan 
ized iron, representing the provision for public offices of all 
sorts, schools and colleges, etc. The streets of the city 
are all macadamized, but the work is so ill done that 
half of them are at any given date entirely out of 



1 6 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

repair, although an imperial funeral has an ameliorating 
effect. The opening of the Peking Waterworks is an 
obvious and an important improvement. No reform in 
China conies so near to the interests and so appeals to the 
sympathies of foreigners as that of the postal department. 
In 1906, 1 13 million articles were handled, which increased 
to 168 millions in 1907, to 252 millions in 1908, and to 
306 millions in 1909 ; while the parcels rose from 1,363,000 
in 1906, to 3,280,000 in 1909. China is now fairly well 
covered with offices and agencies, but the old expensive 
and useless courier service still holds on, and China is 
not yet ready to join the Postal Union, 

II. 

It will probably be more clearly recognized in 
future years than it now is that the Centennial Confer 
ence marked the close of one stage of Protestant missions 
in China and the definite opening of another, of which 
the keynotes are efficiency and cooperation. These high 
ideals cannot be suddenly achieved, but it is much that 
now more than ever before they are regarded as ends in 
view. The Kvangelistic Committee of the Conference was 
naturally merged into an Evangelistic Association, whose 
meetings and publications serve the useful purpose of 
comparing methods, promoting effectiveness, and of 
directing attention to the fact that, to whatever extent 
other forms of activity may be wisely and successfully 
prosecuted, the ultimate purpose is and ought to be 
evangelistic. The Executive Committee of the Confer 
ence Education Committee (after long and unavoidable 
delay in re-organization) got into touch with the Board 
of Education in Peking with a view to opening the way 
for adjusting the curricula of mission schools to that of 
government schools. It was the opinion of the Vice- 
President of the Board, however, that the curricula of 
the government schools are not yet sufficiently fixed to 
make this assimilation desirable. This intelligent and 



GENERAL, SURVEY. 17 

friendly official (Mr. Yen Hsiu) himself soon after left 
the Board, and further progress is for the present 
blocked. A like fact seemed to threaten the effort to 
come to an understanding with the accomplished head of 
the new Bureau of Terminology (Ming Tz u Kuan), Dr. 
Yen Fu, who promised a cordial welcome to whatever 
assistance might be given in the important and difficult 
task of revising and enlarging the new Chinese technical 
nomenclature. Soon after the Chinese New Year Dr. 
Yen was promoted to some position in the new Navy 
Department, and thus the man perhaps best qualified 
to undertake the systematization of Chinese terminology 
appeared to be lost to that work, but it proved later 
that his naval post was merely an "advisory" one. 
These two cases illustrate what has already been said 
of the transitory and the incidental nature of Chinese 
appointments and suggest an explanation of the fatal 
lack of continuity of plan. During the years since the 
conference considerable progress has been made, as 
there advised, in the organization in many provinces of 
provincial councils, comprising most of the missions, and 
in this the Chinese have seemed most ready to cooperate. 

A still more strongly marked trend is toward the 
federation of different branches of the same general 
church order. It must be the task of the future to co 
ordinate these centripetal and centrifugal tendencies into 
a common system. In this -connection may be men 
tioned the greatly increased interest on the part of the 
leading home Boards in the actual working of their 
missions abroad. Never before were there so many 
deputations of inspection, investigation, and reorgani 
zation as now, never such careful and intelligent inquiry 
into the causes of past failure and diagnosis of symp 
toms of present weakness. Instances of educational and 
other union are becoming so numerous that few can 
keep track of them all. Both in division of the field 
and in practical educational cooperation West China 



18 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

seems to be far in advance of anything elsewhere to be 
found, and distant Szch uan literally leads the empire. 
Western scholars and philanthropists have canvassed 
many schemes offering help to China in educational and 
other lines, but as yet most of them being in the chrys 
alis stage and not having yet done either good or evil, 
are scarcely subjects for more than an expression of 
sympathetic interest. 

The Laymen s Missionary Movement in the U. S. 
and Canada has for the first time aroused large num 
bers of business men in the various branches of the 
church to a sense of responsibility for work both at 
home and abroad, 

The surprising financial results have at times been 
accompanied and followed by wonderful spiritual awak 
ening. The great bequests of Mr. Kennedy have set a 
new pace for Christian liberality and statesmanship. 
As yet the increase in the number of new workers is 
wholly out of proportion to the actual and promised 
expansion of resources, but this will not last. Single 
missions, notably the Canadian Methodist and the Cana 
dian Presbyterian, have received large accessions, while 
the China Inland Mission continues to hold its leading 
position. Several numerically small missions have just 
entered upon work in China, and there has been an 
unusual number of those who are classed as "uncon 
nected." The most important feature of the triennium 
has unquestionably been the great religious awakening 
in the churches and schools in many provinces wholly 
unrelated to one another. The rise of a class of Chris 
tian workers expert in the Scriptures and filled with the 
Spirit of God, is the highest hope and the best prophecy 
of the Christian cljurch in China. The decision of large 
numbers of young men in different colleges to revise and 
to reverse their ambitious life-plans and to give them 
selves to aggressive Christian work for their own people 
is the most encouraging sign of promise since the stead- 



GENERAL SURVEY. 19 

fastness of so many Christians in the midst of the bitter 
trials of the Boxer period. In so vast an empire as that 
of China perhaps no one is competent to summarize the 
conditions and the phenomena of the complex church 
life ; certainly iiot the writer of these notes. There is, 
on the one hand, general testimony that the opportunities 
of reaching the people were never so good, and that 
audiences were never so easily attracted and held. 
On the other hand, the anti-foreign Wave which has 
submerged China has frequently excited vigorous and 
united opposition and persecution, reminding one of 
pre-Boxer times. 

It is commonly remarked that the " yamn cases" 
which formerly figured so largely have, to a great extent, 
disappeared. But the position of a missionary in charge 
of a flock attacked by unscrupulous wolves, with magis 
trates ostentatiously unfriendly, underlings rapacious, 
and no public sentiment favoring justice, may be quite as 
bad, despite all treaties, all experience, and the general 
enlightenment, as it was forty and more years ago. 

In some instances the Chinese church seems to be 
taking the lead in aggressive work in a gratifying way, 
but everywhere workers are too few and the number 
of ordained Chinese pastors is pitifully small. Self- 
support is apparently making progress, though at a 
far slower rate than could be desired or perhaps ex 
pected. The universal political unrest, aggravated by 
timely and untimely comets, can only be unfavorable to 
the best church life and growth. The movement for 
afl " independent native church " while in evidence 
in a few large centres does not seem as yet to have 
made notable headway. The religious as well as social 
awakening among some of the native tribes in south 
western China may be considered as one of the most 
interesting phenomena of the time, deserving careful 
study, for the effects are likely to be of great impor 
tance. 



20 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Each of the three Bible Societies reports unprec 
edented sales. The American Bible Societly has re 
cently been the recipient of large gifts ensuring impor 
tant expansion. Revision of the former translations of 
the Old Testament into the classical and the mandarin 
languages has made deliberate but steady progress. An 
excellent concordance of the revised Mandarin version 
has enriched the library for Bible study. In the matter 
of unifying Christian periodical literature the advice 
of the conference has been by no means followed, but 
the circulation of the most important journals has been 
materially increased. The Tract Societies, aided by the 
indispensable grants from home lands, have been dili 
gently at work, and the combined product is larger and 
probably better than ever before, leaving no doubt large 
room for improvement. The Christian Literature So 
ciety has occupied new quarters much needed and long 
awaited. Its publications have perhaps done more to 
influence the educated mind of China in favor of Chris 
tianity than any other agency. It may be safely said that 
there is a large and a growing class of China s scholars 
who are intellectually convinced that China has some 
pressing needs, such as a new navy, a new religion, 
etc., and they are inquiring with interest which type is 
in each case the best. This is an immense advance upon 
the old days of ignorant insolence, or studied contempt. 
The Chinese Recorder has entered upon a period of 
greatly enlarged usefulness worthy of the body which it 
represents. 

Our relations with Roman Catholics leave much to 
be desired, seeming to depend more upon the personal 
qualities of priest and missionary than on any other 
single factor. If ceaseless friction is to be avoided, 
there must be a better acquaintance which will generally 
lead to mutual respect. The withdrawal by the Chi 
nese government of the special privileges given to the 
Catholic church more than twelve years ago has, so 



GENERAL SURVEY. 21 

far as appears, made no difference in the status of the 
work of that organization. Many Western evangelists, 
some of great distinction, have visited China within the 
past three years, to the manifest advantage of all who 
heard them. The number of tourists who skim through 
China, only spending time enough to write an illustrated 
magazine article, or a book or two on the country and 
its people, was never so formidable. A few of them 
take away increased knowledge and some leave behind 
them valued help in varied forms of Christian work. 

The expansion of the Y. M. C. A. since the confer 
ence has been phenomenal. It rapidly outgrows all its 
appliances, and is wonderfully successful in eliciting 
sympathetic aid from sources never before available 
for Christian purposes. The work under its auspices for 
students in Japan is one of the finest and most fruitful 
examples of what Dr. Young J. Allen was wont to term 
"organic work for China." The names of those con 
nected with missions in China who have recently passed 
away will be elsewhere noted, but in closing this inade 
quate survey two should be specially mentioned. Dr. 
Hampden C. DuBose was distinguished for his indefati 
gable evangelistic work and for his equally untiring 
activity in behalf of the highly successful movement 
against opium. Dr. Calvin W. Mateer was an eminently 
influential educator, the author of many text-books in 
Chinese as well as of a course of Mandarin lessons 
for students of Chinese, and an expert Bible translator. 
In each of these important departments he stood in the 
front rank. His memory will be immortal. 

It is now 103 years since a solitary Englishman 
landed at Canton filled with faith and fired with zeal 
for the task of imparting new spiritual life to an empire 
of an ancient and a lofty civilization. England would 
not own him ; the East India Company tabooed him ; 
China would not receive him. Some of the far-reaching 
results of the labors of that unwelcome immigrant 



CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

and of his many successors were celebrated in 1907 ; 
many others, because they are unknown, will never be 
celebrated at all. The opening and the awakening of 
China are not unreasonably thought by some to be the 
most important world events since Columbus discovered 
America. In contributing to these great results no 
agencies have been so potent as those which have accom 
panied the introduction of Christianity, but as yet its 
real influence has only begun. 

Largest and most fruitful of the many tasks before 
the Christian church of the twentieth century is to be 
the uplift and the regeneration of China. 

ARTHUR H. SMITH. 



CHAPTER II. 



IMPORTANT EDICTS AND GOVERNMENT CHANGES. 

T is a piece of Chestertonian humour that puts into 
one chapter important decrees and government 
changes. For the true beginnings of the his 
tory of the period under review one has to go back to 
the great tour of the Mission of Five in 1905. It is not 
for a moment to be supposed that that tour taught very 
much. A scamper through Europe, the United States 
and Japan, largely a triumphal progress through innu 
merable courses of gorgeous but rapidly forgotten dinners, 
with flying visits to factories and foundries, state depart 
ments and statistical bureaux, could hardly be expected 
to teach much, though in all likelihood it left at its 
close, like a pyrotechnic display, a general memory of 
gorgeousness and grandeur, presumably underlain by and 
impossible without superior resources, but, however 
little the Commissioners may have learned, the Mission 
committed the Government of China irrevocably to a 
policy of reform. In this the Mission was perhaps 
unique, for China has still to learn the lesson of not 
looking back when once the hand is put to the plough. 
From that time to this China has felt herself compelled 
at any rate to make paper advances. For very shame s 
sake that Mission could not be allowed to return and be 
forgotten ; on the one hand the outside world was 
watching, a matter about which probably China cared 
little ; on the other hand a boisterous if not considerable 
section of China s own sons plainly expected such vast 
results from the Mission that some little must be done. 
It is the first step that counts, and having taken that 
step China has been compelled, especially with the 
brilliant example of Japan s defeat of a Western Power 



24 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

then very fresh before her, to go forward. Hence many 
decrees and some changes. 

A broad survey of these decrees and changes shows 
that they fall into three classes : (a) those relating to 
administrative reform ; () those relating to constitu 
tional changes ; (c) those relating to moral and intellec 
tual progress and to special issues. The two former it 
is difficult to keep separate, as they naturally act and 
react on each other very closely. The beginning of 
change in these directions dates from shortly after the 
return of the Mission of Five, when an Imperial decree 
was issued commanding the high officials in Peking to 
" prepare for a constitutional Government,"* and order 
ing Duke Tsai Tse and others to compile administrative 
reforms ; Prince Ching and others being appointed to 
supervise the two undertakings. This decree was fol 
lowed in November, 1906, by another, which effected 
considerable changes, though leaving some Government 
departments untouched. The Grand Council remained 
unchanged, "the centre of all departments of the ad 
ministration," as did the Waiwu Pu (Board of Foreign 
Affairs) and the Board of Civil Appointments. The 
Board of Constabulary was magnified into the Board of 
Civil Administration and the Board of Revenue became 
the Board of Finance, in which was incorporated the old 
Council of Finance. Several more or less ornamental 
Boards, the Board of Rites, the Courts of Sacrificial 
Worship and of State Ceremonial, with that of Imperial 
Entertainment, were amalgamated as the Board of 
Rites. In similar fashion the Board of War, (Ping Pu), 
the Board of Army Reorganization and the Court of the 
Imperial Stud were amalgamated as the Board of War 
(Lucliun Pu). Naval affairs were at the same time 
brought under the control of the Board of War, but that 
was a temporary arrangement, only intended to hold 
until such time as an independent Admiralty should be 

* All quotations of Decrees are from The Shanghai Mercury 
translations. 



IMPORTANT EDICTS AND GOVERNMENT CHANGES. 25 

established, an event which has not yet taken place, 
though it seems imminent. The changes in the judicial 
system were foreshadowed by converting the Board of 
Punishments into the Board of Justice and by the recon- 
stitution of the Grand Court of Revision as the Court of 
Cassation. The former Board of Works had its sphere 
enlarged, becoming the Board of Agriculture, Industry 
and Commerce, and as such it has played a most im 
portant part in the development of the resources of the 
empire coming under its cognizance ; whilst all affairs 
relating to shipping, railways, telegraphs and posts 
were placed under the newly created Board of Communi 
cations. The Younghusband Mission to Lhasa and the 
recent events in Manchuria had awakened the Govern 
ment to the necessity of conserving the frontier posses 
sions, so that the Mongolian Superintendency took a 
wider scope and became the Board of Colonies. The 
Board of Education remained unchanged, as did the 
Ceusorate, except in some minor matters which in no 
way removed the irresponsibility of that body. Two 
new bodies were created, the Government Council, 
"where prominent officials are appointed to assist in 
state affairs," and the Court of Auditors, " where all the 
revenues and expenditures have to be audited." Of 
this latter body nothing seems to have been heard or 
seen since its creation. "The Imperial Clan Court, 
Hanlin Yuan, Imperial Board of Astronomy, Imperial 
Equipage Department, Imperial Household, Banner 
Battalions, Imperial Guards, Peking Gendarmerie, the 
Peking City Government and the Peking Granaries do 
not need to be reformed." By the same decree all 
Boards were to have one President and two Vice-Presi- 
dents, without distinction of Manchu and Chinese, 
though the Waiwu Pu was to continue to be officered as 
formerly. The abolition of the old system of two Presi 
dents (one Manchu and one Chinese) with four Vice- 
presidents (two Manchu and two Chinese) has gone, 
but it has left behind perhaps even greater discrimma- 



26 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

tion in favour of the Manchus, for an undue proportion of 
Presidents has been Manchu, whilst the Vice-presidencies 
have not been evenly divided. The duties of the Boards 
were not at this time clearly defined, but " the heads of 
each Board and Court [were] hereby ordered to study 
the matter, and after due consultation with the Grand 
Council . . . report upon the same to the Throne lor 
sanction." A fortnight later a full list of appointments 
to the new or re-established offices was issued as an 
Imperial decree. 

This decree and its dependent appointments repre 
sent the state of things as in the spring and summer of 
1907. At this time a number of changes took place in 
official circles. The central figure was Yuan Shih-k ai, 
around whom were grouped Tang Shao-} r i, Yang Shih- 
hsiang, Chou Fu and Chang Pao-hsi. Another group, 
however, attached itself to Chang Chih-tung. At this 
time Yuan Shih-k ai had just resigned the High Com- 
missionership of Army Reorganization and handed over 
the control of the northern army to Tieh Liang, Presi 
dent of the Board of War. From this time on Yuan s 
suggestions for the reform of the central administration, 
many of them involving his own release from various 
offices, were accepted in Peking, whilst those of Chang 
Chih-tung for the reorganization of the provinces carried 
full weight. About this time came the Decree setting 
apart a day of national celebration of the birthday of Con 
fucius with divine honors and this apotheosis was followed 
by favourably received proposals to establish a Confu 
cian school at Kufu (Shantung), Chang Chih-tung being 
appointed director and instructions being issued to give the 
Confucian classics a preeminent place in the curriculum 
to the exclusion of modern science. This very pointed 
preference of the ancient sage had considerable political 
significance at the moment, almost coinciding as it did 
with Imperial strictures on the conduct of Tang Shao- 
yi and Chang Pao-hsi. It almost appeared indeed that 
Yuan Shih-k ai and some of his followers were so isola- 



IMPORTANT EDICTS AND GOVERNMENT CHANGES. 27 

ted that resignation was the only possible step for them. 
The wisdom of never resigning, however, was fully 
justified a little later. In July appeared Tuan Fang s 
" Epitome of Politics," of 133 chapters, consisting 
chiefly of translations of documents obtained by the 
Mission of Five. The appearance of this volume, under 
the joint authorship of Tai Hung-tzu and Tuan Fang, 
aroused immense enthusiasm in the Chinese press 
and amongst the student classes, coinciding with con 
siderable unrest in the provinces that culminated in the 
murder of the Governor of Anhwei on the 6th July. 
This enthusiasm and unrest combined to stir up Peking, 
and a number of Government changes took place that 
appeared to foreshadow the abdication of the Empress- 
Dowager. Prince Ching, that ever-ready go-between, 
was to retire from public life ; Prince Chun was to 
become virtual prime minister, and Chang Chih-tung 
and Yuan Shih-k ai were called to Peking on August 
I4th, it being understood that they were to act as joint 
deputy prime-ministers. On the i2th August, in re 
sponse to a memorial by Chang Chih-tung, a decree had 
been issued whereby it was enacted that "if there be 
any difference between the Mauchus and the Chinese 
such difference shall be totally wiped out." Yuan Shih- 
k ai had included the same point in a memorial two days 
earlier, and in this memorial he had also urged other 
reforms. On the I4th was issued the decree by which 
the Commission of Constitutional Reform was created, 
and this finally committed Peking to at least a semblance 
of reform. On the 26th July, Yuan had sent in a 
memorial regarding the preparation for representative 
government. The arrival of Yuan Shih-k ai and Chang 
Chih-tung in Peking gave rise to considerable specula 
tion. Would the two work together or at cross purposes ? 
For a time at any rate they worked harmoniously. 
They had each been rapidly promoted, and both became 
Grand Councillors in the early days of September, the 
older statesman being at the same time made Comptrol- 



28 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

ler-General of the Board of Education and the younger 
man becoming President of the Waivvu Pu. Their pres 
ence in Peking certainly hurried on reform, for on the 
i6th the Government Council discussed Yuan Shih-k ai s 
memorial of the 2yth July, and on the i8th issued a 
report in the shape of a memorial, covering five points : 
the centralization of Government in Peking, the creation 
of a legislative Council, the extension of local self- 
government, the provision of universal education, and 
the abolition of the distinction between Manchus and 
Chinese. The Throne considered this memorial, and 
two days later issued an Imperial decree establishing 
the Legislative Council as the basis of parliamentary 
Government, Prince Pu L,un and Sun Chia-nai being 
appointed presidents with responsibility for drafting 
detailed regulations. A week later an Imperial Decree 
laid upon the Bannermen the burden brought upon man 
by man s first disobedience that in the sweat of their 
brows should they eat bread. "We hereby order 
Viceroys and Governors of provinces ... to report upon 
the number of banner troops in the provinces and alsc 
the drill grounds and arable lands for their use. 
Detailed arrangements were made so that the banner 
troops should earn their own living and "the officials 
concerned should not fail to carry out the Imperial desire 
to remove the differences between Manchus and Chinese." 
This decree was supported by another a fortnight later, 
which instructed the Board of Rites to compile laws 
common to Manchus and Chinese other than Imperial 
Clans ... in order to let the populace know that all 
the people are under the same rules and customs. Be 
tween these two decrees came one dated 3Oth September, 
in which it was declared that "We think it necessary 
to have universal education . . . and it is also necessary 
to have local self-government, without which men of 
ability could not be propery trained." The same 
Decree gives instructions to various departments to 
provide necessary aid in these directions. Yuan Shih- 



IMPORTANT EDICTS AND GOVERNMENT CHANGES. 29 

k ai had previously informed the Throne of the working 
of a limited form of local self-government in Tientsin, 
and it is thus seen that most of his recommendations 
were adopted ; and the year closed with general amity 
amongst the officials in Peking, though there was con 
siderable student effervescence in the provinces. 

The first quarter of the year 1908 had only one 
important decree to record when, on i2th March, the 
Throne "strictly ordered the Board of Justice and the 
Court of Cassation, as well as Viceroys and Governors, 
to instruct the officials under them charged with judicial 
duties to try cases with all expedition and in an impartial 
manner," and also ordered that " the judges and other 
officials in Peking and the provinces should be selected 
properly from persons who are learned and have sound 
judgment," though no means by which such selection 
should be contrived was provided. We may here note 
the appointment on 6th March of Chao Krh-hsun as 
Viceroy of Szechwan and of Chao Erh-feng as Imperial 
Resident at Lhasa, two appointments that mark the 
beginning of the forward movement in Tibet. A month 
later Chang Chih-tung made ten proposals regarding 
Tibet, including the establishment of primary schools, 
the opening of mines, the maintenance of China s 
supremacy with the assistance of Britain and Russia, 
the development of telegraphic and postal service, the 
connexion of Tibet and Szechwan by rail, and the 
conversion of Tibet into a province. This last sugges 
tion was in accord with the establishment of the Board 
of Colonies noted above, and has been brought consider 
ably nearer by the flight of the Dalai Lama and the 
miraculous selection of a successor. The month of July 
was marked by the promulgation of the Imperial Decree 
that fixed the constitution of the Legislative Council. 
The first article of the decree states that the Council is 
to consist of an Upper and a Lower House, though no 
indication was then given, nor has any been since 
forthcoming of the difference between the two Houses. 



30 CHINA MISSION YKAR BOOK. 

The most striking thing about the decree was the 
ingenuity shown in devising complications in the method 
of selection of members and in avoiding the admission 
of representative elements. Under the terms of the 
decree all Princes of the Blood over thirty years of age 
are to be members of the Council ; ten members are to 
be selected from amongst the other Princes by the Grand 
Council ; the Comptroller of the Household is to make 
.selections number not stated from amongst the 
connexions of the Imperial Household of the fourth rank 
and under, who are to ballot for five of their number ; 
the Board of Rites is to make a selection from amongst 
officials of the fourth rank and under, and these are to 
elect one hundred of their number, a certain number of 
the gentry having property to the value of Tls. 100,000 
are to be nominated by the Board of the Interior, and 
they are to select ten of their number ; and the Provin 
cial Councils are to nominate a tenth of their members, 
from whom the Legislative Council will itself co-opt one- 
tenth, thereby completing the Council ; whose functions 
have in no way been defined. On the 22nd of July was 
published an Imperial Decree declaring the Throne s 
decision to establish Provincial Assemblies, and from 
that decision dates much of the domestic political 
activity of China, for, with the exception of municipal 
councils formed in some of the larger cities after the 
model of Yuan s Self -Government Society in Tientsin, 
the Provincial Assemblies were the first bodies of any 
thing like a popular character to take part in the 
Government of the country. Three points aie empha 
sized : " To have proper supervision (of the Assemblies), 
to avoid contentious subjects, and to prevent the election 
of any person who has bad ideas." In spite of these 
cautels, which those who know anything of China will 
fully understand, the Provincial Assemblies did good 
work when they met. 

At this time Chang Chih-tung and Yuan Shih-k ai 
had been working in perfect harmony, the most notable 



IMPORTANT EDICTS AND GOVERNMENT CHANGES. 31 

thing about their cooperation being the way in which 
they had managed to set at rest the growing enmity 
between Peking and the provinces. At the end of 
August an Imperial Decree laid down a nine-year 
programme for constitutional reform, its stages being as 
follows : 

First Year. Opening of Local Self-Government 
Councils, enactment of self-government regula 
tions, adjustment of finances, and taking of a census. 
Second Year. Putting in force of Local Self-Govern- 
meut Electoral Law, announcement of regulations 
for parliamentary representation, investigation of 
provincial revenues, organization of Courts of Justice. 
Third Year. Convocation of Parliamentary Repre 
sentation Councils, promulgation of new Criminal 
law, experimental government budget, regulations 
for official recommendations and fees. 
Fourth Year. Promulgation of Local Court Laws. 
Fifth Year. Issue of new regulations for Taxation and 

announcement of new Government organizations. 
Sixth Year. Commencement of Administrative Jus 
tice, adoption of a Budget. 

Seventh Year. Preparation of Accounts of Govern 
ment Revenue and Expenditure. 

Eighth Year. Fixing of Imperial Household Ex 
penditure, establishment of Judicial Bureau, and 
issue of Statistics. 

Ninth Year. Announcement of the Imperial Con 
stitution and the Imperial Household Law, promul 
gation of Election Law. 

This programme stands to-day, and is being followed 
as closely as circumstances will permit. 

H. E. Tang Shao-yi left Shanghai on the 3rd of 
October, 1908, on his double mission to the United States 
-and Europe. In the U. S. A. he was charged with the 
task of .conveying to Washington China s thanks for her 
release from: the .obligation to pay that portion of the 
Boxer Indemnity Fund that had been overcharged to 



32 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

this country, and in Europe he was entrusted with the 
task of investigating the financial systems of the Great 
Powers. The significance of this appointment lies to 
some extent in the fact that Tang Shao-yi had been one 
of Yuan Shih-k ai s henchmen, and as far as the finan 
cial side of it was concerned, it was a neat move on 
Yuan s part to get Tang Shao-yi out of an uncongenial 
post at Mukden and prepare him to stand by Yuan s 
side as financial adviser. The very day he set out, 
however, an Imperial Decree was published authorizing 
the adoption of a standard currency on a tael basis, and 
it was believed at the time that this was Chang Chih- 
tung s answer to Yuan s despatch of Tang Shao-yi. 
The decree has never been enforced however. 

From this time on to the middle of November the 
Government displayed no great activity. On the I4th 
of November the Emperor Kwang Hsu passed away, and 
within twenty-four hours the Empress-Dowager, who 
had for a few hours become the Empress Grand Dowager, 
also passed away. The new Emperor, Pu Yi, who took 
the reign title of Hsiian Tung, was but a child of two 
and a half years, so that his father, Prince Chun, 
became Regent. The Regent is brother to the late 
Emperor. At this critical time the work of Government 
almost appeared to stand still ; everything was possible, 
nothing happened. A fortnight after the opening of the 
new reign the Chinese mind was vastly relieved by the 
publication of an Imperial Decree concerning constitu 
tional reform, in which it was declared that the new 
sovereign would adhere strictly to the plans laid down 
by his predecessor and follow his programme (as given 
above). That affairs were not going smoothly it was 
not difficult to infer from the fact that Chang Chih-tung 
was asking for leave of absence at the same time as 
Yuan Shih-k ai s memorial in favour of the establish 
ment of a responsible cabinet within a year was being 
adversely criticized by the rest of the Grand Councillors. 
The year closed in tranquillity. 



IMPORTANT EDICTS AND GOVERNMENT CHANGES. 33 

The year 1909 opened with sweeping changes. On 
the 2nd January Yuan Shih-k ai was summarily dismissed 
and succeeded in his post at the Waiwu Pu by L,iaug 
Tung-yen, still the incumbent. The vacancy on the 
Grand Council was filled by the appointment of Na 
Tung, a Manchu, as Probationary Grand Councillor. 
All this, according to the Decree, because " Unexpectedly 
Yuan Shih-k ai suffers from pains in his legs," and 
" We wish to show him our sympathy." That dismissal 
was a mistake of the first magnitude. Since the depart 
ure of Yuan there has been no head-aud-shoulders man 
in Peking, and during the year that followed his 
dismissal mail}? strong men were removed by death or 
dismissal. Chang Chih-tung died in the beginning of 
October, and Sun Chia-nai, a sterling and safe, but not 
an outstanding, man followed in November. Towards 
the end of June the Chihli Viceroy, Yang Shih-hsiang, 
died, and this weakened the forces at Peking, for Tuan 
Fang, his successor, was scarcely his equal ; and Tuan 
Fang was dismissed on the 2Oth November as the result 
of petty squabbling. The peculiar circumstances of the 
Peking Court might well account for the dismissal of 
Tuan Fang, though the fact that he had been attached 
to the party of Yuan may have helped in the decision, 
but no Court intrigue can be held to account for the cold 
reception with which Tang Shao-yi met on his return 
from abroad, or for the studied pigeonholing of the 
valuable information that he had collected during his 
mission ; and apparently nothing but the fact that he 
was one of Yuan s men accounted for his final dismissal. 
He was one of the ablest men in Peking. Other dis 
missals reflected more credit on the Regent. The 
ravenous and corrupt President of the Board of Com 
munications, Chen Pi, was dismissed and his place taken 
by Hsu Shih-chang, who vacated the Mauchuriau 
viceroyalty to take up his Peking office, Hsi Liang, a 
hide-bound but honest Mongol Tory, thoroughly capable, 
the doyen of the provincial inandarinate, being trans- 



34 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

ferred from the Yunkwei viceroyalty to take that at 
Mukden. Later in the year L,i Teh-hsun, the unscru 
pulous Director of the northern section of the Tientsiu- 
Pukow Railway, had to be removed, and as an indirect 
result the perfectly honourable Lu Hai-huan was re 
moved from the office of Director- General. With the 
dismissal of Tuan Fang from the Chihli viceroyalty in 
November, Chen Kwei-lung was called to the north, and 
his place at Wuchang was taken by Jui Cheng. Tuan 
Fang had earlier in the year been succeeded at Nanking 
by Chang Jen-chen, who had handed over the Governor 
ship of Shantung to Sun Pao-chi, thitherto for some 
time Minister to Germany. 

It is thus seen that more than half the nearest 
advisers of the Throne were removed during 1909 by 
death or dismissal, and half the heads of provinces were 
also removed or transferred. It might therefore be 
expected that the work of government would be inter 
rupted. It is quite certain that little real progress was 
made, though there were abundant Decrees. Apart 
from the Decree dismissing Yuan Shih-k ai the first 
important one of the year was under date of i8th 
January, ordering the Board of Civil Administration, 
together with the provincial authorities, to see to the 
selection of competent gentry for the local Government 
of walled cities, market towns, and villages. A month 
later, i6th February, the provincial authorities were 
instructed to proceed to the election of the provincial 
assemblies, and these bodies came into operation on the 
I4th October in ever} 7 province, the session lasting until 
the 23rd November, The Government has had not a 
moment s peace since, for the assemblies have headed 
a movement in favour of hastening the date for the 
opening of parliament, and have in other ways shown 
vigour, determination and enthusiasm. The determina 
tion of Peking to help forward the principles of represent 
ative government was indicated in an Imperial decree 
sanctioning the retirement of the Shenkau Viceroy on 



IMPORTANT EDICTS AND GOVERNMENT CHANGES. 35 

the ground that with regard to representative govern 
ment " he wants to show his prejudiced obstinacy," and 
towards the end of November two strongly-worded 
Decrees were issued encouraging all officials to hasten 
forward the work of reform. Undoubtedly these two- 
Decrees were intended to assure the Empire of the 
Sovereign s good will in the matter of reform and to 
prevent any further agitation for the opening of parlia 
ment at an earlier date than was laid down in the pro 
gramme ; but the agitation proceeded as briskly as ever, 
and it became necessary to issue on the 3oth January of 
this year, just before China New Year, a Decree reca 
pitulating what had been already done, what had been 
the wishes of Their late Majesties, and again insisting 
on the good faith of the Sovereign: "We hereby 
announce in respect to representative government that 
when the nine years preparation are completed and all 
the people properly educated we will absolutely issue a 
Decree to fix a time for Parliament to be summoned." 
This did not prove sufficient, and on the 3rd February a 
further Decree to the same effect was promulgated. 
The matter of representative government may here be 
brought to date by noting that on the 9th May of 
this year was issued a Decree convening the Legisla 
tive Council for the first day of the ninth moon (3rd 
November) and giving a long list of selections to the 
Council. 

During the month of March Decrees were issued 
defining the functions of censors and commanding all 
officers, whether civil or military, Manchu or Chinese, 
to use the character g "chen" in memorializing the 
Throne in order to secure equality and the abolition of 
antiquated distinctions. 

Of official changes during the present year perhaps 
the most important has been the retirement of Tieh 
lyiang from the Presidency of the Board of War and 
the appointment of General Yin Chang, lately Minister 
to Germany, to the vacancy ; and the abolition of the 



36 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

governorship of Mukden, the holder thereof, Chen Teh- 
chuan, becoming Kiaugsu Governor. 

Thus far we have dealt with Decrees and changes of 
a general character, but there remain those with a special 
purpose. First of these conies the large number con 
cerning the suppression of opium. These date from 1906, 
but a confirmatory Decree was issued on yth February, 
1907, and on 25th June there appeared a Decree authoriz 
ing the officials responsible for opium suppression to pay 
domiciliatory visits to delinquent officials and offering 
rewards to those officials who were successful in the sup 
pression of the vice within their jurisdiction. On the 
loth October following a list of opium-smoking officials 
was issued, but these were given another chance, being 
allowed to retire for the time being in order to get rid of 
the habit. On the yth April of the following year an 
Imperial Decree commanded the establishment of in 
stitutes in which the cure could be effected, and on the 
3oth July several officials who were detected smoking 
opium were cashiered. On the 2oth March of last year 
an attack was made on the poppy cultivation, and the 
officials were exhorted to do their best to reduce the area 
of land under poppy, whilst on lyth June a further 
examination of suspected officials was ordered. Since 
that time no effort has been spared in the suppression 
of the habit and the reduction of the crop. 

An important Decree was issued on the 25th May 
of last year calling attention to the serious lack of facili 
ties for primary education and ordering a universal ex 
tension of the primary school system, but with no funds 
to carry out this work the Decree has been practically 
a dead letter. This has not been the case, however, 
with a Decree issued in response to a memorial by Tuan 
Fang proposing the Nanyang Exhibition enterprise, or 
with the decree of i2th August, 1909 appointing Chang 
Jen-chun President of the Exhibition and entrusting 
him with the work of carrying it to an issue, a task that 
is just being completed as these lines are written. We 



IMPORTANT EDICTS AND GOVERNMENT CHANGES. 37 

have noted above a Decree on coinage, but its place has 
been taken by a later one, 24th May of this year, 
authorizing the adoption of a standard dollar of 7 mace 
2 candarins (Kuping). As this dollar is to be used for 
payment of all Government demands it is hoped that it 
will, with a little assistance, eventually oust all other 
dollars, and a time is to be fixed later, beyond which no 
other money shall be legal tender. In the realm of 
finance two Decrees are to be noted : one of the loth 
April, 1909, appointing financial inspectors for the prov 
inces virtually as auditors, whose good work is already 
showing itself; and the second appointing provincial 
directors of finance, of the nature of provincial chan 
cellors of the exchequer, complementary to the long- 
established provincial treasurers. 

In connexion with legal reform we have to note 
that for some three years experts have been engaged on 
the compilation of a criminal code, which was presented 
tu the Throne in a memorial, but ordered for revision on 
i6th February of last year. It came up in revised form 
on 22nd October, and was again sent down for revision, 
but a few days ago (the middle of May) it was reported 
that final sanction would be given at an early date. 

To these special Decrees are to be added such as 
have recently dealt with the question of domestic slavery, 
a matter first seriously brought before the Chinese public 
by articles in the Ta Tung Pao and by a memorial of 
Viceroy Chou Fu. 

W. SHELDON RIDGE. 



CHAPTER III 



THE GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS OF CHINA. 

GENERAL system of schools for the whole Em- 
pire, under the supervision of the Government, is 
of such recent date that available information as 
to what has been already accomplished is limited in 
scope and frequently lacking in detail. After the es 
tablishment of the Board of Education in 1905 there was 
worked out, largely under the direction of Their Ex 
cellencies, Sun Chia-nai and Chang Chih-tung, a compre 
hensive scheme, which included the establishment of a 
Central University in Peking, affiliated Colleges, Tech 
nical and Normal Schools in each Provincial Capital, 
High Schools in each Prefectural city, and Primary 
Schools in each Departmental city and village. This is 
a bare outline of a plan which contemplated as its final 
outcome compulsory education in Primary Schools of 
all boys and girls, and provision for the more promising 
students to be able to advance, through higher schools, 
to a normal, technical or university education. In order 
to give uniformity to these schools, an elaborate Course 
of Study was laid out as a general guide in the forma 
tion of a completely articulated system of national educa 
tion. The whole scheme, including regulations, courses 
of study, suggestions as to the method of establishing 
schools, etc., etc., was embodied in a large tome, pre 
pared by H. E. Chang Chih-tung, and authorized by 
Imperial Edict. A careful perusal of these volumes 
shows that the underlying principle of their compilation 
was the desire to maintain and provide for thorough 
instruction in the classical and historical literature of 
China, thus enabling the new system of education to 
attach itself, without too great a wrench, to the earlier 



GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS. 39 

system which was centred around the Civil Service Ex 
aminations. This principle was unquestionably a wise 
one, judged by the standard of educational usefulness 
in national life, but entailed a consequent difficulty in 
delaying the rapid development of the new form of uni 
versal education. If it had been deemed expedient to 
create, without regard to the past history of education 
in China, a complete system of national education, the 
work would have been comparatively simple, but with 
the large demand throughout the nation for men thor 
oughly trained in the literature of their country, no plan 
seemed feasible which did not make ample provision for 
a union of the new with the old. Such provision may 
be considered more or less tentative, but neglect to make 
such provision would have been revolutionary. 

Under the former system of China the Government 
made no provision for instruction, but confined itself to 
the single task of examining pupils who presented them 
selves as candidates for degrees. Instruction was obtained 
through private tutors, or in schools opened by teach 
ers on their own responsibility. There were no super 
vision of existing schools, no fixed courses of study, no 
text-books, and no specified qualification for teachers. 
Each small school was a law to itself, and each teacher 
used such books and methods as were familiar to him. 
The aim of the system was to produce men of parts who 
would stand high in the examinations for degrees, and 
those teachers were considered the best in their profes 
sion who had the largest number of successful candida 
tes. In this respect it differed wholly from the aim of 
the new system, which has for its goal universal educa 
tion. The difficulty of joining together two systems 
with such distinctly different aims must be appreciated 
and understood by those who desire to know the present 
status of government education in China. Literature 
and literary pursuits have always been fostered in China, 
but school instruction remained in the hands of private 
individuals unfettered by any regulation of the Govern- 



40 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

ment. The task set before the organizers of the new 
system was to provide regulations for the control of 
instruction in schools and also for examination of pupils, 
while at the same time making sure that there should be 
a sufficient supply of capable men to fill the offices under 
the Civil Service. 

The change in the aim of education has been con 
temporaneous with changes which are occurring in the 
general government of China. As long as the governing 
power remained in the hands of the few and did not con 
cern the ordinary citizen, it was sufficient that the educa 
tional methods in vogue should produce a requisite 
number of educated men to fill places of responsibility. 
With the preparations which have been made for the 
introduction of constitutional government for several 
years, the importance of universal education has come 
to be recognized. It would be impossible to expect a 
country to be governed well, on democratic lines, while 
the populace remained uneducated. Where the vote of 
the individual is so bound up with the general govern 
mental arrangements of his country that it affects for 
good or evil the destinies of his fellow-citizens, it is rec 
ognized that this individual should be one who has 
received some sort of an education. China with a Con 
stitution, Provincial Parliaments and local Municipal 
Administrations, would be in a worse condition than 
before if the voters who are responsible for casting their 
votes in favour of a certain plan are known to be men 
who, from lack of education, can have no possible 
understanding of what is proposed. Education must go 
hand in hand with the growth of constitutional govern 
ment, even though the urgency of the situation may not 
allow it to take its proper place by preceding such govern 
ment. If it were necessary to choose between the 
sway of an educated, benevolent autocrat and that of an 
uneducated populace, the good of those governed would 
be best promoted by the former. Universal education 
should be rightly considered of the utmost importance iu 



GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS. .41 

a natiun which is looking forward to being governed. by 
a Constitution. Up to the present, there has been no 
divorce of education from the general governmental 
questions occupying the attention of China s statesmen. 
The men who have given most time toward the formula 
tion of a scheme of education for the Kmpire have 
lortunately been statesmen with wide experience in Pro 
vincial and Metropolitan Administrations. This has 
had far-reaching, beneficial effects in maintaining the 
standards of education along national lines. The new 
education is not being introduced into China, as it was 
into Japan, as an importation from abroad, but is devel 
oping out of former conditions into something adapted to 
the new life of the nation. 

It was reasonable to expect that the first steps taken 
by a Government accustomed to the former regime 
would be the founding of schools and colleges devoted to 
instruction in higher branches. Men of thorough attain 
ments in the new learning were needed at once, and the 
attempt was made to produce them from these advanced 
schools. Laboratories were equipped, foreign instruct 
ors engaged, large buildings erected, and generous en 
dowments provided. It was soon found, however, that 
these provisions did not make it possible to turn out the 
finished product of well-educated men in a short time. 
Students who entered after having had irregular training 
for several years in various schools were still obliged to 
pursue their studies for many subsequent years in order 
to attain to a fixed uniform standard. One school of 
high grade in the north gathered students from southern 
ports where foreign schools had been established for 
many years. This plan of securing students was not 
continued, for the reason that the Provincial Govern 
ment soon decided that its first duty was to educate 
students from its own province, and that, in order 
to do so, it must take them through several y.earb 
of preparatory training before they were fit to com 
mence special studies Other schools started with 



42 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

students who had had a thorough preliminary training 
in Chiue.se studies, and were able to devote a large por 
tion of their time immediately to modern subjects. 
After two or three years of training, the best of these 
were sent abroad, the underlying object being to hurry 
forward their thorough training in as short a time 
as possible. However, it was found that, whatever 
method was followed, it was impossible to obtain well- 
trained men without going through long years of patient 
study. The old system required from fifteen to twenty 
years for the average student to reach his first degree, 
bat it was hoped that the new system would enable men 
to reach a similar degree within a much shorter time. 
There was a wave of enthusiasm, lasting two or three 
years, for the sending of students to Japan to take short 
courses which would fit them to become teachers in 
Frimar} 7 and High Schools. As many as twenty or 
thirty thousand young men, thoroughly representative 
of the best type of learning under the old system, went 
to Japan filled with the hope of reaching their goal in a 
short time. With the solid good sense which is char- 
actistic of the Chinese race, they soon discovered that 
they had made a mistake. The new learning, they 
found, needed the same amount of patient study that had 
been required under the old system, and they returned to 
their own land to continue in the time-honoured, patient 
pursuit of knowledge. From every possible source it 
was borne in upon the leaders of the educational move 
ment that the attempt to introduce the new education 
from the top, by the establishment of n. few schools of 
higher learning, was an impossible one, and that the 
only way to accomplish their purpose was to encouragr 
the establishment ol large numbers of Primary Schools. 
The growth of this opinion did not follow, perhaps, in 
chronological order the stages which I have been indicat 
ing, but was unquestionably influenced and modified by 
^ach out; ut these considerations. The result has, been 
that there has been a standstill 111 the development of 



GOVKRNMKNT SCHOOLS. 43 

higher schools ; each of them remains practically what 
it was five or six years ago, and as these schools have 
been the best known of all the parts of the system, many 
have formed incorrect opinions ns to the present con 
dition of Government education. 

The history of these higher schools reveals facts, 
many of which are encouraging and others more or less 
disappointing. The work of Tientsin University, pre 
vious to 1900, was the most advanced in foreign subjects 
of any Government Institution. Its graduates are now 
rilling many places of great responsibility. For the past 
few years this Institution has continued to do good 
work both in Tientsin and in its branch at Paotingfn. 
The Nanyang College, which required a very thorough 
knowledge of Chinese language and literature for ad 
mission, soon became very popular among the young 
literary men of Central China. At one examination for 
the possible admission of sixty candidates more than one 
thousand young men presented themselves Previous 
to its change of name into the Imperial Polytechnic 
College, it had sent a large number of its advanced 
pupils to foreign countries for further study. The 
Provincial College of Shantung has a fine equipment and 
has been doing good work. The Normal School at 
Nanking, founded by H. K. Chang Chih-tung for the 
training of teachers for the three Provinces associated 
together under the Nanking Viceroy, has one of the best 
equipments in buildings of any school in China, and has 
been attended by a large number of students. The 
Provincial College at Taiyuenfu, which has been under 
the joint directorship of a distinguished missionary, is 
unique in its character, and can scarcely be placed in 
comparison with other Provincial Schools. These in 
stitutions which I have mentioned are the largest and 
best known of those founded in the Provinces. They 
are all supposed to be feeders to the Peking University. 
This central University has, up to the present, had more 
or less of a chequered career, due largely to the Inck of 



44 CHINA MISSION YEAR ROOK. 

a sufficient number of advanced students, and also to the 
uncertainty of its financial support. In none of these 
institutions is it possible to discover any marked advance 
during the last few years. In some respects, perhaps, 
they have scarcely held their own. 

One marked feature of these higher schools was the 
employment of foreign instructors. When they were 
founded, it was considered as necessary to employ for 
eign teachers as to erect school buildings. The employ 
ment of foreign teachers gave at once a character and 
standing to school enterprises. II was customary to 
estimate the standard of a school by the number of for 
eigners employed. Not only was this true of the Chinese, 
but public opinion among foreigners as to the grade of 
schools was largely influenced by this same consideration. 
The employment of foreigners was taken as an evidence 
of progress, and their non-employment as a sure sign of 
reaction. During the last few years a change has come, 
and there has been a gradual diminution in the number 
of foreign teachers, although it must be remembered 
that at no time has the number of such teachers been 
large. The province of Chihli had perhaps more 
foreigners employed in schools than any other prov 
ince, and they were chiefly Japanese. It is a strange 
fact that this decrease in the number of foreigners 
engaged for educational work has been contemporaneous 
with an increase in the number of schools. Many of 
those whose services were dispensed with were men of 
wide experience in educational work in China. Their 
dismissal was frequently the result of no stated policy, 
but simply because the management of the school had 
passed into other hands. In explanation of the decrease 
in the number of foreign instructors, it must be noted 
that, at the time of the founding of schools, it not 
infrequently happened that foreign professors were 
engaged to teach special subjects which there were no 
students fitted to undertake. The result was that these 
specially qualified teachers spent a large proportion of 



(iOVKRNMENT SCHOOLS. 45 

their time in leaching some foreign language, and that 
they were never able, during their whole term of service, 
to teach the subjects for which they were engaged. It 
will be readily seen that, in such instances, the failure 
to renew the contracts of such professors indicated an 
increasing appreciation of school requirements on the 
part of those in charge of their administration. False 
appearances could be abandoned, and schools which 
were really of elementary grade but had professors of 
university standing could content themselves without 
foreign instructors. It is doubtless the case that at 
present many schools which have been gradually attain 
ing a higher rank should be strengthened by the 
employment of foreign teachers. Foreigners could also 
be employed with great advantage as instructors in 
foreign languages in almost every school where the\ T are 
taught. A fuller understanding of the educational needs 
on the part of those in authority is sure to reveal the fact 
that it will be necessary to employ many foreigners in 
the development of education in China and in the 
formation of a teaching profession. 

Allusion has been made to the discovery chat many 
schools which were started as schools of higher learning 
were in reality only elementary in their grade. This, 
together with the recognition of the fact that it was 
impossible to introduce the new education from the top, 
caused the Government to divert its energies from the 
existing advanced schools to the founding of large 
numbers of elementary schools. The Government 
policy, since the establishment of the Board of Education, 
has been the encouragement of elementary rather than 
advanced schools. L,ocal officials and gentry have every 
where been encouraged to start small schools, in unpre 
tentious buildings, and without the need of large sums of 
money. As recently as May 15, 1909, an Imperial Edict 
was issued, in reply to a Memorial from the Ministn* of 
Education, providing revised Regulations for Primary 
Schools, with the object of securing the diffusion of 



46 CHINA MISSION YRAR BOOK. 

education throughout the Kmpire. This method has 
nothing spectacular in its development, and it is yet too 
early for the Board of Education to have prepared 
careful statistics covering the whole country. The 
statistics which have already been published by the 
Board in the columns of its official Bulletin are not all 
prepared on the same system, so that it is difficult to 
contrast the amount of work done in one Province with 
that done in another. General impressions gained from 
Chinese newspapers, from correspondence in the foreign 
press usually furnished by missionaries, the opinions of 
various travellers in the interior, all go to confirm the 
accuracy of the statement that there has been a rapid 
development of primary schools. They are yet too few 
in number, but when it is remembered that ten years ago 
there were practically no such schools under Government 
supervision, there can be no question that a decided 
advance has been made in this branch of education. 

One difficulty in the establishment of elementary 
schools has been the competition with the private schools, 
which in former times were conducted in the home of 
the teacher. The new schools have paid larger salaries 
to the teachers, which have made it necessary to demand 
larger school fees. Frequently the newly opened school 
has gathered to itself boys from the well-to-do middle 
classes, leaving the boys from poorer families to get such 
education as they could from the old-style private school. 
The teachers of the remaining private schools are usual 
ly men who have had no opportunity for training in 
modern methods, and their schools are conducted in 
exactly the same way as those of forty or fifty years 
ago. In some instances, very good private .schools have 
been started by two or three teachers, trained in modern 
methods, combining to open a larger and better school 
than would have been possible for any single teacher to 
do. In Shanghai there are several schools, on private 
foundations, which are greatly assisted by the voluntary 
services of young men who hold good positions in other 



GOVKKNMKNT SCHOOLS. 47 

lines. Gratuitous teaching of one or two hours a day , 
merely for the love of it, and with the desire to advance 
the cause of modern education, indicates a real zeal on the 
part of the young men. These private schools must 
continue yet for some time before sufficient provision can 
be made by the Government for the instruction of all 
pupils, thus rendering them unnecessary. The ideal 
plan for elementary schools is to make them free to all 
comers, and when this is carried into effect the private 
schools will cease to exist. 

In an address before the Educational Association 
several years ago, I alluded to a plan providing Readers 
for the teaching of the Chinese language which was 
being carried on at Nanyaiig College at that time. My 
reference to the subject elicited the keenest interest from 
the members of the Association, and I received main 
enquiries, at that time and subsequently, concerning 
what we were doing. At the present time, such Readers 
are so common as to cause younger teachers to imagine 
that they had always been in use. In all modern 
schools they have replaced the former clumsy method ot 
teaching the language by memorizing the Classics. They 
have made it possible for a child to learn to recogni/t 
characters much more quickly than formerly, and to be 
able to put these characters together into simple .sen 
tences. The introduction of these Readers has marked 
a decided progress in the advance of universal education, 
as they have made easier the stupendous task of master 
ing the knowledge of Chinese written characters. The 
tendency of these modern schools is toward a more 
simple method of expression, but it yet remains to be 
seen whether their methods will be able to produce a 
sufficient number of writers of the style required for 
official documents and books. Those trained in earlier 
methods consider the scholarship of those being trained 
in modern methods shallow and superficial. Time 
alone can show whether this opinion is founded upon 
prejudice or fact. It is possible that, in the stress of 



48 CHINA MISSION VP^AR BOOK. 

learning so many things, literary elegance may be sacri 
ficed to some extent, and this may be carried so far that 
official documents and books will demand a less rigid 
conformance to high standards than formerly. It is 
hardly probably that the best style of writing can be 
acquired by those who have so many new subjects to be 
mastered, while at the same time they are expected to 
be men of good physique. The introduction of sports 
and games, while adding to the physical strength of 
pupils, takes away from them time which was formerly 
devoted to poring over books. If a stalwart race of 
men, who know something about life and its respon 
sibilities, can be produced, there will not be much 
wailing over the loss of an elegant method of expressing 
ideas of supererogation. 

From the large number of students who have gone 
to foreign countries to pursue courses of study, it might 
have been expected that the supply of well-qualified 
teachers would be proportionate to the demand, but 
unfortunately such is not the case. Only a very small 
number of returned students devote themselves to the 
work of teaching. Even those who do find positions in 
schools rarely expect to devote their lives to teaching, 
but only make it a stepping-stone to other more lucrative 
employ ineiit. This is to be expected in the case of 
teachers of elementary schools, but not in the case of the 
higher schools. These should be able to secure and 
retain permanently the services of men who have re 
ceived thorough training. It should have been possible 
by this time to secure returned students as teachers in 
every important position in all Provincial Colleges. 
The Board of Education at Peking and the Provincial 
Bureaus of Education should also have had a good 
supply of them for their work. Up to the present, 
however, it remains true that this class has not con 
tributed any appreciable influence toward the spread of 
the new education of which they themselves are the 
products. Too little of the altruistic spirit has been 



GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS. 49 

found among them. This can be explained to some 
extent by the urgent demand for them in lucrative 
Government positions, but they are more needed in 
schools than anywhere else. 

In this rapid and imperfect survey of the present 
condition of education in China, the conclusion is reached 
that there is coming to be a better recognition of the 
real educational needs of the Empire. Emphasis is being 
placed upon the development of elementary education, 
while at the same time provision is made for instruction 
in higher schools. There has been no slackening of 
zeal for education, but the immensity of the problem of 
introducing a new education which should be joined on 
to the old has been more widely appreciated. This has 
resulted in more careful deliberation before new steps 
were taken than characterized some of the things done 
in former years. The traditions of the country have 
favoured thorough and broad educational requirements, 
and they also make certain the ultimate solution of its 
present difficult problem of universal education. 

J. C. FERGUSON. 



BUREAU OF EDUCATIONAL MISSION TO UNITED 
STATES OF AMERICA. 

This Bureau was organized by order of an Imperial 
Edict in the yth Moon of the ist year of H. I. M. 
Hsuan-tung (1909). All affairs connected with the 
sending of Chinese students to the U. S. are managed 
by H. E. Chow Tsz-chi, Director ; H. E. Tong Kai-son 
and Fan Yuen-lien, Co-Directors, who are assisted by a 
staff engaged from different parts of the Empire. Its 
present offices are situated in a large alley called Shih 
Chia Hutung, off Teng Shih Kou, Peking. It is placed 
under the joint control of the Waiwu Pu (Board of 
Foreign Affairs) and the Hsio Pu (Board of Education). 



50 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

EXAMINATION OF STUDENTS. 

The examination of the first batch of students to 
the U. S. was held at the Hsio Pu shortly after the 
summer of 1909. Out of a total number of a few over 
600 applicants for the examination, which lasted about 
a week, some 47 were selected after their papers had 
been carefully corrected and marked with foreign assist 
ance. Those selected were sent to the U. S. soon after 
the examination under the charge of H. B- Tong Kai- 
son. In the course of the examination every care was 
exercised by the Directors to prevent dishonesty on the 
part of the applicants in connexion with the work. 

FUNDS. 

The funds necessary for the support of the Bureau, 
as well as the students whilst studying in the U. S., and 
those to be sent hereafter are derived from a portion of 
the Boxer indemnity, which was remitted to China by 
the U. S. A. 

NUMBERS TO BE SENT OUT. 

According to arrangements made 100 should be sent 
out every year for the first four years, and thereafter 50 
every year. This sending out of students is to continue 
for a period of 29 years. Every batch of students sent 
out is to be put under the direct charge of a special 
deputy from the Bureau until their arrival in the U. S. , 
when they will be handed over to Mr. Yung Kuei, who 
is acting as superintendent of students there, in addition 
to his regular post of First Secretary to the Chinese 
legation in Washington. 

ALLOWANCE FOR STUDENTS IN u. s. A. 

The amount of $64 (gold) a month is allowed to 
students studying in the U. S. A. This, it is calculated, 
would be quite sufficient in meeting all their necessary 



GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS. 51 

expenditure. Tls. 50,000 are also set aside every year 
for the benefit of self-supporting students, who are doing 
well in their studies and require financial help to com 
plete their courses. 

CONDITIONS OF EXAMINATION. 

Candidates, either resident in Peking or from the 
provinces, must send in their names before the examina 
tion is held. They must present themselves at the 
examination in accordance with the instructions issued 
to them. Special report forms are prepared at the 
Bureau for their use, on which should be carefully and 
distinctly written their ages, subjects of their study, 
what school or college they come from, what province 
they belong to, and all other required details. They 
should also specify whether they are technical or classical 
students, and should be able to refer themselves to some 
well-known people here, who are understood to testify 
to the truth of their statements if necessary. Prior to 
reporting their names personally at the Bureau, they 
should have a despatch sent by the Educational Com 
missioner concerned or the proper- school authority on 
their behalf. As a rule, applications for the examina 
tion should be addressed to Director Chow Tsz-chi 
(graduate of Tung Wen College and formerly Charge" 
d Affaires at Washington), but if in English should 
better be addressed to Mr. Tong Kai-son. 

Before the examination, proclamations will be posted 
and notices inserted in the Chinese press, stating the 
days on which the examination is to be held, the subjects 
to be examined on, etc. 

Candidates are expected to be below 20 years of age. 

Sound knowledge of both Chinese and English 
literature is absolutely essential, and any weakness on 
the part of candidates in this line will result surely in 
their being eliminated on the first two days of the 
examination, although they may be well up in the other 
subjects to be examined on later. 



5 2 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

The subjects examined on this year were Chinese 
Literature, Chinese History and Geography, English 
Literature and Composition, Algebra, Plain Geometry, 
German and French, Latin, Solid Geometry, Physics, 
American History, English History, Trigonometry, 
Chemistry, History of Rome and Greece. 

Candidates may be examined in one of the lan 
guages, German, French, or Latin in addition to Eng 
lish, and if examined on two or all of them, extra marks 
will be given in their favour. 



EXAMINATION OPEN TO 

The examination is open to all students, provided 
they can answer the conditions set forth above and 
others that may be imposed on them whenever necessary. 
No distinction is made as regards their religion. Of 
course a preference is attached to students of government 
educational institutions or those under government grant. 

EXPENDITURE INCURRED BY CANDIDATES. 

All expenditure incurred by candidates in coming 
up to Peking for the sole purpose of participating in the 
examination and their return to whence they came after 
the examination, in case they fail, must be borne by 
themselves, and the Bureau is not to be held responsible 
for any expenditure thus incurred. No provisions what 
ever are made for them in the matter of lodging and 
boarding during their stay in Peking, where they must 
look after themselves as best they can. Information 
concerning the examination procedure will be supplied 
to them as far as possible. 

SELECTION OF CANDIDATES. 

Candidates are selected entirely on the merits of 
their examination. For every subject they must get at 
least 50 marks, or average marks for all the subjects to 
be examined out of 30. The number of successful can 
didates to be selected from each province is determined 



GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS 53 

according to arrangement, by the amount of the Boxer 
indemnity allotted to and paid by it. 

The results of the examination will probably be 
announced a few days after its conclusion, a list of all 
the successful candidates being posted for general in 
formation, and those selected are to assemble at the 
Bureau for further instruction. They are to meet to 
gether in Shanghai, where Mr. Y. C. Tong has been 
appointed the Shanghai Agent of the Bureau, and where 
the sum of $250.00 will be given them for the making 
of foreign clothes in addition to a free steamer passage. 
Before leaving Peking for Shanghai they will be photo 
graphed and have to undergo a medical examination as 
to their physique by a highly qualified doctor, and after 
arrival in Shanghai they will be again medically ex 
amined in the U. S. Consulate-General. 

THE NEXT EXAMINATION. 

The next examination, for the second batch of 
students to the U. S., will take place next summer in 
very much the same way as this year. After this ex 
amination no more of this kind will be held in the Hsio 
Pu, and students will thereafter be sent out every year 
from the Yi Hsueh Kuan school. 

THE YI HSUEH KUAN SCHOOL. 

The aim and object of this school is to train and 
prepare Chinese students to be sent out to the U. S. for 
further education. It will be divided into two parts, 
the Primary School and the Intermediate School. To 
the former boys below 15 years of age will be admitted 
on examination in both Knglish and Chinese, and to 
the latter boys below 20 on examination in Chinese only. 
In this fashion between 400 and 500 students will be 
admitted. All necessary subjects will be taught by 
American professors, and Chinese study will form an 
important part of the curriculum. Graduates from the 
Primary School will be promoted to the Intermediate 



54 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

School, and graduates from the Intermediate School will, 
after passing a satisfactory examination in the Hsio Pu, 
be awarded diplomas and passed on to the U. S. for the 
prosecution of their studies ; but in the case of those 
who prefer taking up actual work in life after the ex 
amination in the Hsio Pu, Government appointments 
may be given them forthwith. 

LOCALITY OF SCHOOL. 

The school is to be situated in a suburb of Peking, 
within a place called Ching Hua Yuen, near the AVan 
Shou Shan (Summer Palace). Ching Hua Yuen is an 
immense place with picturesque, rural surroundings, and 
was handed to the Waiwu Pu by the Imperial House 
hold for the purpose for which it is intended, namely, 
to build the school therein. Although a long distance 
away from the heart of the City, access to it is rendered 
easy by the trains of Peking-Kalgan Railway which pass 
near by. 

DATE OF OPENING. 

The school has not yet been started, but as soon as 
the winter is over, the work of building will in all 
probability be prosecuted without any unnecessary loss 
of time. It is hoped that before next autumn it may 
be put in good working order, and when it is ready to 
receive students the Provincial Educational Commission 
ers, also the Manchu and Chinese Superintendents of 
Education in Peking, will be notified to the desired end. 

MAINTENANCE OF SCHOOL. 

The annual amount of $150,000 has been allocated 
for the maintenance of the school. 

PEPIOD OF STAY IN THE U. S. 

Students sent out are expected to stay in the U. S. 
for the full period of seven years. During the interval 
and before completing their course they must not return 



GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS. 55 

to China without sufficient good reason, nor without the 
necessary approval. On return to China after gradua 
tion they will be further examined by the Hsio Pu, and 
and in case of the deserving ones, they will receive 
prompt Government appointments of a suitable nature. 

TAN HUI-CHANG, Secretary, 

Bureau of Educational Mission to U. S. A. 



On November 7, 1909, came to San Francisco the 
first batch of government students under the indemnity 
fund arrangement in the care of H. B. Tong Kai-son. 
They were met at the jetty by members of the Chinese 
Education Commission under H. K. Yung Kwai and a 
number of Y. M. C. A. secretaries. Mr. C. H. Robert 
son of Tientsin Y. M. C. A. went to San Francisco es 
pecially to welcome them on behalf of the Y. M. C. A. 
The batch consisted of forty-seven government and six 
self-supporting students. After delightful entertainments 
from the Young Men s Christian Associations all along the 
journey, they finally reached Massachusetts, where they 
were distributed in the various educational institutions. 
Lawrence Academy at Groton, Wesleyan Academy at 
Wilbraham, Williston Seminary at Easthampton and 
Gushing Academy at Ashburnham each received ten, 
four were sent to Phillips Academy at Andover, one 
joined Amherst College at Amherst and one was admitted 
to Cornell University at Ithaca, N. Y. It is pathetic to 
note that one of the forty-seven, Mr. Tai Chi, became 
unbalanced in his mind and is now at the State Hospital 
of Massachusetts at Northhampton, Mass. 



NOTE: Government schools in Hunan were described by 
Browiiell Gage in Recorder, December, 1907. Rev. Arnold Foster s 
papers on the Educational Outlook in Wuchang, the Capital of 
Hupeh, appeared in the Recorder for January, April and May, 
1906, and should be consulted. EDITOR. 



56 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

HONGKONG UNIVERSITY. 

The name of Sir Frederick Lugard, K.C.M.G., 
Governor of Hongkong (1907- ) will be noteworthy 
in the annals of Hongkong on account of his successful 
labours to secure the establishment of a University. 
Queen s College has had a long and honorable history, 
but the new University is to be a far more ambitious 
undertaking. Mr. H. N. Mody, one of the oldest Parsee 
residents in the Colony, generously offered to provide 
buildings at an estimated cost of $280,000, and an En 
dowment Fund of nearly $1,250,000 was raised in 1909, 
of which Chinese in the Colony and in Canton subscribed 
large sums. A site in Bonham Road has been selected 
and building begun. 

The authorities, assuming that Hongkong should 
one day be an educational centre for all South China, 
think that the site should be able to provide quarters 
for 500 students and also buildings for lecture rooms, 
laboratories, and all their accessories for 1,000 students. 
The buildings to be erected now are designed to contain 
accommodation to give 500 students a full course in 
Arts, Medicine, and Engineering, and to house from 150 
to 1 80 students. 

The sum subscribed on the 2Oth of January, 1910, 
was $1,279,064. Additional funds are to be raised for 
students quarters and for the anatomical laboratory 
which are not included in those to be erected by Mr. 
Mody. 

On the i6th of March, 1910, the foundation stone of 
the University was laid by the Governor. In the course 
of proceedings, Sir Frederick Lugard announced that 
the King had conferred a Knight Bachelorhood upon 
Mr. Mody, who is providing the cost of the building, 
$285,000, which is much more than the original estimate. 

"From a purely missionary standpoint we fear that this 
scheme promises no great help to the work of regenerating China, 
and while we may be pleased to hear of its success, it does not 
lessen the need of the establishment of a thoroughly Christian 



GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS, 57 

university where the highest standard of literary and scientific 
instruction shall be given, where a healthy religious atmosphere 
shall be maintained, and where students will be surrounded by 
more salutary moral influences than can be expected in the 
Hongkong University or in any other non-Chrislian educational 
institution. It may seem narrow to some, but many of us believe 
that only where Christ is exalted can the best educational work 
be successfully carried on, and that in a non-religious atmosphere 
the highest standard of morality cannot be expected." (Ed. 
Review.) 

The Germans at Tsingtao, have also begun a large 
scheme of education. A college is to be erected, towards 
which the Chinese Governor has given a handsome 
contribution. 



GOVERNMENT EDUCATION IN NORTH CHINA. 

This is undoubtedly the most critical time in the 
long history of the Chinese. The factor that makes it 
so is the education of the general body of the nation. 
The marvellous undertaking, now well under way, of 
educating the masses in China, is one of the many won 
ders of human achievement. Not only is this mammoth 
enterprise espoused energetically by the Chinese, but also 
it is one of the most encouraging signs of our times to 
see the ways in which our Western Christian civilizations 
are earnestly trying to help the belated or arrested civil 
ization of China. We will not enlarge on the splendid 
enterprise of Christian education in China, its achieve 
ments and plans, but we will turn our attention to the 
subject of "Modern Government Education in China" 
with special reference to conditions in the Province of 
Chihli, where modern Government education is fully as 
well advanced as in any other part of the empire. 

According to the last report issued in 1908 by the 
Provincial Board of Education there are 214,367 students 
of all grades in modern schools in the Metropolitan 
Province of Chihli. This does not include the schools 
in Peking which report, in addition to the above, some 
17,000 students. 



58 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

The following is the list of schools conducted under 
the supervision of the Chihli Provincial Board of Educa 
tion : 

i University, located at Tientsin, i Provincial Col 
lege, at Paotingfu, 17 Industrial Schools, 3 Higher Nor 
mal Schools, 49 Elementary Normal Schools, 2 Medical 
Colleges, 3 Foreign Language Schools, 4 Law Schools, 
i Physical Culture and Music School, i Telegraph 
School, 8 Commercial Schools, 5 Agricultural Schools, 
30 Middle Schools, 174 Upper Primary Schools, 101 
Mixed Grade Primary Schools, 8,534 Lower Primary 
Schools, 131 Girls Schools, 179 Half-Day and Night 
Schools. 

This represents a development in modern educa 
tion in Chihli for a period of six years only, at the begin 
ning of which time about 8,000 students in schools were 
reported for the whole province and those chiefly in 
Tientsin. There are now 10,410 teachers engaged in 
this educational work in Chihli which, more than any 
other single fact, indicates the real growth of the move 
ment, because the getting of teachers qualified for the 
new education has been and is yet the great problem in 
promoting modern education in China. This brief report, 
while referring to education in Chihli alone, may be 
taken as a sample of conditions in other progressive 
sections of the country. So far as I know there has not 
yet been published any report of new education for the 
whole Empire gotten out by the Imperial Board of 
Education. But it is safe to say that the conditions 
which obtain in Chihli, at Peking, Tientsin, Paotingfu, 
will also be found in more or less advanced degree in 
such centres as Mukden, Taiyuenfu, Changsha, Hsian- 
fu, Chinanfu, Kaifengfu, Wuch ang, Soochow, Hang- 
chow, Nanking, Kweichowfu, Yunnanfu, Anching, Lan- 
chow (Kansuh), Foochow, Canton, Chengtu, Chungking. 
The tendency at the beginning of modern education 
in China was to over-emphasize higher grade work to 
the neglect of lower and preparatory grades in the new 



GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS. 59 

regime. It soon became evident, however, to the 
educational leaders that elementary schools must be 
established in every district. A glance at the Chihli 
report will show that primary education has been de 
veloped rapidly and is now given special attention. 

It is hardly to be expected that in all of these 
schools, judged by Western standards, the conditions, 
equipment and work done should be beyond criticism. 
On the contrary everything is still in the initial stages 
of development. But let us keep our perspective in 
forming all conclusions. It is a very common error for 
Western people to make, in judging Chinese educational 
institutions, to unconsciously lower the standard. It is 
said modern education is new in China, therefore the 
grade of work of Chinese students and their capacity are 
very inferior. 

The whole scheme of education is a unit, modelled 
largely after the Japanese system, and while at first is 
more or less theoretical yet in many of the higher grade 
institutions the real schedule work is being faithfully 
done, and we should not make any discount on mental 
capacity or school experience in any subject announced 
in their catalogues. The subject laid down for these 
modern schools are quite similar in general to the cur 
ricula of schools in Europe and America. The depart 
ments and courses of study in the Imperial University 
embrace all the principal fields of scientific and literary- 
study. As a sample of subjects, I take the curriculum 
fixed by the Imperial Board of Education for High 
Schools or College grade work and note the following : 
Ethics, Chinese classic literature, Chinese grammar, 
military drill and athletic exercises, English language, 
French or German language, history (Chinese and 
general), political geography, psychology, political 
economy, mathematics (including coordinate geometry, 
calculus, etc.), physics, chemistry, drawing. 

These subjects are taught by Chinese and foreign 
teachers. The large part of the advanced work in this 



*0 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

curriculum and that of institutions of higher grade is 
done by foreign teachers or foreign trained Chinese. 
The tendency is naturally toward employing returned 
foreign-trained students, that is, those who have grad 
uated in European or American universities. This 
class of men is considerably increasing as time goes on, 
and we may not expect foreign teachers to be employed 
on a large scale in China. 

Money is being spent lavishly in sending students 
abroad, erecting modern school .buildings and buying 
apparatus. Large printing presses are busy day and 
night printing books. The popular cry, "Pu Tung 
Chiao Yu," " Chia T ing Chiao Yu " (general education, 
home training) is realized as essential to constitutional 
government now promised to the people. The education 
of women is receiving unusual attention ; there being 
in Chihli (not counting Peking) a total of 3,314 students 
and 203 teachers distributed over 61 different towns. 
Of the 120 schools, 57 are established by the Govern 
ment, 47 by the gentry, 20 by private individuals. 
These are divided into 82 Primary Schools, 36 Element 
ary, 3 High Schools, 3 Normals, and 2 Kindergarten 
Training Schools. 

All these new forces are even now doing their 
mighty work. The next ten years will be even more 
important for China s future than the past ten have 
been. The real Augustan Era for this land of scholars 
and books is yet to be. 

R. R. GAILEY. 



CHAPTER 



WORK FOR THE HIGHER CLASSES, INSTITUTIONAL 
AND EVANGELISTIC. 

THE INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE, SHANGHAI. 
From Twenty-fifth Semi-Aimual Report. April 8, 1910. 

9R. Gilbert Reid s report is in substance as follows : 
The present Report forms a turning point in the 
history of the International Institute, so far as its 
work in Shanghai is concerned, and is characterized by 
a larger degree of hopefulness, with a broader outlook 
and a wider scope for usefulness. 

First of all it is to be recorded that the Institute 
has received the second official recognition from the 
Imperial Board of Foreign Affairs. In the previous 
Report mention was made of my visit to Peking and of 
the negotiations that were conducted with the Ministers 
of the Board of Foreign Affairs and also of the Board of 
Education. Promises of assistance and recognition were 
made by different members of the Board of Foreign 
Affairs, but nothing definite was forthcoming until 
towards the close of the last year. In response to a 
memorial, which was presented to the Board of Educa 
tion, a formal reply under the signature of the President 
and two Vice-Presidents of this Board, was given, in 
which it was expressed that none of the Boards in 
Peking could render any financial assistance for our 
proposed plan of establishing a high-grade school of 
Political Science, and that the proposal of a school under 
foreign supervision was not in harmony with the existing 
regulations of the Board of Education as sanctioned by 
the Throne. Under date of December 16 two documents 
were received from the Board of Foreign Affairs. Each 
of these documents contained three official seals of the 



62 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Board of Foreign Affairs, and was a direct response of 
different memorials which I had previously presented. 

The one document briefly stated that my proposal for 
establishing a School of Political Science could not 
receive financial assistance of the Government, inasmuch 
as the regulations of the Board of Education stipulated 
that such a school must be under official management 
and could not be under private auspices. The other 
document, giving recognition to the work of the In 
stitute, was far more satisfactory and encouraging. . . . 

This document is the fulfilment of the promise made 
to me personally, and contained in the Imperial Sanction 
of March, 1897 : " When his plan for the Institute 
goes into operation, if the actuality answers to the pros 
pectus, producing good and not evil, this Board will, 
after due investigation, confer additional tokens of ap 
proval." During the last thirteen years there have 
been many vicissitudes of shadow and light, of encourage 
ments and discouragements, but there is a feeling of 
great satisfaction with us and with the friends of the 
Institute that at last another official sanction has been 
received from the Government in Peking. 

Besides this formal recognition, which has been 
rendered by one of the Boards in Peking, we have 
received many letters from officials in different parts of 
China expressing their approval and goodwill. The 
circumstances attending the reception, which was given 
us a few weeks since, in view of our departure to the 
States, were also most pleasing to us, and could not but 
strengthen us in our purpose to persevere in the work 
which had been undertaken. As something unusual in 
Shanghai, greetings were given by representatives of 
one of the Boards in Peking, the Board of Posts and 
Communications, of four Viceroys and four Governors, 
as well as from H. E. Sheug Kung-pao, a Vice-Presi- 
dent of one of the Peking Boards, but residing in Shang 
hai. Such a willingness to show encouragement on the 
part of the officials, from Mukden in the North to Can- 



WORK FOR THE HIGHER CLASSES. 63 

ton in the South, is an indication that the Institute has 
made an impression on different parts of China, and 
that it has special opportunities for doing good through 
out the whole of the Empire. 

A visit of some two weeks that was made to the 
city of Foochow early in the year not only afforded 
us personal pleasure, but likewise indicated the direc 
tion in which the Institute might well put forth its 
future energies. The intercourse with the officials 
of that city and with the heads of the Government 
Schools was characterized by greatest cordiality on their 
part and by a readiness to cooperate in support of the 
aims of the Institute. A number of Chinese and for 
eigners gave their consent to take part in establishing a 
local branch of the Institute in Foochow. It is hoped 
thereby that beneficial influences may be exerted on the 
whole province of Fukien. 

It is now possible to show how there has come 
about a turning point in the work of the Institute in 
Shanghai. The response that was given by the Board 
of Foreign Affairs concerning the proposal for establish 
ing a special School of Political Science, to which a 
certain number of students should be sent by the Vice 
roys and Governors of all the provinces, and by the 
eight Manchu Banners in Peking, clearly indicated that 
such educational work should not be attempted. For 
several years we have had a small number of students 
of good literary standing from different provinces study 
ing Political Science and History, and a few of the 
Viceroys and Governors have contributed scholarships 
for those who excelled in this department. Now the 
number of those who would be willing to continue in 
this course would be small, seeing that at all the 
Provincial Capitals similar schools have already been 
started under Government auspices, and seeing that 
Government patronage and financial assistance had been 
refused our proposed school by the Government in 
Peking. Without the cooperation of the Government 



64 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

such a plan for such a school could not succeed. As to 
the other department, which has been carried on in 
Shanghai for the last eight years, that of instruction in 
foreign languages, there is no need for Government 
support, but when it is borne in mind that there is a 
very large number of similar schools, both under 
Government auspices and under control of different 
missions, it is at once apparent that at least there is no 
great necessity for the Institute to continue this form of 
educational work. For establishing any other school 
that would be high-grade and successful, there would be 
needed either Government patronage or larger financial 
assistance from some source than the Institute is blessed 
with at the present time. Therefore, owing to my 
absence for a year from Shanghai, and the lack of 
Government support, it was decided at the last regular 
Semi-Annual Meeting that the class-room work of the 
Institute be for the present abandoned, in order to give 
greater facility for other departments of the Institute 
plan. 

In thus making this statement of facts, I desire to 
testify to the kindly attitude of the personnel of the 
Board of Education. Last summer each of the two 
Vice-Presidents, Yen Hsiu and Pao Hsi, contributed 
$100, and just as we now go to print, the President, 
Grand Secretary Jung Ching, sends us a cheque for 
$200. We are confident that some of our suggestions on 
the educational problem will yet bear fruit. 

Personally, I am very grateful for the experience 
I have had in direct class-room work and for the 
acquaintance with very many students who have come 
to us for instruction from upwards of thirteen provinces. 
There has been no doubt in my own mind that such a 
work has been one of importance in the past. At the 
time of its initiation, nearly all the schools in Shanghai 
of good standing were in connexion with the different 
Missions. Our constituency has been almost entirely 
from among the non-Christian families, and the large 



WORK FOR THE HIGHER CLASSES. 65 

majority of the students have come from other places 
than Shanghai. At present it would be difficult to 
attract students from a distance, unless we had a larger 
and better-equipped staff of teachers than provided for 
in other schools, and unless we had more money at our 
disposal for the maintenance of such a type of educa 
tional work. At the close of the last term we were very 
much pleased with the kindly feeling that was shown by 
the students in attendance, who were to leave for other 
schools to complete their education. Regrets for the 
temporary abandonment of our educational work were 
expressed by teachers and students and by Chinese 
members of the Institute. I deem it, however, a wise 
move in thus turning from the close attention of class 
room work, averaging seven hours a day, to other 
departments of work more in consonance with the main 
intent of the Institute plan, and far more important and 
indispensable during this period of transition in the 
social and political life of this great Empire. 

Turning now to the more positive aspects of the 
work as contemplated in the change which has been 
made, I would emphasize the fundamental principle on 
which the Institute has been founded, and for the con 
summation of which we should direct all our energies 
in the future. This principle is one of the harmony 
between Chinese and foreigners, and between Christians 
and non-Christians living in China, for the special wel 
fare of China and the Chinese people, but also seeking 
to give benefits and assistance to legitimate foreign 
interests. The Institute, therefore, is the one joint stock 
company in China in which Chinese and foreigners are 
on an equal basis, have equal responsibilities, and are 
equally benefited by such cooperation. The barriers 
that exist between the East and the West are to be 
broken down through the process of larger mutual ap 
preciation. This is a work full of difficulty, but in 
spite of the difficulty we have gladly undertaken the 
work for nearly thirty years. We have been willing to 



66 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

take the time and trouble to meet the Chinese in a social 
way, to converse with them on all manner of subjects, 
and by our interest in their welfare to secure their friend 
ship. If one man by years of patient and persistent 
labour can succeed in securing the friendship of hun 
dreds of the most influential in Peking and every one of 
the provinces, then how much more could be accom 
plished by an organization in which others of kindred 
mind may take part for the accomplishment of the same 
object ? The channels of communication with the lead 
ers of thought in this great Empire have already been 
opened, and we now ask others with their influence, 
wisdom and generosity to enter these channels and 
produce a far greater impression for good upon this 
people than could possibly be secured by the efforts of 
one person. 

For the development of such a spirit of harmonious 
cooperation between Chinese and foreigners, there have 
been already organized in Shanghai in connection with 
the Institute three special committees, the one of Chinese 
and foreign merchants to investigate conjointly commer 
cial questions and to unite in helping forward the trade 
conditions of China ; the second of Chinese and foreign 
educationists and men of letters to investigate conjoint 
ly questions of education and scholarship and to unite 
in helping forward the enlightenment of China ; and 
the third of Chinese and foreigners interested especially 
in religious questions or engaged in the missionary 
propaganda, for the peaceful prosecution of missionary 
work in China and for greater spirit of toleration between 
the adherents of one religious faith and another. There 
has also been organized as an auxiliary to the Institute 
the Ladies International Tea-Cup Club, for bringing 
together ladies of the better class families from among the 
Chinese and foreign residents to their mutual acquaint 
ance and benefit. This is an object that Mrs. Reid has 
had in mind for several years, but, strange to say, it 
has been more difficult to accomplish in this great busi- 



WORK FOR THE HIGHER CLASSES. 67 

ness centre of Shanghai than would be experienced in 
Peking or in many cities away from the coast. 

The practical methods to be used in effecting har 
mony will be those of conference and symposiums, of 
personal and social intercourse and exchange of calls, 
of lectures and literature, of correspondence and com 
mittees. Reception-rooms have been fitted up in the 
Institute for entertaining guests. Other rooms are 
set apart as a hostel for members visiting Shanghai or 
residing here permanently. We have also started, in 
Chinese, the Institute Record, a monthly paper. 

This work of harmonious cooperation, of friendly 
intercourse between Chinese and foreigners, of peace in 
the Far Hast through friendships won and held, and of 
cosmopolitan and philanthropic enterprise, is one which 
should not be limited to this one city of Shanghai, how 
ever great it may be as a centre of influence. It is 
rather our intention, or at least it is our hope, to extend 
the work throughout the whole Empire and to let the 
influences flow everywhere as a good to China and to 
all mankind. The International Institute, in its cor 
poration, is called "The International Institute of 
China," and the Mission among the higher classes, as 
the work was originally called, was the Mission among 
the higher classes in China. If Providence should open 
the way for us in the future, as has been true in the 
past, and friends in the homelands can be brought to 
understand our object and the opportunities for good of 
the work, and the utility of this organization, then we 
may have the confidence that the development of the 
work, as already exhibited in Shanghai, may be made 
possible in all the centres of this Empire. 

Membership. There are at present 215 subscribing 
members and 37 permanent members, or 252 altogether, 
as compared with 209 six months ago. This is the larg 
est membership that the Institute has ever had. There 
are also 34 associate members, i.e., those who pay $10 
Mexican per annum. If the large Chinese population of 



68 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Shanghai could be thoroughly imbued with the idea of 
harmoniously cooperating with foreigners, and of aban 
doning the very favorite war-cry of " China for the 
Chinese," then China itself would derive great benefit, 
and, we are sure, our enrollment would be expanded. 

Every word of kindness and encouragement that 
has been written to us or spoken will be long cherished. 
Every act of kindness will be remembered. We give 
our gratitude in all sincerity to the kind Providence 
who has guided our steps in the past and bestowed on 
us more mercies than we have been worthy to receive. 
On the eve of our departure to the States we give our 
best wishes to those who will assist in carrying on the 
work of the International Institute, and we wish for 
China, where we have lived nearly three decades, the 
blessing of heaven in meeting all the difficulties that 
beset her on every side. We not only would be glad to 
have more friends for ourselves, but we pray that China, 
too, may have friends. 

TSINANFU INSTITUTE, TSINANFU, SHANTUNG 
PROVINCE, E. B. M. 

The work of the above Institute was begun in Tsi- 
nanfu in the present buildings in 1905. The Institute 
is a continuation and development of that carried on in 
Tsingchowfu since 1887. 

It aims at reaching all classes of the people, but 
makes special efforts to reach the student and official 
classes. The methods of the Institution social, educa 
tional, evangelistic may be understood in part from the 
statement in Chinese and English in the entrance hall, 
which is as follows : 

The object of this Institution is to assist in the endeavour to 
manifest the truth with regard to nature, the world, history and 
the progress of civilization. By its agencies it seeks to enlighten 
and educate, to do away with misconceptions in regard to the 
civilization of the West, to explain the true nature of the Chris 
tian faith and its results on the individual and national life. 



WORK FOR THE HIGHER CLASSES. 69 

The work of the Institution is mainly 

SOCIAL, EDUCATIONAL, EVANGELISTIC. 

In the Reception Rooms visitors are met on a social and 
friendly basis and the objects and teaching of the Institution 
explained. 

In the Museum are exhibited natural history specimens, 
geographical maps and globes, historical charts and diagrams, 
models and diagrams giving elementary instruction in physiogra 
phy, geology and astronomy, working models illustrating means 
of communication, apparatus demonstrating practical applica 
tions of science (specimens of manufactures), diagrams illustrat 
ing progress in education, commerce, etc. ; models and pictures 
of churches, asylums, hospitals, schools and other institutions 
illustrating the direct results of Christianity in the West. 

In the Library and Reading Room some of the best literature, 
translated into Chinese, is at the disposal of visitors. 

The Lecture Hall is used for the preaching of the Gospel and 
also for the giving of lectures on scientific, historical and other 
topics of special value. 

The Ladies Reception Rooms provide accommodation for 
women visitors ; the Institution is open to women visitors only 
on one day every week. 

The object of the whole work of the 

TSINANFU INSTITUTE 

is thus to dispel misunderstanding, to enlighten as to all that 
makes for the welfare and progress of China, to assist is bringing 
East and West into friendly and helpful understanding, and 
above all to bring men to the knowledge of Jesus Christ, the 
Saviour of mankind. 

The Institution is open daily free of charge. 

While all classes of the people are reached by the 
agencies of the Institute, this brief statement is confined 
to special efforts on behalf of the official classes. 

The first section of the new buildings was opened 
by H. E. Yang Shih-hsiang, at that time Provincial 
Governor, in 1905. A year later additional buildings 
were opened by H. E. Wu T ing-pin. On both these 
occasions the leading officials of the Province, both civil 
and military, attended, and addresses were given explain 
ing the objects and methods of the Institution. On the 
latter occasion a specially effective address was given by 
the late Rev. Calvin Mateer, D.D., on "China s Need 



70 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

of Christianity." One of the leading officials of the 
Province asked for a copy of the address and permission 
to use it for publication. 

Copies of a special edition of the New Testament, 
given by the British and Foreign Bible Society, were 
later presented to all the leading officials in Tsinaufu. 

During the Shantung Federation Conference held 
in September, 1907, H. E. Wu T iug-pin, Provincial 
Governor, attended a reception at the Institute to meet all 
members of the Conference. On this occasion an address 
was given clearly stating the attitude of Protestant 
missionaries towards the authorities. 

It is not possible in so short a statement as this to 
describe the educational contents of the Institute which 
specially appeal to the ruling classes. There are large 
models and pictures of Houses of Parliament, Law Courts, 
Universities, Colleges, Hospitals, etc., etc. ; historical 
maps and diagrams illustrating national progress and 
decline ; diagrams in colour showing comparison in edu 
cation, commerce and general progress of nations. These 
with accompanying letterpress are studied with great 
interest by men of the above classes. 

Lectures on subjects of special interest are given at 
intervals ; these are attended mainly by students^and pro 
fessors of the government colleges. A lecture recently 
given by Dr. Arthur Smith on "Lessons from the His 
tory of the British Empire " was attended by a number 
of students and professors. 

Dr. Arthur Smith on the same day spent an evening 
in the Institute with twelve leading officials and gave 
them an address on the "Prospects of Reform in China." 

During the year 1909, 1,085 visits were paid by 
officials to the museum and 552 visits were paid by 
wives of officials. The number during 1909 was, owing 
to official changes and other reasons, much below the 
average. 

The missionaries in charge of the Institution, in 
calling on officials in their homes, are almost invariably 



WORK FOR THE HIGHER CLASSES. 71 

cordially received. Visits have been paid by the mis 
sionary s wife to numbers of ladies in their homes and 
return visits have been received. Very friendly relations 
have been established in not a few cases. At a reception 
held recently over thirty wives of officials were met by 
several missionary ladies. 

With regard to results of this side of the work of 
the Institute, it is a matter for encouragement that the 
attitude of the officials has been increasingly friendly. 
In the words of a well known writer : " Its agencies help 
to create an atmosphere favorable to Christianity." 

In 1906, during an epidemic of anti-fcreign rumours 
of a vile and dangerous character, the authorities took 
effective action to dispel the misapprehensions and fears 
of the people. Since that time the attitude manifested 
has been of a growingly cordial character. 

Officials from over a great part of the Empire are 
met in the Institute, and we have good reason to believe 
that an influence in favour, not only of the " foreigner," 
but also of the Christian faith, goes with these men to 
many distant parts of China. 

The late Viceroy, H. E. Yang Shih-hsiang, while he 
was Provincial Governor of Shantung, and again, while 
he was Viceroy of Chihli, stated that he was not unfa 
vourable to the progress of Christianity. On one occa 
sion, in speaking of a section of Shantung Province which 
has given much trouble to the authorities, he said : " It 
would be well to have Christians there ; Christians fear 
God." H. E. Yang not only expressed his interest 
and sympathy in the work of the Institute in words but 
also in a practical manner. The present Provincial 
Governor, H. E. Sun Pao-chi, has gone over the whole 
of the Institute, and members of his family have paid 
repeated visits. 

This short report refers, as stated in title, only to 
that side of the activities of the Institute which aim at 
influencing members of the official classes. It may, 
however, be well to state with regard to its dominautly 



72 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

evangelistic work that during those times of the day in 
which there are numbers of visitors the aim is to give 
an evangelistic address every hour. These addresses 
are attended by numbers varying from 40 to 200 and 
more. Among those attending are sometimes to be seen 
officials who may be visiting the Institute. On a recent 
occasion members of the new Provincial Council listened 
with close attention to an evangelistic address. 

The following table shows numbers of visitors to 
the Institute during 1909 : 

Total number of visits paid during 1909 215,099 

Officials 1,085 

Students .,. 43,477 

Pilgrims largely representing country people of 

the farmer class ... ... ... ... ... 19,346 

Readers in Reading Room and Library ... ... 37,966 

Wives of officials ... ... ... ... ... 552 

Other women visitors ... ... ... ... ... 13,645 

Soldiers 11,480 

Rest of visitors made up of all classes of the people. 

* During 1909 visits from officials were much below the average, owing to a 
number of changes in official staff and other reasons. 

J. S. WHITEWRIGHT. 



NOTE : Work of a unique kind to reach the scholars is 
carried on by Wm. Wilson, M. B. C. M , first at Suiting, C. I. M., 
and now in Chentu as part of the Y. M. C. A. The specialty is 
the manufacture of scientific apparatus. See pamphlet. " In Touch 
with China s Scholars," C. I. M., London. 



CHAPTER V. 



MISSION SCHOOLS, COLLEGES, AND UNIVERSITIES 
FOR MEN AND BOYS. 

Chibli, Shantung, Manchuria. 

PEKING UNIVERSITY. Members of Faculty, includ 
ing the Union Medical College, 33 foreigners, 7 Chinese. 
Instructors and assistants, 19. Dr. H. H. L,ovvry, pres 
ident. 

It may help to a better understanding of the present 
situation of the university to take a brief survey of what 
has preceded. The first class graduated in 1892. Since 
then twelve classes have completed the courses pre 
scribed and fifty-five have received the diploma of the 
university ; forty-nine from the College of Arts and 
six from the College of Medicine. 

The first class consisted of five young men. One of 
these was a most valuable teacher in his Alma Mater 
from his graduation until three years ago to-day when 
he entered into rest. Another has served several of the 
most important churches in the North China Conference 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and in 1900 received 
the unique honor of being mentioned in a memorial of 
the Magistrate of the city of Laoting to Li Hung-chang, 
requesting the Viceroy to ask the Bishop not to remove 
him from the pastorate in that city. He now occupies 
the responsible position of District Superintendent of 
Peking District, with equal rank and authority with 
his colleagues from the United States. Another member 
of that class was selected by the committee of the Cen 
tenary Conference in Shanghai appointed to secure a 
pastor to represent all the Protestant churches in China 
among the Chinese students in Tokyo. He has been 
signally blessed in that work and has had the privilege 



74 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

of baptizing during the past year over one hundred 
young men representing influential families in all the 
provinces, save one, in China. Another member of the 
class has a place in the maritime customs in Tientsin. 
The fifth member of the class is employed by one of the 
mining companies in Tientsin. He also takes a prom 
inent part in religious work, and has been very helpful 
in the Young Men s Christian Association in securing 
the site for their proposed new building and in raising 
the 42,000 taels to pay for it. 

Those five boys were among the first students en 
rolled after the university was organized and when the 
whole number in attendance could not have been more 
than forty or fifty. They have already given eighty 
years of their combined service to the church and their 
country. They are still in the prime of life, and much 
more may be expected from them in the future. In the 
second place, it gives us a proper view-point from which 
to estimate the growth of the university. 

Instead of the one story building then in use, located 
in one end of the mission compound with a play ground 
not as large as the floor of this building, we have these 
three large buildings, one four stories high, including 
the basement, and a beautiful campus of nearly twenty 
acres. Instead of the two foreign and two Chinese 
teachers then, there is now a faculty in the Arts Depart 
ment alone of eight foreigners and sixteen Chinese. 
Four separate departments of instruction have been 
organized, namely, the College Preparatory, the Col 
lege of liberal Arts, the Theological College, and the 
Medical College. The latter has been united with the 
Medical College of the North China Educational Union, 
and is located on the premises of the London Mission. 

The two score students have increased to five hun 
dred and eighty in all departments, and, including the 
students in the six intermediate schools which are feeders 
to the university, there are not far from two thousand 
under instruction, all pursuing the same course of study 



MISSION SCHOOLS FOR MKN AND BOYS. 75 

leading to entrance to the university. The students in 
the university represent all classes, some from the offi 
cials, two having been sent by the late Viceroy of this 
province ; there are also students from Korea and Japan, 
and every province in the empire has had representatives 
here. The larger number are from the families of 
Christians in the country and villages, and these usually 
are the most hopeful class of students. From them 
come the large number who devote their lives to Chris 
tian work. Two of our graduates passed the govern 
ment examination last summer and were appointed to 
the United States for further study. We take this as a 
compliment to the work done by the university, as only 
forty-seven passed the test out of over seven hundred 
gathered from all parts of the empire. Yet notwith 
standing the competition of the government schools, 
which are supplied with very full equipment, and where 
the students are sure of government appointments when 
they complete their course, we have more applicants 
than we can accommodate in the dormitories. 

The character of our work is also indicated by the 
fact that our graduates are received for post-graduate 
work without further examination in several of the 
leading universities in the United States. This is true 
of the Universities of California, Minnesota, North 
western, Michigan, Syracuse, Boston, and Columbia. 

For four years we have been offering courses of 
study leading to the degree of Master of Arts to our 
graduates who wish to continue their studies under our 
direction. Every encouragement is offered to the in 
structors in the university to continue their graduate 
study in connection with their teaching, hoping to 
develop in them scholarly habits, to give them more 
culture, broader views, and to qualify them to fill higher 
positions on the faculty of the university. It is not 
intended that anyone shall secure the masters degree by 
doing less work in Peking University than would be 
required of him in the best graduate schools of America. 



7$ CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

A strong religious influence is maintained in the 
university, though no religious tests are required from 
the students. While there is perfect liberty of religious 
belief, a large majority of the students are Christians, 
and forty-two out of the forty-nine graduates of the 
College of Arts entered Christian service either as preach 
ers or teachers, knowing they could command five or 
ten times as much pay in some secular calling. 

The Student Volunteer Band now numbers 200. 
During the summer the friends interested in the baud, by 
their voluntary contributions again made it possible for 
over 40 students to preach during the summer. Reports 
tell of a successful campaign. At the very urgent request 
of the General Committee of the Young Men s Christian 
Association we again granted permission for Professor Chen 
Tsai-hsin, president of the Volunteer Band, to aid them 
for three weeks in November in Christian work in a num 
ber of schools and colleges in North China and Manchuria. 

We have reached the limit of accommodation for 
students because of the lack of dormitory room. To-day 
we have nearly one hundred students living in the 
wretched old Chinese buildings that we hoped would be 
forever discarded when Taft Hall was completed. A new 
dormitory must be built if our work is not to be hindered. 

The property of the university is valued at Tls, 
155,500, and the invested assets amount to Tls. 45,177, 
to which should be added $7,223 in Mexicans. During 
the past year Taels 7,548 was added to the productive 
endowment. Special gifts were also received to the 
amount of $6,939. 

THE UNION MEDICAL COLLEGE is reported on in 
Chapter X. 

TIENTSIN ANGLO-CHINESE COLLEGE. Faculty, 8 for 
eigners, 5 Chinese, 280 students. I,. M. S. 

This school was opened in 1902 with 70 students 
with Dr. S. Iy. Hart as sole teacher. The progress made 
in attendance, equipment, etc., has been remarkable. 



MISSION SCHOOLS FOR MKN AND BOYS. 77 

There are three departments primary, middle, and 
collegiate --and all in working order. The college de 
pends entirely on the fees of its students ; absolutely no 
support being given by the Home Society. The chem 
istry and engineering departments are in a fair state 
of equipment, and a law school began in 1909. Classes 
in Old and New Testament History form part of the 
curriculum. All the students attend daily prayers. At 
all other services the attendance is optional. The stu 
dents "Christian Band" conducts daily Bible readings, 
Sunday and other services. The purpose of the school 
is to reach the sons of non-Christians of the higher 
class and to influence them in every possible way, 
but principally by voluntary religious observances and 
personal effort. The tuition is $40, board $60, and 
share of a room $20 a year. There are scholarships 
ranging from $20 a year, held for three years, up to the^ 
highest of $120 a year for two years. The school land is* 
worth $50,000 Mex., buildings $100,000 Mex. There is 
no endowment, and no money is received from the Mis 
sion Board except the salaries of part of the foreign staff. 
The Viceroy and other high officials have shown 
very great interest in the school. 

NORTH CHINA UNION COLLEGE, Tungchou, near 
Peking. Dr. D. Z. Sheffield, president. Faculty : 8 
foreigners, 5 Chinese ; 141 students. 

This college is supported by a union of the A. B. 
C. F. M., A. P. M., and L. M. S., and supersedes the 
college of the American Board, which was utterly 
destroyed by the Boxers in 1900. 

The college has had a prosperous year with 13 
students in the fourth year, 4 in the third, 15 in the 
second, and 20 in the first ; a total of 52 in the college. 
There are 60 in the academic or preparatory department, 
making 112 in all. An attempt has been made during 
the year to secure the cooperation of the students in 
the general regulation and order of the school. This 



7 8 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

has been something of an experiment, but on the whole 
has been successful. Most of the students are professed 
Christians, although for many their religious life is more 
intellectual than spiritual. The organization of the 
Young Men s Christian Association of the school has 
been completed during the year. During the summer 
months, 25 of the older students were employed, either 
as teachers in the schools or as assistants in the country 
in evangelistic work. The need of multiplying Christian 
young men for the work of teaching is pronounced by 
Dr. Sheffield, the president of the college, as only second 
to the need of additional numbers in the evangelistic 
work. This college holds an important place, not only in 
the educational system of North China, but in the evangel 
istic work of the empire. (A. B. C. F. M. Report.) 

The total number of students in the High School 
and College continues to increase at a steady rate, and 
this year stands at 118. Of this number the Presby 
terian Mission only has four or five, so the great majority 
are American Board boys. One of the most important 
events of the year was the graduating of a class of 
thirteen men belonging to the American Board Mission, 
one of whom is now teaching in the L. M. S. school at 
T sang Chou. During the first half of the year ten per 
cent, of the students were absent from work "for real 
or fancied ailments," and there was no proper medical 
supervision. Mrs. Biggin started a Red Cross Society 
among the students, and the members of this society see 
that their fellow-students get proper attention and food 
when unwell. The health of the students showed a 
marked improvement in the autumn term, but, unfor 
tunately, though the term opened promisingly, "the 
feeling towards its clo.se was one of disappointment and 
concern," owing to the spirit of unrest among the 
students and the formal way they go through their 
meetings for prayer and worship. Preaching in country 
places on Sunday afternoons by the students was not 
carried on at all vigorously, and almost ceased during 



MISSION SCHOOLS FOR MKN AND BOYS. 79 

the latter part of the year. (L. M. S. Report.) [Since 
this was written, news has come of a glorious revival in 
the college as a result of Ting Li Mei s work. Scores 
of boys pledged themselves to work for the church. 
This is a Chinese student volunteer movement.] 

SHANTUNG CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY. Dr. P. D. Bergen, 
president. Faculty : 6 foreigners, 13 Chinese ; about 
295 students. 

This university consists of three parts, viz., an Arts 
College of 200 students at Weihsien, a Theological 
Seminary and Normal School at Tsingchoufu of about 
140 students, and a Medical College at Tsinanfu. The 
union was formed in 1904 by the American Presbyterian 
and the English Baptist Missions in Shantung. A grant 
of ,4,000 has been made by the Arthington Fund for 
a Medical College at Tsiuanfu. (See Chapter X, on 
" Medical Education.") 

The college at Weihsien has prospered during the 
year. Two hundred and forty-five students have matric 
ulated, the largest number in its history. The work 
done by the students and teachers is steadily increasing 
in efficiency. More than nine-tenths of the students 
are Christians. Every member of the senior class is 
a Christian, as in fact are all the students in the regular 
classes. The few non-Christians come to us as young 
men who have completed their Chinese education, and 
who are eager to acquire a knowledge of Western science. 
They come properly recommended to us by pastors and 
elders, as men of straight life and without bad habits. 
Several among them are not far from the kingdom. 

A growing feature of our work is increasing inquiry 
as to terms of entrance to the college on the part of 
young men now attending government institutions. 
These schools, not usually being equipped with qualified 
teachers and almost destitute of discipline, have been 
disappointing in their results. We believe this is but a 
passing phase of these schools and that in the course of 



80 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

a decade great improvement will be made. But in any 
case there need be no conflict or competition between 
their schools and ours. The supreme aim of our college 
is to educate thoroughly young men who as pastors or 
laymen will prove able and devoted leaders in the 
church; while in the government the education will be 
strictly secular, if not anti-Christian. 

The church therefore should do all in its power to 
foster and develop this college, where an education is 
given which inspires respect on every hand, and which 
is permeated with Christianity from start to finish. 
Such a work carried on by the church bears a most 
vital relation to the evangelization of Shantung. It 
shows the governing classes that the church stands for 
education of the highest order, for loyalty to native 
land, and obedience to the powers that be. It shows 
that the church is developing young men who are useful, 
both to the church itself and to the common- wealth. 

The English Baptist Mission reports that the year 
began with 180 students, of whom 51 were from the 
Baptist Mission. Thirteen won Marnham Scholarships 
to cover the cost of their food. It is expected that there 
will be 90 Baptist students in the coming year a record 
number. 

The spiritual life of the boys is healthy, though 
this year there has been no great wave of revival as in 
1906. Ever} Sunday a dozen volunteers from the 
College Y. M. C. A. go into the villages preaching. 

MANCHURIA MISSION COLLEGE at Moukden, a union 
of the Irish Presbyterian and the United Free Church of 
Scotland Missions. 

Owing to the extraordinarily rapid development of 
evangelistic work, the Mancliurian Missions did not 
develop their educational work as rapidly as missions in 
other parts of China. Accordingly the Mission Reports 
contain little reference to the Moukden College. There 
appear to be two foreign instructors. 



MISSION .SCHOOLS FOR MEN AND BOYS. 8 1 

In addition to these higher institutions, the follow 
ing are worthy of mention, viz : 

M. E. M. Intermediate School Chihsi. 

M. E. M. ., ,, I,anchow. 

A. B. C. F. M. Benevolence to All vSchool Paotingfu. 

S. P. G. Anglican School Peking. 

L. M. S. Boarding School Peking. 

A. P. M. Presbyterian Academy Peking. 

S. C. M. Boarding School Taitningfu. 

M. E. M. Anglo-Chinese School Tientsin. 
Y. M.C. A. Pu-TungJVliddle School ,, 

E. M. INI. Intermediate School Tongshan. 

A. P. M. Chefoo High School Chefoo. 

C. E. M. vSt. Peter s College Chefoo. 

S. B. C. Boys High School Hwanghsien. 

A. P. M. Boys Academy Ichowfn. 

A. B. C. F. M. P. Academy Pangchuang. 

S. B. C. North China Baptist Institute School Pingtu. 

E. B. M. Middle School Putai. 

A. P. M. Clara L,. Hamilton Academy School Chinanfu. 

A. P. M. Point Breeze Academy School Weihsien. 

U. F. C. Hi^h School Liaoyang. 

A. B. C. F. M . Oberlin Memorial Taikuhsien. 

C. P. M. High School Weihjaifu. 



Mr. Ralph C. Wells writes concerning the educa 
tional work in Shantung : 

" I was very much impressed during a recent visit 
of a prominent educator from Shanghai with the differ 
ent conditions which exist in the work as he depicted it 
in Central China and what we have in Shantung. The 
conditions and problems of our work were so different 
that we found comparison difficult. It seemed more as 
though we were working in two separate countries than 
in different parts of the same empire. The differences of 
which we were speaking could perhaps mostly be ac 
counted for by the difference in the means of travel and 
communication and differences of occupation of our con 
stituencies. The lack of canals ; the net work of roads 
and paths by which the people travel with carts, barrows 
and pack animals from one village to another : the rota 
tion of markets, which makes a constant circulation of 



82 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

ideas in bringing together people from widely separated 
villages, and the large predominance of the farming class 
over the merchant class in our church membership in 
this province, seem to make a sufficiently divergent back 
ground to account for many differences in the work in 
the two places. Being also largely out of touch with the 
life at the ports, the demand for, and the use of, English 
is very small, so that our primary and secondary schools 
are entirely on a vernacular basis, and even in the college 
work English simply has the place of a stud} , and is 
not used as a means of instruction for other branches. 

"Our Weihsien field has fifty-five country schools 
for boys, nine of which are entirely self-supporting, and of 
the remaining schools, three-fifths of the expense is paid by 
the local Christians. These schools have an enrollment 
of 760, and are all provided with Christian teachers, most 
of whom have had training at our Union Normal Depart 
ment at Tsingchowfu. There are thirteen country schools 
for girls with an enrollment of 260. These schools are all 
taught.by graduates of the Weihsieu Girls High School. 
These country schools form our educational foundation, 
on which are based our Weihsien Girls High School and 
Point Breeze Academy, both of which are unfortunately too 
limited in capacity to accommodate the properly equipped 
applicants. The higher education for boys is carried on 
in the Union Colleges of Arts and Sciences, Theology, 
and Medicine of the Shantung Christian University." 



The following figures are supplied for Manchuria : 
UNITED FREE CHURCH. May 26, 1910. 

District. Schools. Pupils. 

Hulan i 4 

Ch aoyangchen ... ... 6 ... ... ... no 

Kaiyiian ... ... ... 12 ... ... ... 180 

Yungling 3 60 

Moukden ... .. ... 5 ... ... ... 192 

Iviaoyang ... ... ... 20 ... ... ... 382 

Haicheng i 24 

48 952 



MISSION SCHOOLS FOR MEN AND BOYS. 



IRISH PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 



District. 
Kuyiishu 
tvirin 


.. 


.. 


Schools. 
3 

T 


Kwanchengtzu 

Fakumen 
Moukden 
Hsininiiifu 






3 
7 

3 

12 


Kwangning 

Chinchow 






I 
I 


Newchwang 






3 



Pupils, 

30 

27 

50 

1 88 

77 
240 

3 
30 
34 



About 90 per cent, of these pupils belong to the 
primary grade and 10 per cent, to the middle grade. 
Over 15 per cent, are from non-Christian families. 

The course of instruction varies slightly according 
to the district, but generally speaking the curriculum 
includes the following : 

Arithmetic, Geography, History, Writing, Hygiene, 
Singing, National Readers, Classics, Ethics, Drill, Script 
ure, Algebra, and Elementary Geometry. 

Boarders pay for all their food and fuel, and in 
some schools a small fee is paid by all. 



West China. 

Since 1907 the missions in West China have made 
great progress in educational work. To describe the 
situation adequately, it is best to deal with each province 
separately, because while all three provinces have united 
under the West China Missions Advisory Board and in 
the Church Union movement they are, up to the present 
time, quite distinct in their educational work. 

In Gwei Djow the only Mission working during 
these three years has been the China Inland Mission. 
Inasmuch as their policy is to direct their efforts almost 
exclusively to the preaching of the Word, no comprehen 
sive scheme of school work has been developed. So far 



84 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK, 

as the writer can ascertain, nothing beyond Bible classes 
for workers and some day-schools for women and girls 
have been attempted. There is therefore great need in 
this province for work on a broader basis if workers can 
be secured. 

In the province of Yunnan the China Inland Mission 
and the United Methodist Mission hold the field. The 
school work done is very similar to that done in Gwei 
Djow. At Djao Tong" there is a Bible training school in 
which some of the rudiments of Western subjects are 
taught, but the missionaries in charge are too busy with 
the many demands on their time to do much in addition 
to the Bible teaching. 

Among the Miao, elementary schools have been 
established since the great movement towards Christianity 
in that tribe beginning in 1907. The hope of the mission 
aries in that work is that from these lower grade schools 
the brighter boys will be drafted into a few central 
schools of higher grade and from these be sent on to a 
large central institute that Rev. S. Pollard expects to 
establish in the near future. This work so far has been 
remarkably successful. When the missionaries first went 
among the Miao they were about the most backward 
people in Yunnan, without even a written language in 
vogue. A phonetic alphabet has been invented and the 
children are coming to the schools in scores. It is 
reported that at the present time a very large percentage 
of the Miao boys and girls can read and write both Miao 
and Chinese with considerable facility. 

Szchuan is par excellence the banner province for 
mission educational enterprise. The unique thing about 
it is that all the eight missions here are in unison both 
in aim and policy in this work. Some missions, it is 
true, are more enthusiastic than others in developing the 
educational department of missionary effort, but all have 
missionaries set apart specifically for educational work, 
and all are following the course agreed upon by the 
West China Christian Educational Union. Hence to 



MISSION SCHOOLS FOR MEN AND BOYS. 85 

describe the schools and colleges of West China is 
simply to record the development and present status of 
the Educational Union. 

The West China Christian Educational Union was 
inaugurated in October, 1906, when eight missionary 
bodies appointed delegates to a conference in Chengtu to 
formulate a scheme of union in mission school work. 
The aims of the Union, as set forth by that conference, 
were to promote the unification and centralization of 
primary educational institutions for boys and girls by 
means of a uniform course of study, similar text-books 
and common examinations, and to foster the develop 
ment of a thoroughly efficient education in West China 
under Christian auspices, and to promote the organiza 
tion of a Union Christian University and to futher its 
interests. 

In the four years since 1906 this union educational 
work has made great strides. At first it was thought 
almost impossible for so many missionaries of such 
diverse previous training to agree upon any common 
policy, much less on a common course of stuoV. Many 
looked upon the scheme as an interesting experiment, 
but predicted failure in a few years ; others stood aloof 
preferring to go their own gait for a while longer, 
but at the present time all have become convinced of 
the value of union and have joined heartily in the enter 
prise. 

Here are a few figures that show the growth in the 
number of schools registered and the great increase in 
the number of scholars that are being touched by this 
union educational movement : 

JUNIOR PRIMARY GRADE. 

Total Scholars. 
737 
785 
1,106 
2,610 



No. 


of Schools. 


Boys. 


Girh 


1907. 


26 


358 


379 


1908. 


24 


378 


407 


1909. 


26 


562 


544 


1910. 


65 


i,35o 


1,260 



86 CHINA MISSION YKAR BOOK. 

SENIOR PRIMARY GRADK. 

Schools. Boys, Girls. Total. 

1907. ii 187 26 213 

1908. 12 143 109 252 

1909. 17 217 84 307 

1910. 19 312 132 444 

MIDDLE SCHOOL GRADE:. 

1907. 5 1 20 ... 120 

1908. 8 182 13 195 

1909. 8 203 8 211 

1910. 6 217 16 233 

Total number of students registered in three grades : 

1907. 1,070 

1908. 1,232 

1909. 1,624 

1910. 3,287 

In the year 1909 there were 26 foreign teachers 
giving all or a major portion of their time to school work. 
The number of Chinese teachers in all were 93. The 
figures are about the same for foreign teachers in 1910, 
but a considerable increase has been made in Chinese 
teachers. 

The Junior Primary course adopted by the Union 
covers a period of five years, during the first three of 
which the child is given a good grounding in Bible, 
Chinese classics, Chinese language and arithmetic. In 
the fourth and fifth years outlines of Chinese history, 
elementary hygiene and drawing are added ; the latter 
two being optional subjects. 

The Senior Primary course consists of four years 
following immediately after the Junior Primary work. 
The subjects taken are the same as the Junior Primary 
fourth and fifth years with the addition of natural 
science as a compulsory subject and English as an 
optional one. Algebra is also made optional in the 
fourth year. Singing and physical exercise are sup 
posed to be taught throughout both grades, but examina 
tions are not prepared in these two subjects by the 
Union. 



MISSION SCHOOLS FOR MEN AND BOYS. 87 

At the end of the Senior Primary course the student 
has obtained a fair knowledge of the life and teachings 
of Jesus as recorded in the four Gospels and of the lives 
of the apostles as recorded in Acts ; also has become 
familiar with all the outstanding characters in the Old 
Testament. 

In Chinese classics he has covered the Four Books, 
together with the Book of Poetry and the Book of 
History. In Chinese language he has read both the 
Elementary and Advanced Chinese National Readers 
and acquired the ability to write all ordinary characters, 
to compose letters in simple style and to write com 
position in both classical and Mandarin style. In 
Chinese history the student is supposed to become 
familiar with the important events of his nation s history 
from the earliest times to the present and the bearing of 
these events upon the national life. 

The subject of arithmetic is finished in the Senior 
Primary grade. 

In geography a close study of China and a general 
knowledge of world geography, including important 
commercial routes, is required. 

In natural science the rudiments of physiology, 
zoology, botany, geology, astronomy, physics, and 
chemistry are taken up in as practical a way as possible. 

The English taught is the reading, proper enuncia 
tion and translation of simple sentences, and the render 
ing of simple Chinese into English. 

The Middle School covers five years following after 
the Senior Primary ; its subjects being the same, but the 
grade of work much more advanced. Foreign history 
is taken up in this grade, and in geography a thorough 
acquaintance with the principles of physical geography 
is required. In English an attempt is made to give the 
student a fair speaking knowledge of the language. In 
science a large option is offered. Physiology and any 
two of the following are required for graduation : Botany, 
zoology, chemistry, physics, geology, astronomy, and 



88 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

nature study. These sciences are to be taught from 
the experimental standpoint as much as possible ; the 
object being to develop the spirit of research in the 
students themselves. 

Examinations are prepared yearly by teachers des 
ignated to that work by the executive of the Union. 
Each year there are six sets of papers prepared ; in the 
Junior Primary a preliminary covering the first three 
years and a final covering the last two years ; in the 
Senior Primary a preliminary covering the first two 
years and a final covering the last two years ; in the 
Middle School a preliminary covering the first three 
years and a final covering the last two years. 

The standard arrived at on graduation from the 
Middle School is about equal to the matriculation into 
the American or English universities. In all three 
grades the course is approximately the same as that 
authorized by the Chinese Imperial authorities for the 
government schools. 

To come to higher grade schools at the present time 
in the province of Szechuen there are four well estab 
lished institutions of Middle School grade. They are as 
follows : The Munroe Academy at Suifu, under the 
American Baptist Foreign Missionary Society ; the 
Chungking High School at Chungking, under the Meth 
odist Missionary Society of the United States ; the 
Friends Chungking Middle School, under the Friends 
Foreign Missionary Association, and the West China 
Union Middle School at Chengtu, in which the three 
above missions and the Canadian Methodist Mission 
have joined. The first three of these have been in 
operation for a number of years and have made good 
progress since 1907. All have now lined up with the 
Educational Union movement. The Chengtu Union 
Middle School is still in its infancy, as it was just opened 
in the spring of 1909. At that time it was an amalgama 
tion of three previously established Middle Schools, 
viz., the M. E. M., the F. F. M. A., and the C. M. M. 



MISSION SCHOOLS FOR MEN AND BOYS. 89 

Middle Schools in Cliengtu, each bringing its scholars 
and its school furnishings and apparatus and pooling 
them in the union. In the beginning of 1910 the Baptist 
Mission joined in with a few students. The teaching 
buildings are union property, the cost of which is shared 
equally by the four missions. Each mission has its 
separate dormitory on its own property, so that the stu 
dents are thus brought in close contact with some one or 
two of the teachers. All the running expenses, includ 
ing the salaries of Chinese teachers, are met out of the 
union fund. This fund is almost entirely supplied from 
students fees. So far this experiment in organic union 
has proved entirely satisfactory to all concerned. 

In addition to these four schools there are three 
girls schools that do work of middle school grade. 
They are the Friends girls school at Tongchuan and 
the girls schools under the American Methodist and 
Canadian Methodist Missions in Chengtu. Although 
these schools are at the present time registered in the 
Union as Middle Schools they are not yet equipped to do 
full middle school work. The bulk of their work at 
the present time is of senior primary grade, though they 
hope more and more to develop a middle school course 
suitable for girls. 

Speaking generally in regard to the three grades of 
schools above mentioned, the policy of the missions in 
West China is to establish a Junior Primary school in 
every out-station under the charge of a Christian teacher 
who can teach not only the old Chinese books but also 
give the boys and girls instruction in elementary arith 
metic, geography, and hygiene, and lead the children to a 
knowledge of simple Christian facts. No mission is able 
as yet to carry out this program in full owing to the lack 
of properly equipped teachers, but this lack is being grad 
ually met and with the development of the normal depart 
ment of the Chengtu Union Middle School, which made a 
beginning this year, it is hoped that in a very few years 
teachers with the required training will be forthcoming. 



90 CHINA MISSION YKAK BOOK. 

In all the larger centres it is further planned to open 
Senior Primary boarding and day-schools combined. 
This is a more difficult proposition, as large school build 
ings and premises must be provided, specially trained 
teachers both foreign and native be secured and a 
liberal supply of funds obtained to carry on the work. 
In spite of the difficulties a good number of such schools 
have already been established, as will be seen by the 
above statistics. In each of these schools there is a 
foreigner and two or more natives teaching. The 
Union Normal School will again be a great boon to these 
schools. 

As to middle schools, there is no thought at the 
present time of increasing their number extensively, as 
they will be boarding-schools. Being such it is much 
cheaper and more effective to run a few on a large scale 
than to attempt many on a small scale. 

The crown of all this union educational enterprise 
is the West China Union University. From its very 
inception, the Union has had the establishment of a 
Christian university in view. In the year 1907 the 
American Baptist Foreign Missionary Society, the Friends 
Foreign Mission Association, the Missionary . Society of 
the Methodist Church of Canada, and the Board of For 
eign Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church, U. S. A., 
formally agreed to the purchase of a union site for a 
university and promised to set apart one or more men 
to engage in teaching as soon as the university should 
be opened. In the spring of 1908 an eligible site was 
purchased, situate outside the south gate of Chengtu. 
The whole property, including recent additions, come to 
an area of a little over 61 English acres. This property 
is now divided into five sections : a central plot of about 
ten acres, held in common for the erection of union 
teaching buildings ; and four other plots of ten or more 
acres each, one assigned to each of the four missions to 
be used for dormitories, residences, theological schools, 
or other buildings that each mission may require. 



MISSION "SCHOOLS FOR MEN AND BOYS. 91 

As soon as the laud was purchased measures were 
at once taken to prepare the grounds for school purposes 
and the erection of the needed buildings. Five tempo 
rary residences for foreigners, together with dormitories 
and temporary teaching buildings for the Union Middle 
School, were hurriedly built. It was agreed that the 
middle school should temporarily occupy the university 
site until such time as the university should be in 
working order. During the fall of 1909 temporary 
teaching buildings for the university were also built, and 
two permanent residences for foreigners completed. 
Four other residences are in course of construction and 
will be completed this year. The permanent teaching 
buildings will be commenced as soon as a unified plan 
can be decided upon. 

Much time has been spent in preparing a constitu 
tion of the university that will safeguard all interests 
concerned and yet leave the university free to develop 
as time goes on. A meeting of representatives of the 
four Boards concerned, held in New York, agreed upon 
a statement of policy and recommended to the various 
mission boards a draft constitution. This has since 
been thoroughly gone into by men on the field and sent 
for final ratification to the home authorities. It con 
tains among others the following important clauses : 

Aim. The object of the University shall be the advancement 
of the kingdom of God by means of higher education iu West 
China : 

(a) By providing such facilities for the education of those 
connected with the various missions in West China as shall 
enable them to take their place among the educated classes of 
the day. 

(b) By affording means for the higher education of Chinese 
youth of all classes. 

Colleges. Each body founding a college must provide for 
the accommodation of its teachers and students and such other 
Chinese teachers as may be allotted 1o it by the Senate. 

The management of the individual colleges shall be indepen 
dent of the control of the Senate so long as their rules are uat 
contrary to the provisions of this Constitution. 



92 CHIN Y A MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Each college shall be required to set apart one or more men 
to give the greater part of their time to university teaching, 
under the assignment of the Senate, and in such manner as it 
may direct. 

Kach college may make such provision for the religious 
training and teaching of theology as may be required by its 
Board. Colleges may make arrangements among themselves 
for the attendance of the students at any theological instruction 
which may be desired. 

Control. Control of the University, in matters of policy 
and general administration, shall be vested in a Joint Commis 
sion, constituted in the home lands, consisting of members 
elected by the Boards of each participating body ; such repre 
sentatives to hold office until their successors are appointed. 

The Joint Commission shall have power to coopt a number 
equal to one-fourth of the total membership elected by the 
participating bodies. 

It shall hold, on behalf of the University, all deeds of trust, 
endowments, and other property of the University not otherwise 
provided for. 

In all ordinary affairs, decisions of the Senate may be put 
into effect immediately after being arrived at. 

Senate. The Senate of the University shall be composed as 
follows : 

1. Two representatives appointed directly by each body par 

ticipating in the Union. 

2. All members of the staff of the University approved by 

the Joint Commission. 

3. Four representatives elected by ballot by convocation 

from a list approved by the Senate. 

The Senate shall arrange for the conducting of a weekly 
service for all the students of the University. 

No one body shall have a voting power on the Senate equal 
to half the total membership. In the event of any body having 
a representation equal to, or larger than, that of all other bodies 
combined, it shall, in order to conform to the above rules, decide 
which of its representatives shall be entitled to vote and shall 
communicate their names in writing to the secretary. 

Faculty, The Faculty of the University shall be composed of : 

1. Teachers set apart by the participating bodies and assigned 

by the Senate. 

2. Teachers appointed directly by the Joint Commission. 

3. Teachers directly employed by the Senate. 

Financial. The funds of the University shall be drawn from 
the following sources : 



MISSION SCHOOLS FOR MEN AND BOYS. 93 

1. Contributions from the colleges. 

2. Fees for matriculation, examinations, and graduation. 

3. Contributions for special objects from the Bodies par 

ticipating in the Union. 

4. Special donations, subscriptions, and endowments. 

5. Any interest that may be derived from the above. 

Tentative curricula have been prepared in the four 
courses of general arts, history and political economy, 
science, and pedagogy, each extending over four years. 
The first year in each course is the same, being that of 
the general arts course. After that the student is 
allowed to specialize. 

University work has been commenced this year with 
a cl^ss of thirteen students and a staff of four foreign 
and two Chinese instructors. All the subjects, with the 
exception of English, are taught exclusively in Chinese. 
The policy of the university is to continue this method 
of teaching, as it tends less to denationalize the student 
than the method of giving him his education through 
the medium of a foreign language. 

During the year 1911, in all probability, a beginning 
will be made in the establishment of a Medical Depart 
ment in the University. In addition to this it has been 
the hope of the founders from the first that graduate 
and technical courses be introduced as soon as provision 
can be made for the carrying on of such work. It is felt 
that there is great need for such courses in the West, 
but under the present circumstances the Arts and 
Medical Departments have a prior claim. 

Negotiations have been carried on, and the hope is 
at present bright that we may induce some Western 
University or some other body interested in higher 
education in China to participate in this enterprise. A 
great sphere of influence is open to such bodies if up-to- 
date teaching equipment and the right stamp of teachers 
are provided. Should these negotiations materialize, the 
work will at once be put on a very broad basis. 

The prospects for the future of the university are 
bright indeed. In the first place the missions of West 



94 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

China have gone about in a practical way to create a 
constituency from which the institution will constantly 
draw. By the uniting of all the Christian primary and 
secondary schools of the province into the West China 
Christian Educational Union, with kindergartens at the 
base and the university at the apex of the pyramid, there 
will be a steady stream of students coming up from our 
Christian homes right through the graded union courses 
to the university. At the present time the constituency 
is by no means confined to these Christian schools. The 
university already has such a good name that many 
outsiders are seeking entrance. The only thing deter 
ring them is their inability to measure up to the standard 
required. It the hopes of the promoters of the university 
are realised, and the teaching equipment and staff per 
fected to the degree planned, there is no fear but that 
the practical Chinese youth of these western provinces 
will flock to us by the scores. 

The need of having such an institution as is planned 
is quite evident. There is no doubt that in the course of 
time the government university here will be brought to a 
much higher standard of efficiency that it has at the pres 
ent time attained. It will likely be the case then that the 
outside students who come to us will not be so numerous. 
Should that prove so, the fact remains that one univer 
sity, though backed by the government, will not be suffi 
cient to cater to the needs of 60,000,000 people. There is 
the further fact that the Church of Christ in China is 
bound to extend and increase just as it has done in every 
other land, so that the students coming from our Chris 
tian homes will soon tax our capacity. There is a good 
deal also to be said for a private institution of higher 
learning under Christian auspices, yet free from narrow 
sectarianism as this university will necessarily be, cer 
tainly until such time as Chinese education may be placed 
on a Christian basis. Even then such an institution as 
this would have intrinsic value because of the spirit of 
breadth and sincerity that will always pervade its work. 



MISSION SCHOOLS FOR MEN AND BOYS. 95 

The founders have expressed the definite hope that 
the university may develop along the following lines : 

Steady advance to higher grade and wider scope of 
work, keeping in mind always constant adaptation to the 
real needs of China. 

Increasing support from, and government by, Chinese. 

Its ultimately becoming in every sense a Chinese 
institution at such time as it shall be possible to leave 
it in the hands of Chinese, with the assurance that the 
ideals of the founders will be carried out no less faith 
fully than if the management were to remain in the 
hands of the missionaries themselves. 

The ultimate recognition by the Chinese authorities 
of the degrees of the university. It is also hoped that 
when the work done reaches the proper standard the 
degrees may be recognized by some Western Universities. 
Neither of these hopes are being built upon, but the 
policy is to develop such an effective institution that its 
work w T ill be on a par with that carried on in Western 
Universities and the advantages of an education under 
its aegis become evident to all men. 

E. J. CARSON. 

In South China. 

In the small compass allotted to this section of the 
chapter it will be only possible to little more than glance 
at some of the many higher institutions, and call attention 
to the still more numerous primary schools which have 
been established along the southern coast of this mighty 
empire. 

But even such a brief survey cannot prove otherwise 
than inspiring, for these institutions can be nothing less 
than mighty agencies for righteousness and good citizen 
ship. 

From the kindergarten to the university is a long 
way, but all along that pathway shines forth the light 
".that lighteth every man sanctuaries in very truth 



96 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

where young men and maidens, youth and women of 
China, are taught that only an education which builds 
for eternity is worth possessing. 

If in this chapter some sections of this southern tier 
are not very fully represented, and the chief object of 
this chapter, viz., noting the advancement made since 
1907, not strictly followed, it must be put down to the 
fact that no reports have been sent in response (in some 
instances to repeated requests). 

CHEKIANG PROVINCE. 

Our field of review begins at Wenchow in the Che- 
kiang province. 

United Methodist College (U. M. F. C. M.). Theo. 
W. Chapman, principal. This institution was begun by 
Rev. W. K. Soothill, now principal of Shansi University. 
The present college building cost over $20,000. It has 
some 200 students and is making steady and satisfactory 
progress. It has been lately hard hit by the loss of some 
of its best Chinese professors, who went elsewhere for 
much higher salaries. 

FUKIEN PROVINCE. 

Foochow. 

Naturally Foochow is the chief educational centre of 
the province. In 1909 there were nearly 800 Mission 
schools of all grades with 17,500 students in this section, 
i.e., Northern Fukien. 

Foochow College. Rev. L. P. Peet, M.A., president. 
(A. B. C. F. M.). 8 foreign and 15 native teachers. 
Four departments with the following number in each : 
Preparatory, 223 ; College, 30 ; Theological, 12 ; Medical, 
6. Total, 261. This institution has been long estab 
lished, as it started in 1853. Since 1907 it has become 
self-supporting, i.e., in so far as running expenses are 
concerned. An endowment of $35,000 gold has been 



MISSION SCHOOLS FOR MEN AND BOYS. 97 

secured. A seven years course in mandarin has been 
added. All students are required to take their science 
and mathematics in this language. The standard has 
been raised considerably during the past three years. 

The college is incorporated under the laws of 
Massachusetts, U. S. A., and grants degrees. The most 
cordial relations exist between the college and officials, 
as was evidenced by their presence at the last commence 
ment. The graduates of this institution are taking 
prominent places in church work. 

Hok-ling Anglo-Chinese College. Rev. J. Gowdy, 
D.D., president (M. E. M.). 

This institution takes high rank among schools of 
this grade. On the teaching staff are 14 foreigners and 
4 Chinese. There are two departments preparatory 
and college. 324 students. Founded in 1881 it has 
maintained a steady progress. Its aim is to fit men for 
commercial life, or for work of the Christian church in 
China. The past few years has been marked by an in 
creasing number in the latter class. In the college 
department a year of mathematics has been added, viz., 
calculus and analytical geometry. A new course in civil 
engineering has been introduced, covering five years. The 
entrance requirements have been considerably raised. 

Normal Schools. This work is still in its infancy. 
The only one we are aware of is the Foochow Normal 
Training School (M. E. M.), G. S. Miner, principal ; A. 
W. Billing, assistant principal. Fifteen students. There 
are other schools that maintain normal classes along 
with other work, but this, we understand, is the only 
distinctively normal school in the province under mis 
sionary auspices. 

Boys Academies and Boarding-schools. There are 
numerous boarding-schools for boys in the Foochow 
district, where boys can gain a first class secondary 
education. They are located in Foochow, Kucheng, 
Shaowu, Funingfu, Mingchiang, Hinghua, lenping, 



9 8 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

and other places, such as the C. M. S. High School, 
Junior Boys Boarding-school at Foochow, Anglo-Chinese 
High School at Hinghua (M. H. M.), Schell-Cooper 
Boarding-school at Kucheng (M. E. M.), the Inghok 
Boarding-school at Inghok (A. B. C. F. M.), Dublin 
University School at Funingfu (C. M. S.)- 

Elementary. In the districts under the care of the 
three Missions namely : American Board, Church 
Missionary Society and the Methodist Episcopal Mission, 
there are 700 schools with something like 14,500 pupils. 

Kindergartens. There are three kindergartens with 
204 pupils. 

Amoy. The educational work in Amoy during the 
past three years has been one of development in the 
three grades to which it is confined, viz., kindergarten, 
elementary, and middle, a grade corresponding to a high 
school in America, 

Anglo-Chinese College. Prof. H. F. Rankin, prin 
cipal. 

This institution is under the joint management of 
the E. P. M. and L- M. S. There are 6 foreign and 9 
native teachers. 175 students. 

Improvement has been marked by the attendance 
being more steady and more regular. Greater interest is 
manifested in Chinese subjects, while the students have 
reached the wise conclusion that English is not to be 
acquired in a year or two. 

It has been possible to do more advanced work, as 
the students have come better prepared and are willing 
to remain longer. Pupils are learning better to rea 
son out things for themselves and are getting a wider 
outlook. The school provides a Christian education 
along Western lines to sons of the upper and middle 
classes (fees from S or 9). It prepares for, rather 
than provides, a college course. The college is changing 
from a day-school with a few 7 boarders into a boarding- 



MISSION SCHOOLS FOR MKN AND BOYS. 99 

school with a few day pupils, a result of the establish 
ment of fairly good government primary schools. Stu 
dents come from Rangoon, Saigon, Manila, and Formosa, 
as well as from the province. The Y. M. C. A. has over 

40 members. 

Amoy Union Middle School. Rev. P. W. Pitcher, 
M.A., principal. 

This union institution is under the management of 
the three Missions A. B. M., E- P. M., and L. M. S. 
The union was consummated in 1907, and has been most 
successful. On the teaching staff there are 2 foreigners 
and 5 native teachers. 60 pupils. Three other foreign 
ers each teach an hour a day. The aim is to develop 
character and to lay the foundations of a broad and use 
ful education ; the chief cornerstone being Christianity. 
The medium of instruction is the vernacular, English 
being taught as a subject. The effort in recent years 
has been made to increase the school s efficiency, with 
some success. The standard has been raised and the 
curriculum, with some exceptions, made to conform 
more and more to government schedules. A keener 
interest in study is noticeable. 

There are two other middle schools in this district 
working along similar lines, viz., Choanchiu Middle 
School, Rev. A. S. M. Anderson, principal ; about 30 
students ; the Hweian Middle School, Miss A. M. Home, 
principal. 

Elementary (Day) Schools. There are about 100 
schools with 2,500 pupils. Within the past three years 
greater attention has been given to providing uniform 
curricula in primary and grammar grades and in bring 
ing them in conformity with government schedules. This 
has been partly successful. While most of these schools 
are for day pupils only, yet in important centres like 
Choanchiu, Tongan, Siokhe, Chiangchiu and Changpu 
boarding accommodations have been provided for the 
grammar grade (^ ^). 



100 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

KWANGTUNG PROVINCE. 

To give anything like a real conception of the pres 
ent status of mission schools in such a large province, 
more data than is at hand would be required. This 
data we have not been able to obtain. 

Swatow. 

The educational work as carried on by the two 
Missions, viz., English Presbyterians and American 
Baptists in this section of the province, embraces kinder 
garten, elementary, and middle schools. "To keep 
pace with the educational system, our schools have had 
to introduce Western subjects." 

Anglo-Chinese College. Rev. H. F. Wallace, prin 
cipal (E. P. M..). 

The teaching staff is composed of i foreigner and 6 
Chinese. 62 students. This institution is just at the 
beginning of its career, and promises to furnish a Chris 
tian education along Western lines for those who are 
seeking this kind of a course of study. 

The Swatow Presbytery has started a normal school 
scheme. 

Middle Schools . English Presbyterian Middle School. 
Mr. Wm. Paton, principal. 

Teaching staff is 2 foreign and 3 native teachers. 
Two other foreigners teach together three hours a week. 
During the past few years the standard has been raised, 
which has had the effect of reducing numbers somewhat, 
but of improving quality and greatly increasing the 
efficiency of the school. Out of many applicants from 
the elementary schools only six were accepted at the 
beginning of this year. Fees also have been increased. 
Great interest is being shown in original study of botany 
and geology. Keen interest is manifested in athletics, 
e.g., baseball and football. 25 per cent, of the graduates 



MISSION SCHOOLS FOR MEN AND BOYS. IOI 

enter the Theological College or pursue advanced studies. 
73 per cent, become Christians. 

At Wukingfu and Swabue this Mission has similar 
institutions. 

Boarding- schools for Boys. There are a number of 
boarding-schools in this district, viz., Boys Interme 
diate Boarding-school, Rev. Wm. Ashmore, D.D., prin 
cipal (A. B. M. U.), at Swatow ; also at Chaochowfu, 
Hokhooha, Phyangtong. 

Elementary (Day) Schools. Work in the element 
ary schools, in some quarters at least, has been very 
encouraging. One Mission reports that fees have been 
increased year by year while the curriculum has been 
revised and improved. The native Christians have 
shown the keenest interest by donating as much as a 
thousand dollars for buildings in different places. Cer 
tainly no better evidence is required to express the 
eagerness of the parents for the advancement of their 
children, at any rate in this grade. At the same time 
the fear is expressed that the parents will not allow their 
children to leave home to pursue higher courses of 
study. In some regions our primary schools have a hard 
fight against the competition of government schools. 

Canton. 

Canton Christian College. C. K. Edmunds, Ph.D., 
president. 

On the faculty there are 14 foreign and 12 Chinese 
teachers. 178 students. Three departments : Interme 
diate, 40 ; Academic, 130 ; College, 8. Chartered under 
the University of New York, U. S. A., and governed 
by a Board of Trustees located in New York. The 
institution plans to give a thorough education along 
Christian lines and in accordance with Western methods. 
It is pressing forward in equipment and efficiency. It 
already owns forty acres of land, arid its assets amount 



102 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

to $130,000 gold, of which $40,000 is invested in Amer 
ican securities. The sum has been received from 
America. 

Tuition in the elementary school, $105 ; in the pre 
paratory, $70, and in the college, $50. Total expenses, 
including books and fees, is from $204.50 to $240 per 
year. There is a College Y. M. C. A. 

Slialuet College. Presbyterian Church of New Zea 
land. 4 Chinese teachers, 14 boys boarding and 35 day 
pupils ; 20 study English. 

Normal and Middle School. Basel Mission, Kn- 
chuk, 80 pupils. Each school has 38 hours of work per 
week. German is only taught in the middle school. 

South China Baptist Academy. For a score of years 
this school has stood as the high grade in the Baptist 
educational system. The aim is to constantly improve 
its curriculum and to raise its standard. It is supported 
and controlled entirely by the native Christians. There 
are three departments: primary, 18 pupils; grammar, 
44 pupils; high school, 55 pupils. These grades corre 
spond very closely with the government school of similar 
grade. 

In Canton other schools of this grade have been 
opened by American Presbyterians, London Mission, and 
the Church Mission. Outside of Canton such schools 
will be found at Kuchuk, Lienchow. Kachek, 
Tunkun, Moilim, Nyenhalgli, Shiuchom, etc. 

Elementary Schools. These schools have been 
planted widely over the district, but from a report of 
this work made at the Canton Educational Association 
meeting recently held it will be seen that the same con 
ditions prevail in regard to these schools in the Kwang- 
tung province that exists in Fukien, i.e., want of system 
poorly supported and poorly taught schools. What is 
needed in all such schools, both in Fukien and Kwang- 
tung, is a uniform system properly graded, better 



MISSION SCHOOLS FOR MEN AND BOYS. 103 

equipped teachers, better financial support, and better 
buildings. The weakest link in our whole educational 
system, as conducted and controlled by missions, is the 
elementary (day) school. And until we have laid deep 
and well this chief cornerstone in the foundations, our 
educational system will be about as stable as a pyramid 
turned upside down. 

CANTON EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION (China Mail). 

On December i8th, 1909, this Association was formed 
with excellent prospects. The need for a general reform 
in the schools, and the unification of these schools in 
some way, concerns more than the missionaries and the 
Christian Chinese. The schools are before the Chinese 
public as European and American institutions as well as 
examples of what Christianity is expected to do for a 
people. Their standards should not approach Chinese 
ideals as though the West approved and followed these, 
but should reflect credit upon the nations represented by 
them and certain to be thus represented for a long time 
to come. These schools are undoubtedly accomplishing 
a great deal of good in spite of their poor financial 
support, but in the face of the needs of the Chinese 
Christians and non-Christians who apply in vain for 
admission to so many of them, the opportunities of the 
times are not by any means taken advantage of. For 
these two provinces, outside of Hongkong, there are not 
more than two good high schools for boys, nor more 
than one for girls, and no system of primary schools ; 
and the schools that exist are recognized as almost 
uniformly poorly supported and poorly taught. The 
immediate need is not for large institutions of higher 
learning except as a means of getting ready teachers for 
the lo*.ver schools, but it is for a model and extensive 
system of elementary schools and high schools. The 
present condition presents net only few schools of any 
character and fewer far of anything like excellence of 



104 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

work, but also the great divergence of type and method 
and standard that long establishment without cooperation 
has caused. The formation of this association with full 
machinery for conducting four meetings a year, the 
collecting of statistics, the holding of institutes and 
examinations, and taking the initial steps towards mak 
ing a normal school possible, ought to bring about some 
advance if the support necessary is forthcoming. The 
president for this year is Dr. E. Z. Simmons, Baptist 
Mission, Canton, and the secretary and treasurer is 
H. B. Graybill, of the Canton Christian College. 

P. W. PITCHER. 



Central and East Central China. 

I have been asked to give some account of the 
educational work carried on by Protestant missions in 
Central China ; the term being intended to include not 
only the central provinces of Honau, Hunan, Hupeh, 
Anhwei, and Kiangsi, but also the eastern province of 
Kiangsu and the northern section of Chekiang. The 
last two provinces are so closely allied in dialect and 
in mission organization that a grouping along educa 
tional lines requires that they be considered together. 
The four central provinces and the northern part of 
Kiangsu belong to the Kuanhua or Mandarin-speaking 
section of China, and their population, according to the 
Statemen s Year Book, is 142,969,597. The population 
of the provinces of Kiangsu and Chekiang, exclud 
ing the million in the Wenchow district, is placed at 
24,560,927. Another authority adds 10,000,000 to this. 

The dialects of Chekiang and Southern Kiangsu are 
known as the " Wu dialects," and philologists seem to 
agree that this family of dialects is nearest to that " Old 
Chinese," which was spoken by the writers of the 
Chinese classics. The number speaking the Wu dialects 
is estimated by Von Molleiidorff at 44,000,000. This 



MISSION SCHOOLS FOR MEN AND BOYS. 105 

groilp is so nearly allied to the Kuanhua that scholars 
and the more intelligent business men of Kiangsu 
and Chekiaug find little difficulty, after a few weeks 
practice, in understanding good speakers of Kuanhua, 
and they easily acquire some degree of efficiency in 
speaking it themselves. This similarity of dialects 
makes it comparatively easy to unite in educational 
schemes, and it has been found quite practical to estab 
lish union institutions at such a centre as Nanking, 
with a good prospect of drawing large numbers of 
students from the neighbouring district of the Wu 
dialects. 

In this east central district are to be found a large 
proportion of the mission educational institutions of 
China, and we may begin by giving a brief notice of the 
four institutions which are known as 

UNIVERSITIES. 

This name may be, to some extent, " prophetic, " 
but it has been applied to these institutions because they 
are planning for regular university work, and already 
embrace, in addition to the college of arts, departments 
of theology and medicine. Although these departments 
are very small at present, they are growing in efficiency 
and extensiveness from year to year. We give below a 
few facts concerning these universities : 

Name. Location. Founded. Students. 

University of Nanking Nanking 1888 420 35 

St. John s University Shanghai 1879 332 119 

Boone University Wuchang 1871 302 45 

Soochow University Soochow 1901 162 25 

i, 216 224 

Three of the universities are denominational. St. 
John s University and Boone University are connected 
with the American Episcopal Mission, and Soochow 
University is connected with the Mission of the Southern 



106 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Methodist Episcopal Church. The largest that of 
Nanking is a union institution under the joint con 
trol of the American Methodist Episcopal, American 
Presbyterian, and Foreign Christian (Disciples) Mis 
sions. This union was effected within the past year, 
and as a union university its work has very encouraging 
prospects. 

All of these universities make a specialty of English, 
and most of their advanced work is conducted through 
the medium of the English language. In this, St. John s 
takes the leading position. Many of its graduates are 
filling important positions where a knowledge of English 
is required, and many have gone to America for further 
instruction. 

These universities are all decidedly Christian in 
their aims, and religious instruction forms an important 
part of the regular course. 

COLLEGES. 

Next to the universities we shall attempt a brief 
account of the mission colleges of Central China. These 
colleges are, in some instances, not up to the standard of 
full-fledged colleges of arts, and all have a larger number 
in their preparatory classes than in their college depart 
ments. In some cases it would perhaps be more correct 
to classify them as junior colleges" or high schools ; 
yet they are all doing genuine educational work, and are 
so far above the average government school in general 
efficiency, and especially in discipline, that it is not un 
fair to class them as colleges. In the list below we give 
only those which have a hundred or more students : 

Name. Location. Founded. Students. 

William Nast College Kiukiang 1883 244 

Hangchow College Hangchow 1844 145 

Anglo-Chinese College Shanghai 18-82 180 

Trinity College Ningpo 1876 103 

English Methodist College ,, 1906 106 

778 



MISSION SCHOOLS KOR MKN AND BOYS. IC>7 

In the above list we have not mentioned the Meth 
odist College at Wenchow, as that has been grouped 
with the southern section. 

COI.LEGKS, HIGH SCHOOLS, ACADEMIES, AND MIDDLE 

SCHOOLS WITH LESS THAN IOO AND MORE 

THAN 40 STUDENTS. 

In this class we give the names of some which might 
properly be included in the class above, but which are 
debarred from that list because of their lack of the full 
quota of loo students. 

ANHWEI. Location. Founded. Students. 

St. Paul s High School Anking ... 50 

St. James School Wuhu ... 50 

CHKKIANG. 

Wa viand Academy Haugchow 1899 95 

Huchow District School Huchow ... 76 

Kashing High School Kashing ^99 63 

50 



HONAN. 

Norman McPhee Bovs } ~. . , c 

School j-Changtehfu 75 

HUNAN. 

The Yale College in China Changsha 1906 46 

Lakeside School Yochow 72 

DJill M. a s.f h 01 (FimiiSh I Tsingshih 67 

HUPRH. 

American Church School Ichang ... 108 
Church of Scotland Train- ) 

ing Institution f 

Griffith John College Hankow ... 86 

Itoone Preparatory School Wuchang ... 82 

Wuchang High School ,, ... 130 
Norwegian Lutheran ) , . . 

Boarding School f L* oh k 4o 

SiangA*angfu Academy Siatigyaugfu ... 4^ 



108 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

KFANGSU. Location. Founded. Students, 

Medhurst College Shanghai ... 75 

Grace High School ,,, ... 51 

Jvowrie High School 1860 80 
C. M. S. Anglo-Chinese } , 

School f " 

,_ _ , , ( Day classes 210 

Y.M.C. A. College Class ] Ev j ning classes 245 

| Hsuchowfn ... 80 

|Kian g yin 42 

McLain Training School Sunkiang ... 64 

Shanghai Baptist College Shanghai ... 40 

Shanghai Baptist Academy ,, 1896 47 

Grace Church School Soochovv ... 50 

St. Andrew s School "Wnsih ... 45 

2,299 
ORGANIZATION AND COOPERATION. 

There has been a great advance in the line of 
organization of the educational work of various missions 
during the last decade, and also in the cooperation of 
different missions. 

The Southern Methodists have their university at Soo- 
chow, and the work of other stations is expected to prepare 
young men for the Soochow University. There are prep 
aratory schools at Shanghai, Sungkiang, and Hnchow. 

The Wesleyau Mission, the American Baptists, and 
the American Episcopalians unite in a Normal School at 
Wuchang. 

A Medical School at Wuchang is supported by the 
London Mission, the Wesleyans and the American 
Baptists. 

Most of the missions in Hunan have agreed to 
support the Yale College School at Chaugsha as the 
union college for Hunan, and to regard their own 
schools as preparatory to the Yale institution. 

The Church of England has a number of schools 
leading up to Trinity College at Ningpo. 



MISSION SCHOOLS FOR MEN AND HOYS. 109 

The American Episcopalians have high schools at 
Soochow, Shanghai, and Wusih, preparing students for 
St. John s University. 

The Northern and Southern Baptists have a union 
College at Shanghai, with preparatory schools at Shang 
hai, Hnchow, Ningpo, Hangchow, Soochow, etc. 

The American Presbyterians, North and South, 
have a union college at Hangchow with preparatory 
schools at Hangchow, Kashiug, Shanghai, Chinkiang, 
etc., and they have also agreed to unite their girls 
schools at Haugchow. 

The Methodists, the Presbyterians, U. S. A., and 
the Disciples have united in a university at Nanking. 

Last but not least, comes the Mission Medical 
College at Nanking, which is to be supported by a 
number of missions acting together, according to a plan 
which has been recently formulated. 

It will thus be seen that among those who are in 
charge of schools for young men there is a strong and 
growing sentiment in favor of a closer union in Chris 
tian educational work, and it becomes increasingly evident 
that onl}- by a more hearty and far-reaching cooperation 
can our educational institutions meet the demands of the 
times and carry out successfully and economically the 
work which has been so well begun. Denomiuationalism 
and personal ambition, it is hoped, will yield more and 
more to that spirit of unity and self-sacrifice which is 
needed in all branches of our mission work, and 
deuominationalism has perhaps less reason for existence 
in medical and educational work than in some other 
departments of Christian service. 

There are quite a number of small boarding-schools 
in the seven provinces of Central and East Central 
China which have not yet become large enough to be 
classed in the lists already given. They are doing a 
grand work with a very small equipment of teachers 
and funds and housed in inadequate buildings. They 
are overshadowed by government schools with fine 



110 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

buildings and high salaried instructors, but they are 
giving more thorough instruction, have better disci 
pline, and are safer places for young men than are the 
schools which do not have the advantage of Christian 
preceptors. 

We have a list of 45 of these schools with a total 
attendance of 1,224. No doubt a full report would 
give a larger number. 

DAY-SCHOOLS. 

Before closing we would also like to mention the 
large number of day-schools where Chinese youth 
receive instruction in Chinese books, arithmetic, geog 
raphy, and Christian literature, and where Christian 
men and women work faithfully to teach them the 
way of life and duty. Many thousands have learned 
in these day-schools, among other things, a Christian 
vocabulary, which will do much to open their minds 
and to enable them to understand those important 
truths which the untaught non-Christian can not com 
prehend when he first hears them. In nearly every 
mission station one or more of these day-schools may 
be found, and they are doing a great work of enlighten 
ment in China. 

We have not been able to obtain complete and 
reliable statistics, but we estimate the number of day- 
schools in the seven provinces of Central and East 
Central China at over 500 and the number in attendance 
at more than 12,000 pupils, of whom probably some 
9,000 are boys. 

SUMMARY. 

If to the total number in universities, colleges, 
high-schools, and boarding-schools (5,517) we add the 
9,000 boys in the day-schools, we have a total of 14,517 
boys and young men who receive daily instruction under 
Christian influences and by Christian teachers, and 



MISSION SCHOOLS FOR MEN AND BOYS. Ill 

this does not include medical students, theological 
students, and pupils in orphanages and asylums, which 
would bring the number up to more than 15,000. 

The establishment of government schools and of 
private schools by Chinese non-Christians accentuates 
the necessity of more thorough work by Christian 
schools. The non-Christian schools are often so lacking 
in all the qualifications of a first class educational 
institution that some of their supporters send their 
own sons to Christian schools, realizing that they will 
there receive better instruction and be surrounded by 
better moral influences. The non-Christian schools 
have meddled too much in politics for their own 
good, and in some cases have been hot beds of 
revolution. 

There is not quite so much of a furor as there was 
a few r years ago for big buildings with stacks of apparatus 
of which neither pupils or teachers are prepared to make 
an intelligent use, nor are the schools of to-day as 
reckless in paying high salaries to teachers, many of 
whom are lacking in the qualifications which are needed 
for successful pedagogical work. 

It will be many years before the government schools 
can compete with the mission schools in real efficiency, 
and they must, for some time to come, look to Christian 
schools for their best teachers ; for it takes more than 
fine buildings to make a good school, and high salaries 
alone do not secure the best instructors. It is hard 
to get reliable information regarding the non-Christian 
schools of China. Conscious of their inferiority, they 
do not, as a rule, extend a cordial welcome to visitors, 
and do not encourage the friendly enquiries of those who 
wish them well. The insubordination of pupils and the 
lack of courage and firmness on the part of instructors 
who are not given the authority necessary to maintain 
discipline, and who would not dare to use it impartially 
if they had the authority, makes the work of many of 
these non-Christian schools very unsatisfactory, while 



112 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

the fact that in many cases the real head of the school is 
a man who has had no experience and little knowledge 
of modern school methods, but occupies his position 
because of his political importance, is one ot the most 
discouraging features of the new educational movement 
in China. 

China was never more ripe than now for a vigorous 
prosecution of the work of Christian educational mis 
sions. A grand opportunity is presented to the Chris 
tian church to influence the young people of China by 
giving to them daily instruction in well-equipped and 
well-taught educational institutions. 

J. A. SII<SBY. 



CHAPTER VL 



EVANGELISTIC WORK. 

(Extracts from Reports of Boards.) 
The American Baptist Missionary Union. 

(TITHE Home Board began the year with an accumulated 
ViL debt of $158,694.55, but by means of a coopera 
tive agreement with the Northern Baptist Con 
vention and a Budget Apportionment Plan, together 
with unusually large receipts from legacies, namely, 
$208,371.63, it was found that at the end of the year 
the debt had been wiped out and provision made for 
all current expenses of the year. The actual increase 
in gifts by the churches, Young People s Societies, 
Sunday Schools, and individuals was $96,660.07. 

Closer and more helpful relations between the several 
fields in the Far East were sought by the appointment 
of the Rev. John L. Bearing, D.D., as general mission 
ary in the Far East. 

Missions in China. Churches, 156; members, 5,522 ; 
added by baptism, 481. Three distinctive forms of 
Christian effort are now recognized as of outstanding 
importance the training of preachers, the training of 
teachers, and the training of physicians. 

The death of Dr. Win. Ashmore will be deeply 
mourned throughout the South China Mission. 

Suggestion of union with the Southern Baptists in 
theological work in the Hakka field and a possible 
union with the mission of the English Presbyterians at 
Chaochowfu in medical work were prominent among 
topics of discussion. 

In Central China the completion of the girls school 
building, the plan for union with the I^oudou Mission 



114 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

in a school for boys and union with the London and 
Wesleyan Missions in the work of a medical school are 
cheering signs of advance. 

Or. T. S. Barbour, the foreign secretary, visited 
the field this year. 

South China. Churches, 120; members, 3,194; 
added by baptism, 207. As in the preceding year, much 
care has been given to guidance of the movement among 
the native churches toward self-direction. In the Swatow 
field a council was held in December, at which the 
independence of the church at Khekkoi was recognized. 
This is the second church in this field the other being 
the church at Autheh on Natnoa Island to assume full 
responsibility for self-support and self-go vernrneiit under 
the leadership of the pastor. In other churches there 
is a similar spirit of self-reliance and aggressiveness 
without indication of desire for formal independence 

The several native associations are becoming more 
efficiently organized and are taking vigorous measures to 
carry forward the work of evangelization. Association 
meetings at Swatow, Ungkung, and Hopo are reported as 
being unusually interesting and profitable. The native 
missionary society of Kityang has assumed entire respon 
sibility for Weichow district, having called the pastor 
of the Kityang church to the oversight of this work. 
Two successful missionary conventions were held ; $546 
Mexican being raised for the Weichow work. A general 
convention of the Hoklo-speaking churches of South 
China was held at Kityang in the autumn. 

East Chi?ia. Churches, 25 ; members, 1,297 ; added 
by baptism, 116. The results of evangelistic work do 
not vary greatly from those of the preceding year ; the 
number of baptisms being almost exactly the same. 
Several missionaries report that the most serious hin 
drance is the scarcity of well-trained and consecrated 
workers. It is expected that the situation will be much 



EVANGELISTIC WORK. 115 

relieved when the men now studying in the seminary at 
Shanghai become available for active service. During 
the vacation period the students have given welcome aid 
in their respective fields. 

West China. Churches, 4; members, 460; added 
by baptism, 123. The year has been one of signal 
blessing in the work of this mission. The number 
received by baptism is nearly three-fold that reported 
last year. The church membership shows a gain of 
twenty-five per cent. All stations have participated in 
the ingathering, for which the missionaries give much 
credit to the faithful efforts of native workers. Among 
the twenty converts received at Suifn were eleven wom 
en, eight of whom are wives of Christian men and 
were brought to Christ through the influence of their 
husbands. The out-station work in this field still pre 
sents serious problems. The number of centres has 
been reduced to ten, with beneficial results in a more 
thorough and effective cultivation. 

Central China. Churches, 7 ; members, 471 ; added 
by baptism, 35. The year has been eventful in this 
mission, situated at the greatest centre in the interior of 
China. The conference held in connection with the visit 
of the foreign secretary resulted in the settlement of 
important questions related to the future development 
of the work. Two enterprises of great significance were 
under consideration. The first, the establishment of a 
union medical school for the training of Chinese physi 
cians under Christian auspices. Three societies having 
work at this centre the London Missionary Society, the 
Wesleyan Missionary Society and the Missionary Union 
have entered into cooperation for maintenance of such 
a school, taking as a foundation the medical school now 
conducted by the London Mission in Hankow. Each 
society is to maintain at least two medical men on the 
field, who shall be available as instructors and lecturers 



Il6 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

in the union institution. A second plan for union of 
effort relates to the long- recognized need for educational 
work of academic grade for boys. The possibility of 
cooperation with the London Mission, which has a 
flourishing school of this type in Hankow, is now being 
canvassed, with strong probability that an arrangement 
satisfactory to both missions can be effected. 



American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. 

Foochow Mission. Six stations 138 out-stations ; 7 
ordained missionaries ; 3 physicians i teacher ; 15 single 
women, of whom 3 are physicians 9 native preachers ; 
70 unordained preachers ; 130 teachers ; 65 Bible-women ; 
43 other native laborers ; 139 places of regular meeting; 
average attendance, 2,944 ; 77 organized churches ; 2,721 
communicants, 196 added by confession the past year; 
53 Sabbath schools; 1,937 pupils; i theological school 
and 5 pupils ; 2 colleges, with 57 students ; 8 boarding 
and high schools, with 539 students; 117 other schools, 
with 2,148 pupils; native contributions, $17,065. 

The Chinese Home Missionary Society at Shaowu, 
only two years old, has added another helper to its list, 
making 5 in all. 

South China Mission. (Hongkong and Canton). 
Two stations ; 42 out-stations ; 2 ordained missionaries, 
one a physician ; 2 single women. 

From Hongkong Dr. Hager reports that the year 
has been marked by many trying circumstances ; never 
theless the work has been continually enlarging. The 
most noteworthy of the hindrances under which the 
mission suffered were the great floods in October, 1908. 
The Sanhing district suffered most, for here no less 
than 1,000 lives were lost and over 10,000 houses fell to 
the ground. In Hoiping no lives were lost, but much 
property was destroyed. By way of relief for the 
sufferers both money and food were distributed, many 



EVANGELISTIC WORK. 117 

of the relief parties consisting wholly of Christians. No 
less than six chapels connected with the mission were 
injured, involving a cost for repairs of above $2,000. 
All this is regarded as indeed a great calamity. The 
people have endeavored to meet with exigencies, and not 
less than $6,000 silver have been raised to meet the 
pressing needs. 

One of the other hindrances that have stood in the 
way of the work in the country districts connected with 
Hongkong stations has been the prevalence of kidnapping. 
At one place no less than nine persons have been cap 
tured and demands made for a ransom of $30,000 silver. 
Of course where such social conditions prevail the work 
in the schools is interrupted, and it is said that many 
business men, through fear of brigandage, have removed 
their families to Hongkong, preferring to face the perils 
of plague rather than the perils of robbers. 

An important work is being done by an independent 
organization bearing the name of the China Congrega 
tional Society, which was organized in San Francisco 
in 1884, having Rev. Jee Gam, of San Francisco, as its 
president. This society seeks to do a work in the 
Kwangtung province, from which district most of tbe 
Chinese now in the United States have emigrated. Both 
Mr. Nelson and Dr. Hager have looked after this work, 
which now has 5 out-stations, with i pastor and 4 preach 
ers, 5 schools and a property estimated as worth 
$24,000 in silver. Last year the society expended about 
$1,800 silver for their work in Canton and the country. 

North China Mission. Seven stations ; 78 out- 
stations ; 17 ordained missionaries ; 3 physicians ; i other 
unordained man; 18 single women; total American 
missionaries, 59 ; 6 native pastors ; 64 other native preach 
ers ; 66 native teachers ; 34 Bible-women ; 20 other 
native laborers; 10 churches; 4,124 members, 328 re 
ceived on confession this year ; 102 places of stated 
preaching ; 19 Sunday Schools : 1,232 members. 



Il8 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

There has been a spiritual awakening in various 
parts of North China, notably in the Manchurian 
churches and in Shansi, tinder the leadership of Rev. 
Jonathan Goforth. Some of the results have been strik 
ing. Chinese evangelists have been called forth to this 
higher work by the Spirit 

The work at Peking was established in 1864. The 
population of the field is reckoned at 3,000,000. The 
missionaries in the station have the help of 3 ordained 
Chinese, 18 unordained preachers, and 9 Bible-women. 
There are also 18 Chinese teachers. In the 4 organized 
churches and 23 preaching places there were 1,169 com 
municants, 122 being added during the year 

The new era is marked in the country work at 
Tungchou by the addition of three men from the semi 
nary, who are now doing strong, aggressive work where 
only the fort could be held before. The 6 out-stations 
now have 72 members, only 8 of whom are survivors of 
the Boxer war. The number is now up to that of 1900. 
Another help to the country work was the addition of 
4 colporteurs supported by the American Bible Society. 
Only one was possible before. These colporteurs aim to 
visit all the market towns in the three counties regularly. 
The revival in the Central Church last year did not 
have all the effect the missionaries wished in quickening 
the evangelistic spirit of the members. Yet the sense of 
responsibility has been deepened and has already made the 
church work far easier than before. The church Sunday 
School, which is separate from the college Sunday School, 
has increased in membership from 60 to 140. A group 
of 29 church members at the East suburb has organized 
a "self-support society," but its future is not yet as 
sured. Two station classes of 26 and 14 men, respect 
ively, were held in the city last winter in addition to 
the three in the country. Another mark of the new era 
is the rise in the helpers salaries. It is hoped to make 
this up by economizing in incidental expenses or by 
putting such expenses on the shoulders of the natives. 



EVANGELISTIC WORK. 119 

Another year must see an increased income or the cut 
ting down of expenses by combining out-stations or dis 
missing helpers. 

The station at Kalgan occupies a strategic position, 
lying as it does at the doorway into Mongolia. Perhaps 
it has as large an opportunity as any station. There is 
growing up in Mongolia a new state. Chinese from far 
and near are pouring through the Great Wall by thou 
sands every year to take up this new land and turn it 
into rich farms. The railroad from Peking to Kalgan 
has now been completed, and the Chinese government 
has decided to continue it right through Mongolia to the 

Russian frontier In this field there are 2 licensed 

preachers and i Bible- woman ; 4 preaching places ; 240 
church members, 8 of whom were added during the 
year. The i boys boarding-school had last year 13 
pupils, and the i day school for boys 33 pupils. There 
have been 6 men in employ all the year and i woman 
using part of her time 

The church at Paotingfu has passed through a 
severe experience, which for a time seemed to threaten 
its unity and harmony. The clouds have now, how 
ever, rolled away and peace is restored. The special 
evangelistic services held by Mr. Goforth, of Honan, 
for six days, were well attended. There were many 
confessions and conversions ; the most unexpected 
manifestations being in the boys school. At the fol 
lowing Christmas meeting there were over 70 in the 
community who took one of the three steps towards 
entering the church ; the largest number in thirty-five 
years 

In the station of Pangchuang at Christmas time 
there was appointed a Poor Committee in the church to 
have general oversight of the needs of the poor in the 
parish. The total membership of the Pangchuang 
church was, at the end of the year, 892, with accessions 
during the year of 56, an increase of n over the additions 
for the previous year. Fully 450 are on the rolls as 



120 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

probationists. The parish is 3,200 square miles in area, 
and is touched in 20 different places where regular 
services are held. The Pangchuang field has 2 ordained 
preachers and 12 uiiordained. The total number of 

Chinese evangelists, men and women, was 30 

Notice should be taken of the work at Techou, which 
has seen the largest growth in the least time of any 
of the out-stations. This is an important centre for 
work. A rather remarkable growth in the work has 
occurred in the small village of Kechuaug. It seems 
quite within the range of possibility that the village 
should become Christian at a no very distant date. Of 
about 20 families there were baptized last fall 8 men, 
and 13 men and women were accepted on enrollment. 
The old defunct missionary society was reorganized 
during the year. A graduate of the mission college 
and seminary has been called to serve as missionary for 
the society. 

Shansi Mission. Two stations ; 9 out-stations ; 4 
ordained men, one a physician ; 2 unordained physicians ; 
3 single women ; total missionary force, 1412 organized 
churches and 17 places of regular meeting; (120 com 
municants, 24 added by confession of faith this year, for 
Taiku only) ; 750 adherents ; 14 unordained preachers ; 
15 teachers; 19 other native helpers; total native 
laborers, 53. 

The year has been one of great awakening through 
out the province, and this has not been without a reflex 
action upon the work. The political changes and 
the new reform movements, arousing the people to a 
political and social self -consciousness, have stirred the 
churches to a consciousness of their responsibility and 
their strength in a manner which is unmistakable. 

Two out-standing features of the work at Taiku 
are, first, the revival in and of the church in November, 
1908, and the weeks following ; and, secondly, the 
reorganization of the Taiku church as a direct outcome 



EVANGELISTIC WORK. 121 

of the revival. The church had never been fully 
reorganized since the catastrophe of 1900. 

At Fenchowfu the several departments of the church s 
life have been put upon a more solid basis, with the 
Christian Endeavor Society reorganized and enlarged so 
that it continues to prove the most effective agency in 
the training of men in self-confidence and in the ability 
to express themselves before an audience. Two Sunday 
Schools have been organized, with an enrollment of 
168 There has been through the year an in 
creasing demand from outsiders for Christian literature. 

Perhaps the most encouraging single feature of 

the year is the hold that the church has gained upon 
the government schools of the city. 



The American Presbyterian Mission, North. 

Missions in China: (i) Central China Mission, (2) 
Hainan Mission, (3) Hunan Mission, (4) Kiangan 
Mission, (5) North China Mission, (6) East Shantung 
Mission, (7) West Shantung Mission, (8) South China 
Mission, 

At the Federation Meeting in Shantung a year ago 
attention was called to the fact that there were Chinese 
Christians from many quarters in Vladivostock for whom 
there was no church provision. The Rev. George Corn- 
well, of our East Shantung Mission, and Elder Hiei Pao- 
kie went to Vladivostock to investigate and found quite 
a nucleus of believers... One of our pastors, Hwang Ping- 
fu, who has been for ten years in charge of one church, 
contemplates going to Vladivostock on this mission, 
though definite plans have not yet been completed. 
Another interesting fact is the organization of a mission 
ary society by the Chinese Presbyterians of Shantung 
province. They hope to send an evangelist to an unoc 
cupied place in Chihli province, and they are manifesting 
considerable interest in this project. 



122 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Central China Mission. Ningpo, Shanghai, Hang- 
chow, and Soochow. 

The most important problem of policy before the 
Mission during the year has been the reorganization of 
its educational work. The resources available were not 
sufficient to support all the institutions of the Mission 
adequately, and new conditions of transportation and co 
operation among missions seemed to make it unnecessary 
to maintain high schools at all the stations. It was 
accordingly decided to consolidate the Boys School at 
Soochow and Ningpo with the Hangchow Christian 
College and to pursue the same course with the Cowrie 
High School at the South Gate, Shanghai, unless the 
alumni of the school were prepared to take over its 
support. The Southern Presbyterians contemplated 
joining in the support of the Hangchow College, and 
it was agreed to unite also the Girls Schools of the 
Mission in Hangchow and to readjust also the Girls 
Schools in Shanghai and Niugpo. 

At Ningpo the corps of native workers has suffered 
still greater decrease ; one native pastor having been 
deposed from the ministry for carrying on lawsuits 
in the name of the church ; and another, having been 
found untrustworthy and deceptive, was asked to re 
sign. There is no greater need than the need of strong 
native men to care for the ten churches of the Ningpo 
field. 

In the I/Dwrie High School at Shanghai practically 
all the education in Chinese letters is to-day supported 
by the money from former pupils. Rumors from our 
Fall Mission meeting reached the alumni and made them 
uneasy about the future of the school. They feared a 
removal and were much dissatisfied. Finally at a con 
ference between a committee appointed by the Mission 
and a committee from the Old Students Association, the 
latter outlined plans looking towards the Association 
taking over still larger financial burdens and planning to 
raise the scholarship of the school, asking from the 



EVANGELISTIC WORK. 123 

Mission only that the services and counsel of one foreigner 
be continued. 

In Hangcfiow College during the two semesters 157 
students have been enrolled ; the highest attendance 
being 136 and the average attendance about 125. Of 
the whole number eighty-two were either Christians or 
the children of Christian parents and seventy-five from 
non-Christian homes. Several of these latter are appli 
cants for baptism. A notable feature in the years work 
was the graduating of eleven students from the college 
in January. This was the largest class that ever 

graduated in the history of the college 

Encouraging progress has been made toward the removal 
of the college to the beautiful new site acquired on 
Hangchow Bay. Over $15,000 has already been received, 
and nearly $20,000 more has been pledged. 

Hainan Mission. Kiungchow, Nodoa, and Kachek. 

The Mission reports that, in spite of plague in one 
Station and cholera in another, the missionaries have been 
unusually well during the past year, and that there has 
been advance along all lines of work. There have been 
more catechumens and more converts than ever before and 
more boys and girls applying for admission to the schools. 

In the evangelistic work at Kiungchow there has 
been a steady growth of interest among the Christians. 
This has been manifested in the desire on the part of 
some to guard against the admission to membership of 

those whose fitness is in doubt On October 6 the 

island was visited by a typhoon, and the hospital, in 
common with the whole city of Hoihow, was inundated 
from the sea. The swollen river, the high tide, and the 
wind backing up the water in the river, made the water 
in the hospital premises about four feet deep. Consider 
able damage was done to the interior of the hospital. 
Two of the roofs were damaged, and the enclosing stone 
wall in front of the Mission property was broken down 
by the violence of the surf. 



124 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

In the Boys Boarding-school at Nodoa there has 
been an enrollment of eighty-eight boys, representing 
five of the languages of this polyglot region. Most of 
the teaching in the Middle School has been done in 
Mandarin. 

Hunan Mission. Siangtan, Hengchow, Chenchow, 
Changteh. 

The Hunan Mission was founded in 1899, and is 
therefore but ten years old. During this period the 
work has expanded to such an extent that there are 
now upwards of thirty missionaries in its four stations. 
The work extends from Chenchow on the extreme south 
of the province to Siangtan and Changteh on the north. 
During the past year the Mission has been severely tested 
and the shadows have fallen darkly upon it. 

In March Dr. Arthur H. Smith visited Siangtan, 
giving two delightful addresses in the church. 

Three country itinerating circuits (situated south 
ward, northward, and westward from the city of Heng 
chow) consist of seven or eight principal preaching 
places to each circuit. An evangelist who resides in his 
field is in charge of each circuit, of which he makes a 
complete tour monthly, visiting the same towns on the 
same days of each month. The missionary also visits 
each of these circuits regularly. 

Chenchow Station is essentially an itinerating field, 
and presents a large opportunity for pioneering. In six 
counties our missionaries are the only representatives of 
the Gospel. In two more comities adjacent no Christian 
work is done at all. 

Kiangan Mission. Nanking and Hwaiyueu. 

In Nanking there have been four street chapels ; 
some crowded in fair weather and others working with 
less interest. 

At the out-station Lihshui one inquirer was so 
persecuted by his father and elder brother that they put 



EVANGELISTIC WORK. 125 

a rope around his neck and nearly choked him to death, 
and then threatened to bury him alive, but he remained 
true, and the officers of the church effected a settlement 
and reconciliation. 

During the year Hwaiyuen Station organized what 
is believed to be the first Christian church in North 

Anhvvei with a membership of over sixty 

Both Father Rouxel and the Father at Fengyangfu 
have been very friendly. We have exchanged calls 
several times, and have been able to be of some mutual 
service to one another. During Mrs. lyobenstine s 
illness they were most kindin sending some things for 
her they felt might be of use and in the deep sympathy 
they showed in her suffering. We shall do our best to 
work together as those under the standards of one great 
Captain and to keep peace between those who follow us 
and those who follow with them. That this will not be 
easy, every one familiar with the work in China knows, 
but we shall do our best to avoid friction, and if causes 
of friction do arise to settle them out of court by corre 
spondence or conference with the Fathers themselves. 

North China Mission. Peking, Paotingfu, and 
Shuntefu. 

At Peking the meetings in April, conducted by Mr. 
Goforth, of the Canadian Presbyterian Mission in 
Honan, were of great benefit, deepening the spiritual 
life of our people and giving a greater desire for the 

salvation of souls A bookstore has been 

opened by the chapel for the sale of Christian and 
educational books. It is the only store of this kind in 
the whole north city. It is managed by Chinese and is 
quite an attraction for the chapel services. The 
managers spend their leisure time in teaching such 
inquirers for the truth as may come in to listen 

There is an important though difficult field at Ch ing- 
he, which is near the barracks of the northern division of 
the Imperial army. On Sundays the soldiers are off 



126 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

duty and come to the chapel in great numbers ; many to 
scoff and make trouble, but there are a few faithful 
Christians among them. The commanding officer is 
strongly in sjiiipathy with our work there. This 
mission is carried on entirely by Chinese without foreign 
help 

A new departure in union work was tried this year. 
Four out of the five missions working in and around 
Peking united in giving the customary month s instruc 
tion to their colporteurs. Eighty-six men assembled at 
the Union Theological Seminary compound. They were 
divided into two classes. *The "freshmen" numbered 
sixty-seven earnest, hungry men. 

Two of the Chinese helpers at Paotingju have been 
particularly useful. One, Mr. T sui, in addition to con 
siderable country w r ork, conducts a weekly personal 
Workers Band. The other helper, Mr. Li Pen-ken, 
our one elder, was loaned to Manchuria to follow Mr. 
Goforth s revival services there. He did this most 
acceptably. The Manchurian missionaries wrote of him 
that " he was the choice man of all China for the special 

work that was needed." The third Annual Rally 

was lield in November. It was the best one of all. 
The special theme was " Seeing the Face of Jesus," and 
our special hymn the well-known " Glory Song." 
From far and near the church members came. Kight 
men and six v/omen came from Kuaugch ang, ninety 
miles away, and although some of their poor feet were 
frozen on their long tramp home, they still felt it worth 
while. Mr. Killie said to the poor old grandmother 
who had suffered most : " You will never want to make 
that tramp again, I fear." " No matter what others 
do, God willing, I will walk again next year," w 7 as her 
brave reply. A large map, pointing out the great field 
for which we as a church are responsible, had a great 
effect upon the people. It was constantly alluded to, 
and underneath were the words, " The salvation of this 
territory depends on you and me." Many men who 



EVANGELISTIC WORK. 127 

had not a great deal of money pledged time, a month, 
or a week, or so many market days, to go to some other 
place and tell what they knew. 

Concerning the work in the east field at Shuntefu, 
brother rises against brother and friend against friend, 
the disputants as a preliminary precaution assuming a 
fervent interest in the Gospel, that in the day of judg 
ment the teacher s favor may fall on their side. Mothers 
and wives importune aid for the sons and brothers who, 
according to, their version, have been imprisoned for 
righteousness sake. The most promising inquirer has 
been practically convicted of being a thief, and another, 
asking for financial aid, sits down on the walk, opens 
his Bible and devoutly reads, that he who passes may 
observe his piety. Since the founding of the Station 
these people have not ceased to importune aid in law 
suits, nor to offer their allegiance to the church in 
exchange for the foreigner s aid in their time of need. 
These things, however, simply prove anew the need of 
missionary work. 

East Shantung Mission. Tengchow, Chefoo, and 
Tsingtau. 

At Tenqchow in the museum and street chapel on 
the main city street the attendance reported for the year 

is 12,575 In 1894 there were but 285 members 

in connection with all the Tengchow work, including 
the three churches in Pingtu. Now we have a member 
ship of 783, exclusive of the three Pingtu churches, 
which a few years ago with 195 members and eleven 
schools were all transferred to Tsingtau Station. Many 
college students and others were also transferred to Wei- 
hsien and elsewhere. During these fourteen years 
i , 107 members have been added on confession of faith. 
This year we received 130, and since the Boxer upris 
ing 647. 

At Chefoo seventy thousand people attended the 
street chapel and museum during the year. At the 



128 CHINA MISSION YKAR ROOK. 

Chinese Xe\v Year there were special days for women 

and children, on whichever 5,000 visitors attended 

Special union evangelistic services were held in Chefoo 
during the Chinese New Year season, at which there 
are special opportunities for reaching the people. Dr. 
Corbett, Mr. Corn well and Pastor Wang, of our church, 
together with bands of preachers and local native Chris 
tians, carried on an evangelistic campaign in the country 
districts within a radius of 100 miles from Chefoo. Two 
thousand six hundred villages were reached in this way 
and many thousands heard the Gospel message. Every 
where the people were friendly and listened with in 
terest. An effort was also made to reach the coolies 
returning from South Africa. 

West Shantung i\ fission. Weihsien, Tsinanfu, I- 
chowfu, Tsingchow, and Yihsien. 

At Weihsien Station a total of 751 days has been 
spent in itinerating. Campaigns have been carried on 
in a number of places. Mr. Mateer, with a band of 
helpers, spent fifty days last fall in meetings of this 
kind 

In the field of primary education the schools have 
been increasing in number and in attendance. There are 
now 760 pupils in fifty-five schools. The relative help 
these schools receive from the Board has diminished 
from two-thirds to less than two-fifths. This is a fine 
showing. The Union Normal School at Tsingchowfu 
is furnishing an increasing number of well-qualified 
teachers, and they are improving the quality of work 
done in the schools. 

In Tsinanfu Station, while some have gone astray 
in the postal service, there are more than a dozen of 
our members in honorable government employ, either 
in the post office or in educational or in medical work, 
who reflect credit upon the church. Two of them act 
as superintendent and assistant superintendent of our 
Sunday School The year in the street chapel 



EVANGELISTIC WOKK. 129 

has been the best ever recorded in Tsinan. Large and 
attentive audiences have assembled evening after evening 

all the year The Union with the English Baptist 

Mission in street-chapel work still continues. 

In connection with the medical work in Yihsien 
Station two classes that come are very pitiable inoperable 
cancer and leprosy. Multitudes afflicted with the latter 
disease live northwest of us, and it is hoped in the near 
future that a special ward may be provided for these 
unfortunates. 

South China Mission. Canton, Linchow, Yeung- 
kong, and Sheklung. 

Our field at Canton has been reduced during the 
year. The Sanui district, formerly in the bounds of 
this Station, has now been transferred to the Canadian 
Presbyterian Mission. 

To the Christians in Yeungkong Station has come 
the opportunity to show faithfulness under testing. Two 
Christians have been murdered by robbers, seven mem 
bers of Christian families carried away and held for 
ransom, while the wife of another is still in the hands of 
pirates. People in general are beginning to understand 
that the church offers its members no assistance in 
worldly matters. 

Southern Baptist Convention. 

North China. Tengchow, Hwanghien, Piugtu, Lai- 
chowfu, and Chefoo. 

There was a revival of great power in the church 
at Tengchow that raised every department of the work 
to a higher plane. The church services in the city and 
country were largely attended and spiritual. The con 
tributions of the church \vere much larger than before. 
They gave nearly a third of the salaries of the six 
evangelists. But in the fall there was an epidemic of 
lagrippe and meningitis, followed by bubonic plague, 



130 CHINA MISSION YKAR BOOK. 

which greatly hindered the work for the remainder of 
the year. 

The doors of Manchuria have been closed to us, it 
seemed, until the summer of 1908, when the Lord stirred 
up Brother Peyton Stephens to make another attempt 
in behalf of our North China Mission. In the summer, 
with two evangelists, he made the first trip to look out 
the land, and, following the line of railway, the} preached 
the good news as far as Harbin. 

Central China. Shanghai, Soochow, Chinkiang, and 
Yangchow. 

The year 1907 is made memorable by the visit of 
Dr. and Mrs. Willingham. Never before in the history 
of the Southern Baptist Convention has a secretary of 
the Foreign Mission Board seen with his own eyes the 
vast field in which we are laboring and come face 
to face with the multitudes we are trying to save. 

Our strongest church is, of course, the Old North 
Gate Church, established by Dr. Yates. It is largely 
directed by a group of earnest young men and Pastor 
\Vu. These young men have also supported and con 
ducted a school in connection with one of the chapels 
and have held a large number of evangelistic services. 
During the summer they conducted a series of special 
meetings running through several weeks, in which much 
faithful and effective preaching was done. The Can 
tonese church is a specially encouraging part of our 
Shanghai work. 

Brother McCrea is trying to open work in Chang- 
chowfu, a large prefectural city just half way between 
Chinkiang and Soochow. He says of this place: "It 
is on the Grand Canal and its occupation will close up 
the last gap between the eastern and the western section 
of our Mission and will complete the famous Yates 
triangle which is mentioned in his biography and 
which he wished to occupy over thirty years ago. 
This has not yet been done through lack of workers. 



EVANGELISTIC WORK. 131 

During the first half of the year all our missionaries 
in the Mandarin-speaking district gave a large part of 
their time to the sufferers from the great famine in 
Kiangpei which raged throughout the winter. More 
of this work fell on Brother McCrea than upon any 
other member of the Mission. vSome idea of it may 
be gained from his brief account. " As treasurer of 
our missionary committee, I received nearly half a 
million dollars in silver. The correspondence connected 
with my office was very heavy and took nearly all my 
time. In addition to this money, Dr. Klopsch, of the 
Christian Herald, sent our committee a cargo of 80,000 
fifty-pound bags of flour. And the Shanghai relief 
committee received nearly a million silver dollars, which 
they mostly converted into food in Shanghai and sent 
up to the missionaries on the famine field for distri 
bution. It is estimated that, although hundreds of 
thousands died, probably totaling a million, the foreign 
relief saved nearly a million from starvation." 

Interior Mission. Chenchow, Honan. 

It is gratifying to note that there are many indica 
tions that the missionaries of the Board and of the 
Gospel Mission are growing closer together on the field. 
In compliance with a promise made many months ago, 
Mr. Herring made a trip during the fall to Pochow, 
Auhwei, to help Mr. Wade Bostick, of the Gospel 
Mission, in some special meetings. On this trip he 
passed through six walled cities, all but two of which 
were unoccupied 

The visit of Dr. Willingham encouraged us to plan 
for an advance. In line with his suggestion we decided 
to investigate the advisability of opening work in Kai- 
feng at once. This city is the provincial capital, and 
is about fifty miles by rail direct east of Chenchow. 
It is not only the capital, but is the largest and by far 
the most influential city in the province. , . . After two 
visits to Kaifetig and a study of the situation, the 



132 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Mission has decided to open work there immediately, 
and Mr. and Mrs. Sallee have been appointed upon their 
own motion to begin the work. 

South China. Canton, Yingtak, Wuchow, and Shiu- 
hing. 

During the past year protracted meetings have been 
held that have made our hearts leap with joy, and that 
have made some of us wonder for the moment whether 
we were in a strange land or in the home land, and 
sometimes we have had a foretaste of the Better Land. 
In some of these meetings the preaching has been done 
wholly by the Chinese brethren ; notable examples being 
a week s services at Wuchow by Pastor Fung, of Canton, 
and meetings held at various places especially for the 
Christians by Secretary Cheung, of the Home Mission 
Board. The Holy Spirit is raising up great preachers 
in China great preachers, great churches, great institu 
tions 

The twenty-third annual meeting of the Baptist 
Association of the "Two Kwongs," that is, of the 
churches connected with, or neighbors to, our work, was 
held at Canton. There were 148 regularly accredited 
messengers from nineteen churches in Kwongtung and 
Kwougsai provinces. . . . One of the features of the 
work this year was the raising of a special subscription 
for getting out a Baptist edition of the Cantonese Col 
loquial New Testament. The Home Mission Board, the 
first child of the association, has done three years of 
good work, now supporting its own corresponding sec 
retary and the work of three stations. . . . 

For several years a work has been carried on at Pak- 
hop by Brother Wong Sang-cheung, familiarly known 
as " Deacon Wong." This name was given to this truly 
good man by Dr A. J. Gordon, who baptized him into 
the fellowship of the Clarendon Street Church, Boston. 
Mention is made of him in the published life of Dr. 
Gordon. Wong is supported by friends in Boston 



F.VANGKLISTIC WORK. 133 

The first three applicants have been accepted for 
the orphanage which Mrs. Chambers and others are 
starting, and which was heartily endorsed by the meeting 
of the Association at Wuchow, when $400 was subscribed 
for the inauguration of this noble enterprise. This is 
not a part of the work of the Board, but, like many 
enterprises, is supported by the contributions of in 
dividuals, Chinese and foreigners. 



American Protestant Episcopal. 

Shanghai District. Shanghai, Sinza, Kongwan, 
Santingko, Kiading, Soochow, Tsingpoo, Woosung, 
Wusih, Zangzok, Sungkiang, and Yangchow. (Stations 
and out-stations.) 

The missionary district of Shanghai has had a most 
successful year in all departments of its work evangel 
ical, educational and medical. Chief among the events 
that have made the year a notable one was the Confer 
ence of the Anglican Communion in China, held in St. 
John s University, March 2yth to April 4th, 1909. At 
tending that Conference were eight bishops, fifteen for 
eign clergy and fifteen Chinese laymen. The business 
of the Conference was centered in the reports of the 
eleven committees appointed in 1907, and of these, the 
most important one was that of the Committee on Organ 
ization of a Synod. After due deliberation, a preamble, 
constitution, and canons were finally adopted and ordered 
to be translated into Chinese, transmitted to the several 
diocesan synods for deliberation, and again discussed 
at the next Conference. If adopted, then, in all prob 
ability the Conference will dissolve and the first general 
synod of the church in China will be immediately con 
vened. In the meantime the English form, already 
adopted, will be sent to the home churches for considera 
tion, with the expectation that it will be approved. . . . 

It is impossible that this happy result should have 
been attained at this time if the long standing differences 



134 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

upon the point of episcopal jurisdiction which have been 
debated since the episcopate of the first Bishop Boone 
had not been happily settled by the concordat signed at 
Lambeth in July, 1908, by the Bishop of Chekiang and 
the Bishops of Shanghai and Hankow, and approved 
by the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Presiding 
Bishop. This agreement came into effect on January ist, 
and has worked perfectly. 

The annual meeting of the Men s Auxiliary is an 
other note of interest. This is an organization whose 
members are pledged to use their best efforts for the exten 
sion of the church among their countrymen. The meeting 
was attended by 150 laymen. This body is becoming a 
self-propagating body, for it supports a catechist, and its 
gifts for this purpose were $130 larger than ever before. 

Hankow District. Hankow, Wuchang, Shasi, I- 
chang, Hanch uan, Kiukiang, Wuhu, Ankiug, and 
Changsha. (Stations and out-stations.) 

The chief events in the missionary district of 
Hankow during the past year are the ordination of seven 
Chinese deacons ; the licensing of four catechists and 
four Bible-women after completing their courses in the 
training-schools ; the completion of the new All Saints 
Catechetical School building at Hankow ; the taking over 
bodily of the work of the American Lutheran Mission in 
Hankow, consisting of Christians, catechumens, school 
for boys and girls, a church, house for workers, and a 
preaching-hall ; the purchase of long desired land and 
buildings for the women s hospital at Wuchang ; the 
securing of premises, also much desired, for the school 
for the wives and daughters of mandarins in Wuchang ; 
the gift of $10,000 for a boys school building at An- 
king, and the completion of the Old Woman s Home 
and the Girls Industrial School building at St. Saviour s, 
Wuchang. . . . 

The evangelistic work in the missionary district 
of Hankow includes four provinces Hupeh, Kiangsi, 



EVANGELISTIC WORK. 135 

Nganwhei, and Hunan, and comprise an area of 118,441 
square iniles, populated by over 50,000,000 people. 

Scattered throughout this great area Bishop Roots 
has forty-six different stations where the church s 
services are regularly established, with fifteen church 
buildings and thirty-one chapels, in charge of fifteen 
foreign and twenty-one native clergymen, assisted by 
twenty Bible-women, 124 teachers and forty-five cate- 
chists. There are 1,287 communicants. 

The staff at Anking was in very imminent peril, 
owing to the mutiny which broke out among the troops 
on November i9th, and the ladies were obliged to leave 
the city for two weeks, but the men remained through 
out the trouble, and that the mutiny was purely local and 
temporary is shown by the fact that both the boys and 
girls schools there were able to take up their work again 
within a few weeks, and that they ultimately lost none of 
their pupils through this very ominous disturbance. . . . 

On May iSth Boone was incorporated as a univer 
sity, thus securing the right to grant degrees, which 
will enable it to hold to the end of their course many 
students who would otherwise go to institutions where 
their work would be given such recognition, or who 
would drop out altogether for the lack of this incentive 
to complete a thorough course. It is a satisfaction to 
note that Boone Medical School was able to begin its 
work again, and that eleven of our best students have 
formally agreed to finish the medical course of five years, 
with one year additional for hospital and post-graduate 
work. 



Canadian Methodist Mission. 

Central Szechwan (districts of Chengtu, Jenshow, 
Junghsieu, Kiating, Tzeliutsiug and Weiyuau, and L,u- 
chow). 

In common with mau)^ other Mission Boards, a 
more aggressive policy for reinforcements has been fol- 



136 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

lowed in the last three years, with the result that we 
now have a force of forty-four missionaries, of whom ten 
are devoting themselves to evangelistic work, six to 
educational work, five to medical work, three to press 
work, and the balance, numbering twenty, are still stu 
dents of the native language 

Rev. T. K. Egerton Shore, the assistant secretary 
of Foreign Missions, during a year s missionary tour of 
the world, was able to spend over five months in China, 
more than two months of which were spent visiting 
stations and out-stations of our own Mission field 

It is accepted among the seven churches that have 
missions in West China, that the Canadian Church is 
responsible for the largest share of that work. Realizing 
this responsibility, our Mission Council of West China 
last year delegated to certain members of the Council 
the responsibility of investigating conditions within 
other parts of West China, where it was understood that 
little or no missionary work was being done. As a 
result the Mission looks to opening work in Yunnan and 
Kweichow 

There has since come to our Mission Board from 
the official authorities of the London Missionary Society, 
England, an offer to transfer to our church and Mission 
the work and territory which they have been operating 
in a very limited way for the past twenty years in the 
south-west portion of the province of Szechwan, almost 
adjacent to our present Mission field. (Since consum 
mated.) .... 

The amount of effort put forth in the number of 
members received, in the number of workers, both native 
and foreign, on the field this year, far surpasses all 
previous records. But, even more, it has been a year 
fraught with rich conceptions of new responsibilities and 
the self-consciousness of a new force within the Mission 
itself. For this reason the most significant event of 
the year was the First General Convention of our West 
China Mission, held in Kiating, in July, 1908 



KVANGEUSTIC WORK. 137 

There, at our first Convention, were one hundred 
splendid men and women, representing seventy different 
places of worship, and not less than one thousand five 
hundred church people. 

There has come to our Mission in West China a 
Pentecostal revival, with similar manifestations to those 
recently experienced in Korea, Manchuria, and Honan. 

Methodist Episcopal Churchy South. 

Shanghai District. Our pastors are giving them 
selves more unreservedly to the service and work of the 
church and are giving up the practice of interfering in 
matters outside the province of the church, a practice 
which has prevailed more or less in most of the charges, 
and which has greatly hindered the progress of Chris 
tianity 

It is a well known, but nevertheless a sad fact, that 
our church in China has not been a Sabbath-observing 
church, and that the majority of our members engage 
in secular pursuits on Sunday the same as on other days. 
This year presiding elder and pastors have earnestly 
striven to arouse the consciences of our members on this 
subject, and the Spirit has blessed our efforts to such an 
extent that some of the many are now "remembering 
the Sabbath day to keep it holy," and here and there in 
the cities and villages may be seen stores and shops 
with their doors closed and with the sign hung up : 
11 To-day is worship day, to-morrow business will be 
resumed as usual." 

Huchow District. The past year has been an era of 
church building in the Huchow district, and our hope 
is that within the near future at least fifty more churches 
may be built by the native Christians. 

Four pieces ot laud have been donated in various 
parts of the district on which to erect churches. The 
Chinese are awakening to the financial needs of the 



138 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

church, and, considering ability, are contributing liber 
ally to its support. This is apparent when we consider 
that they are now contributing nearly as much to the 
work per year as is apportioned to the Huchow district 
in the division of the bulk sum sent out by the Board of 

Missions 

The district, now containing about fifty preaching 
places and embracing some three million souls, was 
organized in 1901 from one circuit with 184 members 
and has grown into five circuits with a membership of 
1,016. At that time the value of the property owned 
by the native church was $952 ; it is now $6,359. In 
the matter of self-support there has been an increase of 
more than 600 per cent. The number of local preachers 
has increased from three to sixteen and exhorters from 
four to thirty-seven. 

Woman s Foreign Missionary Society of the M. E. Church. 
North China. Peking, Tientsin, Ch angli, Taianfu. 

Four girls from the Fukien province have entered 
the school, preparing to take up the study of nursing or 
medicine, and these must of necessity be taught the Man 
darin dialect. The former noisy method of study has 
passed away, and now the halls and school rooms are so 
quiet that one almost wonders that 250 girls are at work 
there. A revival wave passed over the school in early 
spring. This began with a week of daily meetings, led 
by Mr. Goforth, of the Canadian Presbyterian Mission, 
and was continued for another week by Drs. Pyke and 
Hobart. 

Central China. Chinkiang, Nanking, Wuhu, 
Kiukiang, Nanchang. 

A great revival has visited Central China, in which 
all the various missions have shared. Nanking, as being 
the most central, was the place chosen for the meetings, 
while Wuhu, Chiukiang, and many smaller stations sent 



EVANGELISTIC WORK. 139 

their workers and as many Christians as would go. 
The Rev. Mr. Goforth, of the Canadian Presbyterian 
Mission, who has been leading revival services in other 
parts of the empire, was secured for a ten days stay in 
the latter part of February. A tent holding sixteen 
hundred people was put up. Daily meetings were held, 
both morning and afternoon, and much prayer was made 
in many smaller gatherings. A spirit of confession came 
upon the people, so that hundreds definitely repented. 

The Nanking School, in obedience to its commision 
to develop the Woman s College for Central China, has 
begun to enlarge its borders. 

From the Rulison Fish Memorial School at Kiu- 
kiang, Miss Merrrill writes: "However, the keenest 
interest centers in the spiritual growth of the pupils. 
A most gracious revival has visited the school. Girls 
who had not spoken to each other for weeks or 
months confessed their faults and renewed their friend 
ship at the altar. I v ike incidents were to be noted 
among the women in the Woman s School and among 
the young men in William Nast College. 

West China. Chungking, Cheutu, Tzechow. 

The school at Chentu will ultimately be affiliated 
with the Union Christian University, composed of a 
union of the three mission schools represented in 
Cheutu. 

Foochow. Foochow, Mingchiang, Ngucheug, and 
Hohchiang, Haitaug, Kucheng and Kude, Yenping. 

The school at Foochow began with eight girls. 
They were given clothing, tuition, and books, and were 
fed. Seven of the original eight came from the peasant 
class. They were all daughters-in-law. Of this class 
only three remained to finish the five years course. 
Since that time the course has been extended to cover 
a period of eleven years. The Bible, catechism, and 
colloquial books were the only text-books in the early 



140 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK = 

days. The four Gospels, Genesis, and Isaiah were 
recited entire. Later on the elementary sciences were 
added along with the Bible. Turn from the history of 
these early days to the compiled report for the fifty years 
of its history. The present enrollment is 191 students. 
The income this last year from tuition was $100 in gold. 

The income from boarders, $250 

The first graduates were in 1888. Since that time 
117 girls have received their much-prized diplomas. Of 
this number twenty-three are working as preachers 
wives, five have gone to the United States for higher 
training, four have positions in the kindergarten, forty 
are teachers in the Mission schools, five have positions 
in the government schools ; five only have been 
failures. 

Hinghwa. Hinghwa, Siengiu, Tekhoe. 

The report of the work in the Hinghwa Conference 
must be given with a higher note of joy and gratitude 
than ever before in its history, because of the marvellous 
revival that has swept through its territory. Strange 
scenes of God s convicting and cleansing power have 
been witnessed in assemblies of thousands in our central 
stations, until all the native churches seem alive to the 
true meaning of redemption. 

English Baptist Missionary Society. 

In Shantung, Shansi, and Shensi there has been 
much heart-searching prayer. The revival in Shansi is 
most encouraging as a clear evidence that the Holy 
Spirit is working among the Christians of China, . . . 
Mention has been made of the decision to open work in 
several new stations this year. We are only limited by 
our resources in men, The Arthington Committee have 
sanctioned the expenditure for a station in N. W. Shan 
si, but until we have more men we cannot open it. 
Yenanfu, Suitechow, and Yuliufu, in the province of 



EVANGELISTIC WORK. 14! 

Shensi will, we trust, be manned this year. We want 
to see also Wenshui, Taichow, and Hopaoyiug occupied 
in Shansi. 

Shantung. At Tsinanfu the Arthington Museum 
is being enlarged and a Soldiers Institute and a new 
church erected besides, The Medical College and 
Hospital is now being raised at Tsinanfu, and will 
constitute a fine addition to the plant available for 
Christian education in China. 

At Tsingchowf u considerable additions to the Gotch- 
Robinson College are being made, which will enable us 
to secure the use of a larger place of worship for the 
city, new residences for tutors, and accommodation for 
more students. 

All these new buildings, except the Tsingchowfu 
Hospital, are the gift of the Arthington Trust. 

During Rev. D. Smith s tours he has frequently 
visited the Chinese schools, holding conversations with 
their teachers and leaving suitable literature. 

Shansi. The work iu the capital city of the prov 
ince, Taiyuanfu, has been of an encouraging nature, 
quite apart from the remarkable revival of the autumn. 
"It is quite the best year we have ever had," writes 
the Rev. Arthur Sowerby, "and the events of the 
autumn have gone beyond anything in my previous ex 
perience. Many of the Christians now are showing 
much zeal, and are working in a way they have never 
worked before." 

"The crowning mercy of the year has been the 
wonderful outpouring of the Spirit. Among the results 
of this blessed revival we have now a Preachers Band, 
and every Sunday seven places, not far removed from 
the city, are visited. 

Here in Taiyuanfu we occupy a unique position, 
for the way to victory has been purchased by the blood 
of our martyrs. The old enmity has almost entirely 



142 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

disappeared, and every Sunday finds us with a large 
congregation." 

"The little museum, too, at Shouyang, opened in 
what was once the dining-room of Mr. Piggott s house, 
attracted in the first few weeks over a thousand men, all 
of whom first listened to a Gospel address." 

Shensi. At Sianfu last year we announced the 
baptism of the one-thousandth member during the visit of 
the Home Deputation ; the total membership is now 1,060, 
including forty-six baptisms in 1908. The only unsatis 
factory feature of the year s work was a sudden develop 
ment of litigation between some of the members, who al 
lowed business relations to interfere with spiritual claims, 
but the case has been taken out of court, and there are 
signs that the trouble will be happily overruled for good. 

The printing press, for the first part of the year 
under Mr. Bell, and later under Mr. Watson, has been 
kept busy ; latterly in preparing a new booklet for the 
church and preachers plans for city and country stations. 

Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society. 

Canton. In this time of distress from floods relief 
measures were organised by the Chinese. That the 
Christians were invited to cooperate on their committees, 
and even chosen for the most responsible tasks, was a 
gratifying testimony to the respect which Christianity 
has obtained from those without its fold. 

Every circuit reports an increased membership, and 
everywhere it seems to be easier to get congregations of 
non-Christians than ever before. The appetite of the 
Chinese for tracts sold, not given seems to grow 
stronger and stronger. At the same time the increases 
in membership are generally small. 

A notable instance of anxiety for heathen relations 
and neighbours is found in the case of Mr. Kwaan at 
Chikhom. 



EVANGELISTIC WORK. 143 

Converted in the Methodist church in Vancouver 
he felt he could have no peace until he returned to his 
own laud to preach the Gospel. Returning- to China he 
preached incessantly until his savings were exhausted, 
and then planned to cross the Pacific again to earn more. 
The missionary in charge of Chikhom was anxious not 
to lose such a helper and entreated him to become a 
catechist. He consented to do so at one-eighth the 
salary he could command in Canada. 

Wuchang. They were days of a wonderful and 
unprecedented outpouring of the Spirit of God. There 
was no excitement, no questionable methods ; the whole 
movement was manifestly of the Spirit of God. The 
church was packed as never before, and practically all 
the worshippers were already professing Christians. 
Much time was given to prayer. 

The outstanding feature was the way the Spirit 
worked in the hearts of all, convicting them of sin. 

Hunan. The spiritual state of the churches is of 
much deeper interest than the property. The signs of 
spiritual power noted in one Changsha church a year 
ago have increased, and there is now very definite 
expectation and prayer for a revival. At Liuyang and 
Siangyin there is decided improvement ; while at L,in- 
tzuk ou it is a source of deep thankfulness to find that 
at last a move has been made. The Pingkiang and 
Yiyang circuits continue to prosper ; Mr. Warren reports 
that it is a real joy to visit any of the churches in these 
two counties. Paoking and Yungchowfu passed through 
very trying circumstances. Chenchow shows a marked 
advance in the city itself, while its new out-station at 
Ichang is the most cheering piece of work in the district 
doubly cheering, for it shows that in South Hunan, as 
in the North, when the Gospel is not hindered by 
unconverted men claiming to be Christians, its progress 
is assured. 



144 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

The conference of church workers for Bible study at 
Changsha was attended by over one hundred preachers 
and leaders connected with eleven different denominations 
and coining from eleven different cities or towns. For 
four days courses of Biblical instruction were given. 



United Free Church of Scotland. 

Districts of Haicheng, Liaoyang, Moukden, Hsing- 
ching, Kaiyuan, Hailungcheng, Mainiaikai, Ashiho, 
and Hulan. 

Liaoyang. The present year will long be remem 
bered in Manchuria as the year of the great revival. In 
January two men from Liaoyang saw something of the 
miracle of grace in Korea and came home with hearts 
aflame. Simultaneously Mr. Goforth, of the Canadian 
Presbyterian Mission in Honan, came to conduct our 
New Year Convention, now an annual institution at 
Liaoyang. He too had been to Korea. From that rock 
rose the spring that ultimately overflowed this laud, and 
that to-day is still gathering force in China proper. If 
I am asked what I consider to be the most permanent 
mark left on the church here by the wondrous ex 
periences we passed through a year ago, I answer, 
"The conviction of sin and sense of personal responsi 
bility before God." They never knew the content of 
the word " sin " before ; now they can never mistake it. 

One result was deep concern amongst the Christians 
for the members of their own families and for their 
friends and neighbours who still remained indifferent 
to the claims of Christ, and many contributed of their 
time ; some one month, some three months, and even 
more, to the work of colportage and village or street 
preaching. 

I opened a summer school for schoolmasters during 
their vacation, and it has come to stay. Our Christian 
village schools cannot be suffered to fall behind the 



EVANGELISTIC WORK. 145 

government programme, and China s mighty educational 
awakening is no mere fancy. 

Moukden. It is a significant fact, in this connec 
tion, that of the twelve Chinese pastors supported 
entirely by Chinese congregations in Manchuria four 
have been called and ordained since the revival 

There remains to say something on the influence of 
the revival on the general community. In many places 
great interest in the movement was shown by the outside 
public. Large gatherings of Christians in one place, 
and the scenes of lamentation which so frequently 
occurred at these meetings, could not fail to attract 
widespread attention and awesome curiosity to see and 
hear the wonderful things that were reported. Soldiers, 
local village magnates, gentry, and in some cases the 
magistrates of districts attended the meetings and 
listened with reverent attention and interest 

During recent years many temples have disappeared, 
and many others are falling into decay. Buddhism in 
Manchuria, for a long time dying, has never survived 
the Boxer cataclysm, and seems utterly dead. It is 
significant in view of this to hear of outsiders being 
attracted to the Christian prayer meeting, and actually 
coming with requests for prayer on their own or their 
friends behalf. 

Friends Foreign Mission (English). 

Province of Szechivan. Chungking, T uugch wan, 
Cheugtu, Suiling, T ungliang. 

The event which looms largest in our minds, as we 
look back over the year, is the Conference of West 
China missionaries, held at Chengtu in January, 1908. 
One hundred and eighty missionaries, half the entire 
number at work in the three western provinces, were 
present, including fourteen of our own Mission. 

The most remarkable session of all, and that which 
distinguished this Conference from all previous ones, 



146 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

was that in which we adopted as our ideal, "One 
Protestant Christian Church for West China." One 
practical step towards the realisation of this ideal was 
in the unanimous decision, which comes into force at 
once, that church members who leave their own district 
and move into that of any other mission, shall be 
admitted into full membership without any condition 
whatever. This means that one of our members, on 
removing into a district occupied by any other mission, 
would be received into the church there without being 
required to undergo water baptism or any other rite. 

We have now five monthly meetings centering in 
our five stations. The Chungking monthly meeting, 
the first church meeting organised by the Friends 
Mission in China, has been about sixteen years in 
existence, and is a centre of much life. The monthly 
meetings have been times of helpfulness, when mission 
aries and Chinese members have been drawn closer 
together. The difficulties of the work have been faced 
and the members have been led to trust more in the 
power of Christ in the midst of His people. 

Looking at the evangelistic side of our work we 
are more struck there than anywhere else with the lack 
of anything approaching to an adequate supply of 
workers, native or foreign. The number of preachers 
and teachers is so painfully limited that the whole work 
is in danger of arrested development," of becoming 
formal, inert, and superstitious. 

In the girls schools the girls make a firm stand 
against foot-binding, and when a new girl enters the 
school, with bound feet, it is not very long before she 
unbinds them, not wishing to be different from the 
others. 

The West China Christian Educational Union, with 
which several of our schools are affiliated, is a new 
factor in the educational situation in West China. 
Robert J. Davidson, as secretary of this Union, has 
aided it much in its formative period, A course of 



EVANGELISTIC WORK. 147 

study has been laid down for affiliated schools, and 
examinations are held at the close of each year ; papers 
being prepared at the request of the Union by mission 
aries in various parts of the field. 

Henry T. Hodgkin s Y. M. C. A. work has been 
closely linked with his work for the F. F. M. A. His 
Sunday morning addresses to young men on such sub 
jects as "Science and Life" and "The Principles of 
Western Civilisation," have drawn students from other 
schools besides our own. In other ways he is getting 
into close touch with Chinese young men. He and 
Robert J. Davidson have been on various committees in 
connection with the Educational Union, the Union 
University, and Church Union. 

Methodist Episcopal Church (North). 

Conferences of Foochow, Hinghwa, Central China, 
North China, and West China. 

Foochow. Circuits of Foochow, Haitang, Kutien, 
Mintinghsien, Ngucheng, Shanghai, Yenpingfu. 

Foochow. The church has responded to the new 
spirit of reform that is reviving the national life, and 
which is an influence from the Christian civilization of 
the West, and our people are, in many places, identified 
with, if not the leaders of, the social reforms. This is 
especially true in the anti-opium movement. Mr. Ding 
Ngengguong, a graduate of our Anglo-Chinese College, 
a member of our church, and an active Christian worker, 
is president of a federation of all the more important 
reform societies in Foochow. A notable event, which 
signifies much to the church, was the promulgation of a 
decree by the viceroy of the province last August, pro 
hibiting idol processions and requiring that Christians be 
exempt from payments to the support of idol worship. 

We have taken 163 into full membership, which is 
five times as many as last year, and have received 241 



148 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

on probation, over double the number received last year. 
Over half of those who found Christ were students of 
our educational institutions in Foochow. At one time 
39 young men of the Anglo-Chinese College were 
baptized and admitted, and at another 36 girls from the 
boarding-school. From 55 day schools in the district 175 
were received on probation, and 14 into full membership. 

Hinghwa. 

Circuits of Hiughwa, Sienyu, Yehwa, Yungan, 
Yungchun. 

A glance at the statistics shows that it has not been 
a year of large numerical gains. There has been an 
increase of only three per cent., the smallest increase in 
a good many years. Nevertheless I believe it has been 
a very good year in the progress that counts most for 
the future salvation of the Hinghwa people. 

The organization of preachers wives into a " Stimu 
lating and Working Society" has been a notable 
feature of the year s work. They have held their annual 
examination with most encouraging results. 

Central China. 

Circuits of Chinkiang, Kiukiang, Nanchang, Nan 
king, Shanghai, Wuhu. 

Nanking. The administration of the university for 
the year has been interrupted by the transferring of Dr. 
Stuart to the editorial and translating work in Shanghai. 

The student body is a great improvement over what 
we had in former years. This is due to our now being 
able to select our students more carefully, and also to 
the fact that students are beginning to realize that a 
usable knowledge of modern learning is not to be had 
from two or three years devoted to elementary English 
and science. We are also insisting that students, both 
church members and non-Christian, shall pay something 
for what they are getting. 






EVANGELISTIC WORK. 149 

North China. 

Circuits of Ckangli, Lwanchovv, Peking, Shanhai- 
kwaii, Taiaufu, Tientsin, Tsunhwa. 

Lwauchow. Dr. Pyke was asked lo help us in 
holding a revival meeting of two days, which resulted in 
great blessing. At Tangchiaho also we had a successful 
revival conducted by Mr. Tseng. 

Peking. We have three well-situated chapels on or 
near the three great streets in the southern city. " After 
six months," writes Rev. James H. Pyke, " the interest 
still continues. This is more especially true of the 
chapel on the Great Front Street, which is crowded for 
hours every afternoon in the week. Usually, toward 
the close, all the standing room is occupied, while 
numbers are without about the door. Deep interest in 
the preaching is always manifested, and often there is 
considerable emotion. When an expression of faith and 
purpose is called for seldom less than twenty to thirty 
hands are uplifted, and the entire audience will rise and 
stand with bowed heads while prayer is being offered. 
The silence and order observed is equal to that of the 
most devout congregations. More than one hundred 
have applied for admission to the church, most of whom 
have been received on probation, while half as many 
more are inquiring." 

The revival meetings held in Asbury Church during 
the spring must be recorded as one of the events of the 
year. Perseverance was rewarded by decided victory 
over all obstacles, and the entire church received a great 
blessing. It was good to see the pastor come out from 
under a deep cloud into the warm sunshine again. 

Tsunhwa. In Tsunhwa city with the ruins still 
standing on our once well-arranged and beautiful prem 
ises in the south suburb, where only the hospital 
building and school dormitories have been restored, there 
is small reason for wonder that the people are not 
attracted to us, and surmise that we are totally discour- 



150 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

aged, if not afraid to come back and live and work as 
formerly. 

Never before have all classes been so ready to hear 
and ask intelligent questions, not in a spirit of conde 
scension or flippant curiosity, but with an eagerness to 
understand the Gospel and the object of all this work 
of the church. Nearly 12,000 copies of Scripture por 
tions were sold from the beginning of April to the middle 
of June. It was a wonderful time of seed-sowing. 

West China. 

Circuits of Chengtu, Chungking, Shihsun, Suiuing, 
Tzechow. 

Chengtu. Batang is twenty-five days journey from 
Chengtu on the borders between Szechwan province and 
Tibet. It is the common meeting place between the 
Tibetan and Chinese traders. Our missionaries would 
have gone on to L,hassa, except that the Tibetan and 
Chinese government united in prohibiting their going 
farther than Batang. 



China Inland Mission. 

Provinces of Sinkiang, Kausu, Shensi, Shansi, 
Chihli, Shantung, Honan, Kiangsu, Szechwan, Kwei- 
chow, Yunnan, Hupeh, Kiangsi, Anhvvei, Chekiang, 
Hunan. 

In looking back over the last seven years it is inter 
esting to note that the net increase during this period 
has been 28 per annum. In 1902 the total number of 
missionaries connected with the C. I. M. was 735, while 
at the beginning of the present year it was 928, which 
gives a total net increase of 193 workers for China in 
connection with this one mission. 

From the statistics already received we find that 
more than 30,000 Chinese have been received into 
church-fellowship by the mission since its commence- 



KVANGEUvSTIC WORK. 151 

ment, and of this nearly 21,000 are still spared to gather 
round the Lord s table from time to time Of this 
number, 2,540 were received into fellowship during last 
year. 

For the shepherding of these souls and the evangel 
ization of those yet uureached, the Mission has 211 
central stations, more tbau 790 out-stations, 995 chapels, 
9 hospitals, 34 dispensaries, 84 opium refuges, and more 
than 200 day and boarding-schools with about 4,000 
scholars. 

Special attention may be called to the growing 
importance of our schools for giving Christian training 
and instruction to the children of church members. 
Readers of "The Story of the C. I. M." will remember 
that such school work dates back to the early days of 
the " Larnmerinuir " party, but with the more rapid 
growth of the churches in recent years, the development 
of this department has become imperative. And, in 
addition to the schools for the children of Christians, 
the growing need for trained native helpers and for more 
definite Bible teaching throughout the churches has, in 
the natural order of development, become increasingly 
apparent during the last few years. For this important 
work several men have been set apart ; some for the 
systematic training of selected Chinese helpers, who 
will be gathered into central Bible Training Institutes 
for a two years course of study, and some for the hold 
ing of shorter courses, extending for a few weeks at a 
time only, with selected church members at the various 
stations and out-stations throughout the provinces. 

The Religious Tract Society s effort to raise ^20,000 
for Christian literature in China, the China Emergency 
Committee s effort to raise ,100,000 for educational, 
medical, and literary work in China, the Yale Univer 
sity s Mission in Hunan, the proposed Princeton Univer 
sity Movement in Peking, the Pennsylvania!! University 
Movement in Canton, the Eton Hostel for Chengtu, the 
suggested Oxford and Cambridge scheme, and proposed 



152 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Hongkong University, the allotting of ^35,000 from the 
Pan-Anglican Congress Fund for work in China, etc., 
etc., show how auxiliary agencies outside the regular 
missionary societies are having the needs and claims of 
China laid upon them. 

Of Shansi Mr. Lutley writes: " The gracious work 
of the Holy Spirit in revival has been spreading until 
every church in Central Shansi has been reached with 
the blessed life-giving river." 

At Hwochow one of the Chinese helpers testified 
that he had been unable to sleep all night on account of 
his sin, and must confess it. During the Boxer troubles 
the sura of Tls. 100 had been sent by the missionaries 
in Pingyangfu to Mr. Robertson, who afterwards died. 
The money never reached him, and was subsequently 
hidden by this helper in his courtyard. As the Boxers 
looted and fired the house every one thought the money 
was lost, but he had afterwards dug it up and used it 
himself. 

As he told this story he became greatly agitated, 
and fell in agony of mind to the ground, crying aloud 
and beseeching God to forgive him. On the women s 
side of the building his wife was also weeping aloud for 
having hindered her husband. 

Mr. Adam reports that the Miao have, out of their 
awful poverty, been giving most liberally and willingly 
to God s work. "Sometimes," he states, "one feels 
really sorry to take their gifts ; only we know how dis 
tressed they would be if we did not receive them. Surely 
the heart of the Lord Jesus must be greatly rejoiced to 
see His grace thus abounding in the hearts of these dear 
people. They have given grain and cash sufficient 
for the support of three preachers and possibly for a 
fourth. So thankful are they for the good news of 
God s dear Sou, brought to them through the Bible, 
that they sent $25 to the British and Foreign Bible 
Society and $14 to the West China Tract Society as 
thaiikofferings." 



EVANGELISTIC WORK. 153 

Miss Guex writes of a certain widow: "So con 
stantly has slie invited the passers-by to come in to 
hear the doctrine that a bird, a sort of magpie, which 
her boys keep in a cage, took up the cry, and to the 
astonishment of all, the bird with its high-pitched clear 
voice would repeat the words of the good woman " Lai- 
t iug-tao-li " " Come and hear the doctrine." 



Foreign Christian Missionary Society. 

Chaohsien, Chucheo, Luchowfu, Nanking, Nantung- 
chow, Shanghai, Wuhu. 

Evangelist Shi, of Chucheo, accepted an invitation 
from the Anhwui Federation Council Committee to help 
in the evangelistic services at the Wuhu Bible Institute 
in April. This was the first institute gathering of the 
Anhwui province Christian workers under the Centenary 
Conference plan. Our Nanking Bible Institute, started 
six years ago, is now changed into a union institute 
under the six missions of that city. 

Along the lines of progress the misson reports in 
additions to the churches ; one new missionary, Miss 
Eva May Raw ; four new out-stations opened ; four new 
day-schools for boys and girls started ; a day-school 
changed into a boarding-school at Chucheo, and last 
but not least, the Bible College and Training-school in 
augurated at Nanking. 

Chucheo. The church at Chucheo and several of 
the out-stations have had revivals. The chief character 
istic of these meetings has been a conviction and con 
fession of sin by the church members. Our most gifted 
and trusted evangelists have confessed to their being 
guilty of gambling, opium smoking, adultery, and using 
the power of the church in official business. A large 
majority of the most active and prominent members 
have made open confession of the sins which they have 



1 54 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

committed since entering the church. As a result of 
these revivals, the church has been greatly purified and 
strengthened. 

Nanking. A. K. Cory has superintended the Union 
Bible Institute in Nanking, and has acted as secretary 
of the Centenary Conference Committee for the Promo 
tion of Bible Study. He says : " I have given a great 
deal of time and energy to the promotion of Bible study. 
I have seen this work carried forward in some fourteen 
provinces of China through provincial federation and 
other committees." 



Reformed Church in America* 
Amoy Mission. 

Districts of Amoy, Chiangchiu, Siokhe, Tongan. 

The year just past will be remembered for the many 
blessings that have come to this Mission. But no one 
is so outstanding as that which brought the large increase 
of foreign workers on the iyth of October the largest 
in the sixty-six years history of the work in these 
parts. 

The native church is a growing church, growing 
numerically, growing in benevolence and in ever in 
creasing self-support. The year 1907 showed an increase 
of nearly $1,000 in this latter direction. But this review 
will scarcely reveal that it is growing in spiritual power, 
the power and might of the Spirit, as we all long to see 
it. There is a good deal of coldness, dead ness, and 
worse than all, indifference. For some reason the com 
mercial spirit of the times has a most deadly grasp upon 
many of our church members, while of those who join 
the church we fear that among them there are not a 
few coming from wrong motives. 

In examining the different churches another thing 
has been more forcibly impressed than ever before, to 



EVANGELISTIC WORK. 155 

wit, that the church is growing almost entirely from 
without. The addition from within, i.e., the recep 
tion of baptized children, is an exceedingly small 
percentage. 

Chiangchiu District. Work in the upper Chiang- 
chiu district has been greatly interfered with by the 
great flood of October i5th, in which over 1,000 lives 
were lost. In Chiangchiu city over 6,000 houses were 
wholly or partially destroyed. Immense tracts of ripen 
ing grain were ruined, and with it vanished many a 
farmer s fondest hopes. The river was a raging tor 
rent ; in places over thirty feet above normal level. In 
the ladies house and girls school the water left its 
mark five and one-half feet above the floor and three 
feet and a half in the missionary s residence. Some 450 
feet of ten-foot high compound wall were battered down. 
The book room succumbed, and a goodly stock of books 
was ruined. 

The church escaped the flood, and has had a year 
full of blessings. The attendance at Sunday services 
has been remarkable, and affords a fine sight. The 
platform is in the centre of the large auditorium, about 
which the pastor assembles his attentive flock of men, 
women, and scholars. The Senior and Junior Endeavor 
Societies are still flourishing. 

The Lengsoa church remains the banner church in 
the sense of giving greatest cause for rejoicing. Not 
withstanding that the church roof is being demolished 
by our enemies the white ants, the members of this 
church are also gradually making inroads on Christ s 
enemies. They have asked for assistance to open four 
new out-stations within their borders. Alas, on account 
of scarcity of laborers only one has been opened, and 
that one only because the church was willing that one 
of their number should hold the fort as chapel keeper, 
while members of the consistory take turns in conducting 
Sunday services. 



156 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

The Siokhe District. This is not the only church 
in this region where women never darken church doors 
throughout the whole year. Is it a wonder that many 
churches are and remain weak ? 



United Methodist Mission (English). 
North China, Southeast China, Southwest China. 
North China. 

Circuits of Tientsin, Laoling, Wutingfu, T ang- 
shau, Yungp ingfu. 

The area occupied stretches from the Yellow River 
to the Great Wall, and embraces hundreds of cities, 
towns, and villages. Evangelistic, educational, and 
medical work is carried on, with special agencies for the 
instruction of women and girls 

The medical work is also evangelistic, and many 
thousands of sufferers, who are relieved each year, hear 
the Gospel. Martyrs Memorial Hospitals are to be 
erected at Wutingfu and Yungp ingfu. In the latter 
city hospital work is carried on on a small scale, but 
further extension is contemplated. The Chu Chia Hos 
pital has enlarged its usefulness by the establishment 
of branch dispensaries in the neighbouring cities of Teh- 
ping and Laoling 

This is the jubilee year of the North China Mission. 
It was in 1850 that Messrs. Innocent and Hall started 
for the Celestial Empire, and for a few years the work 
was necessarily small. 

L,aoling Circuit. There is not much progress to 
report in this circuit, and the baptisms have been 
fewer than usual. . . Some of the newer churches are 
fairly progressive, but some of the older churches remain 
stationary year by year. 

The causes no doubt are complex and hard to 
discover, but one of the contributory factors is, I think, 






EVANGELISTIC WORK. 157 

evident. We are trying to cover too much ground with 
our limited staff of workers ; the result being that some 
of the more distant places can only be reached at odd 
times, and the light fails, and those who were groping 
their way towards the light sink back into the gloom. 

Wutingfu Circuit. The condition of the Wutingfu 
circuit does not vary very much from that of the 
previous year. The work of the churches has been 
steadily maintained, though we cannot record any great 
increases. A number of places report larger congrega 
tions, but at others there has been a slight falling off. 

T angshan Circuit. The T angshan circuit has 
made substantial progress during the past year, and we 
are happy to report an increase of 64 members ; the roll 
of probationers showing a slight decrease. 

Yungp ingfu Circuit. The Revs. G. T. Candlin, 
Li Ngan-su, and Liu Fang (the latter a devoted young 
pastor of the American Methodist Church at Ch ang- 
lihsien) commenced for us a week of special services 
on February 27th. The meetings, held twice daily, 
were remarkable for great manifestations of spiritual 
influence and power. Members were in from all the 
country churches ; the morning attendances never fell 
below 60, while each night the chapel was packed to its 
utmost capacity with about 150 people. 

Southeast China. 

Circuits of Ningpo, Weuchow, 

Ningpo District. Our Ningpo work covers a big 
area. From our most northern station to our most 
southern station is a distance of 600 Chinese // 200 
English miles. Our stations are scattered over eight 
different hsiens or magistracies. We have work in 
three walled cities ; the United Methodist Church being 
the only Protestant mission working in two of these 
walled cities. . 



1 5 8 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

During the past year three new churches have been 
built in three widely-separated districts, viz., Mocu, 
in the Yuyiaohsien ; Chinghse, a walled city at the 
mouth of the Ningpo river ; and Ahcu, on the island 
of Nendin, situated at the extieme south of the Chusan 
Archipelago. 

Wenchow District. At the Chinese " New Year" 
our honoured superintendent, Rev. W. E. Soothill, paid 
his annual visit to Wenchow. The journey to and from 
Wenchow from Taiyuanfu is over 3,000 miles, and is 
taken in cold weather. He says: "All I can say is 
that I have never held such meetings before in my life 
and never seen such manifestations of the working of 
God s Holy Spirit in Wenchow, and no greater even 
here (Taiyuanfu) under Mr. Goforth, whose visits to 
Manchuria and to Shansi have recently produced such a 
wonderful repetition of the Welsh Revival. It was a 
wonderful thing to see a whole Wenchow congregation 
of men and women utterly broken down, weeping and 
acknowledging their sins in the realized presence of 
God, and this without any factitious attempt on the 
preacher s part to work on the feelings of the people." 

Mr. Stobie asks whether the time has not come, 
with a Christian community of 9,000, for more being 
done to deepen, strengthen, and illuminate the native 
Christian. How is this to be done with not only an 
insufficient, but a depleted staff ? 

Southwest China. 

Chaotong Church, Tongchuan Church. 

Tongchuan Church. Five new chapels have been 
built by the Miao of these districts. The buildings are 
much like barns four mud walls, mud floors and thatch 
roofs. 

Regular preaching on Sundays is conducted in 13 
or 14 centres. These pulpits are practically rilled by 
Miao preachers. We have been pleased to notice how, 



EVANGELISTIC WORK. 159 

with increased responsibility, these Miao brethren have 
become much more self-reliant and trustworthy. We 

have 12 men on the regular preaching staff 

During the past months a new hymubook for the 
Miao, and a translation of St. John s Gospel, have been 
issued ; the former by the West China Tract Society and 
the latter by the British and Foreign Bible Society. Both 
books are selling well. These were prepared by Mr. 
Pollard before he left for furlough, as was also a catechism 
now in the press. 

Presbyterian Church of England. 

Districts of Amoy, Swatow, the Hakka Country, 
Formosa, Singapore. 

Amoy District. 
Amoy, Yungchun, Chinchew, Changpti. 

Amoy. In the Anglo-Chinese College an interesting 
incident of the year was a request from the Taotai that 
some of the lads should become interpreters to the Amer 
ican sailors while the American fleet was in the harbour. 
Sixty of the lads, mostly members of the College Y. M. 
C. A., assisted in a Y. M. C. A. tent put up as a resort 
for the men of the fleet. " The Y. M. C. A. tent," says 
Mr. H. J. P. Anderson, " was the most popular of all 
the tents. The college lads were most useful and the 
practice in speaking English was good for themselves." 

The pupils have worked satisfactorily. "We have 
more than maintained our ground, spite of the fact that 
the government schools are subsidised, while their pupils 
have an easier road than ours into official employment." 

Yungchun. Mr. Moncrieff, of Yungchun, says : 
"The work seems at present to be peculiarity hard. 
For one thing there is a frequent demand from the 
Christians for help in their lawsuits." 

Our boys schools are having a hard fight. The 
new government schools are carrying everything before 



l6o CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

them. They have the patronage of the chief Mandarin, 
and are liberally subsidised out of the public funds with 
bursaries and other attractions. 

Changpu. The reform movement is in evidence in 
the district. The Viceroy has issued a proclamation 
against idol processions, posted up everywhere in the 
province, and government pressure is brought to bear 
upon officials to give up binding their daughters feet. 

Swatow District. 

Swatow, Chaochowfu, Svvabue. 

Swatow. As the native church grow r s with ever- 
increasing demands on a mission band which does not 
increase in the same proportion, as moreover the new 
era in China requires that more time and strength be 
devoted to the mission colleges and schools, it is more 
and more difficult to give due prominence to the offer of 
the Gospel to the non-Christian throngs, a regret which 
comes from every part of our Mission field. 

Some increase is reported in the contributions of the 
Swatow congregations to the Preachers Fund. But 
preachers salaries must be raised if the promising young 
men of the church are not to be drawn away from the 
Christian ministry. And for a time this will necessitate 
more help from home. 

" Cases" have been fewer than usual ; only two : a 
Haisua Christian accused unjustly of taking part in an 
insurrection in 1906 and in peril of execution, on whose 
behalf one of the pastors successfully interested himself, 
and a dispute in the lamtsau pastorate between some of 
our people and some nominal Roman Catholics in the 
same village. 

The Hakka Country. 

South Hakkaland, the North Hakka Field. 
South Hakkaland. The adult baptisms of the year 
(33) have been fewer than usual ; some held back 



EVANGELISTIC WORK. l6l 

because of irregular attendance at the Sunday services ; 
fewer candidates besides, since the people now realise 
that connection with the church brings no material train ; 
here, also, as at the other centres, the Mission band 
having less time for visiting the stations. The new 
educational stir requires increased attention and labour to 
be bestowed on efficient training of the native ministry. 

Formosa. 

Tainan, Takow, Chianghoa. 

The Japanese Presbytery of Formosa, a Presbytery 
of the Japanese Presbyterian Church, has several or 
dained pastors. It carries on work amongst the 50,000 
Japanese and the Japanese-speaking Chinese in the 
island. 

Tainan. All the old Chinese stagnation has been 
changed by the Japanese. The island has been sur 
veyed, the results published in artistic maps and plans ; a 
census taken ; good roads made everywhere ; a railway 
constructed from Takow to Kelung (one day s journey 
instead of nine), with branch lines projected across the 
island and along the coast ; an efficient postal service 
established ; streets widened ; a good water-supply and 
effective drainage introduced in most considerable places ; 
thirteen large hospitals built and staffed from a new 
medical college at Taipeh, the seat of the Japanese 
government ; precautions enforced against plague and 
small-pox ; the use of the anti-plague serum, so many 
dead rats to be brought monthly by each family to the 
nearest police station (for each rat a reward of a penny 
given) ; furniture and bedding periodically brought out 
side and aired, and rooms opened up and swept. 

In the 2,000,000 Formosan Chinese, for whose 
evangelisation our Mission is responsible, there are 
people of all sorts, but only the poorest have been 
hitherto much influenced, whether by preaching or by 
the medical work. The townsfolk are hardlv reached 



1 62 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

at all. Some sixty of our ninety-five stations are in 
countrv villages, and fully 80 per cent, of the worship 
pers who meet in market-places and prefectural towns 
come from outside villages. Thirty years ago there 
was a large ingathering of civilised aborigines ; on a 
smaller scale such a mass movement as has occurred in 
India amongst the lower castes and the outcastes, with 
something of the weakness as well as the joy of such 
conversions. 

Most missions and most religious reforms have pro 
ceeded from the poor upwards. The Formosa work has 
followed an ordinary law, and needs to confess no failure. 
But our brethren long to be able now to win the 
influential classes, and they are hindered by the fewness 
of their number and the needs of the Christian people 
already gathered 6,000 baptized adults and children 
scattered over a wide area while the educational equip 
ment of the Mission is utterly inadequate for the new 
tasks. The ordained Chinese pastors are few ; thirty- 
seven stations (with 1,000 baptized members) have no 
resident preacher ; the east coast seldom see a mission 
ary ; the preachers have not had the training which 
would enable them to meet the demands of the new 
time. 

Japanese, an imperative subject in a Formosan high 
school, is now to be taught by a certificated Chinese 
teacher, who has gone through the normal course in the 
Taipeh Government College. It will thus be possible 
to prepare the boys for government examinations, and 
this should increase the number on the roll. The other 
Chinese teachers are trustworthy men. The junior 
Chinese teacher has gone to Japan to complete his studies 
in the Kyoto Doshisha College, a Christian institution. 

The Mission ought not to pass by the Formosan 
Japanese. It could reach them best perhaps by the 
establishment of a Christian college at Taichu (in the 
Chianghoa district), the Canadian Presbyterian Mission 
and our own uniting in the enterprise. 



EVANGELISTIC WORK. 163 

Singapore. 

They have the individual cup in Wukingfu because 
of leper communicants. In some of the Singapore 
churches separate cups have been provided for leper 
communicants, and in one church at least for a whole 
congregation. 



The Christian and Missionary Alliance. 

Central China, Shanghai, South China, Western 
China, and Tibet. 

Central China. 

Wuchang, Hankow, Wuhu, Wanchi, Nanlinghsien, 
Tatong, Tsingyanghsien, Ch angslia, Siangtan, Chang- 
teh. 

The most interesting incident of the year has been 
the building of a new training school for native workers 
at Wuchang under the direction of Doctor Glover. It is 
known as the Blackstone Bible Institute in grateful rec 
ognition of the noble service Mr. Blackstone has given 
both in contributing and securing funds for this pur 
pose. The supreme note, both in the praises and prayers 
of the missionaries, is revival. 

There are several large homes for wido\vs in Chang- 
sha under official management. The matrons or some 
of the inmates of several of these have come to the 
chapel and invited us to visit their homes and preach, 
and we have eagerly grasped the opportunities and gone 
to them. However, we have never been permitted to 
stay very long, for the official, who has no love for us 
or our Christianity, hearing that we were there, sent 
in a messenger asking us to leave, giving a foolish ex 
cuse. One such home we visited last spring, where 
there were over a thousand widows with their children, 
who were taught to do embroidery for their support. 



164 CHINA MISSION YKAK BOOK. 

South China. 

Wuchow, Pingloh, Kueilin, Pingnam, Kwaiping, 
Nanning, Lungchow, Watlam, Lauchovv, Lohting. 

An extract from a report of the work at Lungchow 
reads: "I decided to go from door to door and put a 
Gospel into every home, free of charge, and tell the 
story of salvation to each one as I had opportunity. I 
found the people ready to listen, and many invited me 
into their homes, giving me an opportunity to explain 
to them more clearly the way of life. This is said to 
be a work difficult to do in China, owing to the peculiar 
social conditions that exist here. But I found that the 
difficulties were more imaginary than real. 

11 Although we have not yet begun a work in this 
neglected land (Anam) of 25,000,000 of people, I feel 
I cannot close this report without including it. We feel 
that the opening of Lungchow, right on its border, is 
an important step toward its opening." 

Western China and Tibet. 

Taochow, Minchow, Titaochow, Chone. 

Our West China Mission has six stations four in 
Kansuh and two in Tibet. A new centre has just been 
opened in Hochow, a city governing a population of 
400,000 people. 

The two first female baptisms were included last 
year, also one Tibetan and two half-breeds, partly Chi 
nese and partly Tibetan. 

London Missionary Society. 

Provinces of Kwangtung, Fukien, Kiangsu, and 
Chekiang, Hupeh, Hunan, Szechwan, Chihli. 

Province oj Kwangtung. 
Hongkong, Canton, Fatshan, Poklo. 
Hongkong. The Canton-Hongkong Mission, though 
it experienced a number of vicissitudes, finds itself at 



KVANGKTJSTIC WORK. 165 

the close of the year in a much improved position as 
compared with that described in the last annual report. 

The outstanding events of the year in connection 
with the evangelistic work were the death in February 
of Mr. Tong Siu-ping and the call of the church to his 
successor, Mr. Cheung Chuk-ling. Mr. Ping was "a 
living epistle known and read;" never leaving a duty 
undone, nor ever failing in loyalty to conscience. 

"The To Tsai Church should never lose sight of 
its obligation to German Lutheran Societies in South 
China, which have bestowed on it two able and cultured 
teachers in the persons of Mr. Wong Yuk-cho, whose 
spiritual lineage and early service linked him with the 
Khenish and Berlin Missions, and of Mr. Cheung C]uik- 
ling, who was born, nurtured, and trained for the 
ministry in the Basel Mission." 

Canton. In June, owing to the excessive rains, the 
north-east and west rivers overflowed and devasted the 
surrounding districts. In many places the crops were 
totally destroyed. In raising funds to help the needly, 
Christian and non-Christian worked side by side, and a 
striking proof was thus afforded of the change in public 
feeling towards the former. 

"In the future the whole weight of State influence 
and support will be on the side of Confucianism." In 
Canton the Minister of Education has issued most strin 
gent regulations forbidding tire teaching of the Christian 
Scriptures in any school under his control. No new 
school, of the new type, can be set up on Chinese ground 
and run by Chinese unless they conform to his rules 
and are under his inspection. The only exceptions are 
schools controlled by foreigners, or schools in church 
buildings. 

The change in the status of the church has made 
the position of the foreign missionary rather a delicate 
one. There is a marked feeling of independence and 



166 CHINA MISSION YKAR BOOK. 

sometimes veiled impatience of what is thought to be 
foreign control. During the first two years of existence 
as a self-supporting church, the elders and deacons have 
met all the financial obligations, ending each year with 
a substantial balance. 

The changing conditions in Canton are making them 
selves felt. Sunday, for example, is becoming more and 
more a day of leisure for many, and societies with more 
or less of a philanthropic motive, are being started "all 
round." Sunday being so much more a leisure day makes 
it an exceedingly busy day for certain businesses, which 
find it increasingly difficult to shut their shops on Sunday. 

Fatshan. "Towards the end of the year Mr. Chan 
Chun-sin, one of the members of the Fatshan church, 
gained great distinction in Peking. He has been in 
America for several years, first as interpreter in the 
Chinese Legation at Washington and then in a large 
agricultural college in California. He returned to China 
in 1907, and last year, at the examination held in Peking 
under the new regime, he passed the highest of any of 
the students who have been abroad. He now holds an 
appointment as head of an agricultural college established 
at Moukden. If he keeps true to Christ, and he has 
been an earnest Christian up till now, we may well hope 
that he may be a good servant of China and a witness 
for the truth in high circles." 

Poklo. At one of the oldest chapels, Naam She 
Tong, there was a great disturbance in June due to a 
village feud arising out of the surrounding villages 
endeavoring to force the Christians in Naam She Tong 
to subscribe to a heathen festival. 

Fukien Province. 

Amoy, Hweianhsien, Changchowfu, Tingchowfu. 
Amoy. The number of churches and out-stations 
in the North River and Hweian districts is just one-half 



EVANGELISTIC WORK. 167 

of the total number in the whole Amoy mission, includ 
ing the Ting Chin branch. Out of a total of 238 adult 
baptisms during the year in all districts, 144 were bap 
tized in these two districts, while together they account 
for 1,721 church members out of the 3,372. 

Mr. Macgowan writes: "I am happy to say that 
the political unrest has not so far affected the system of 
self-support that I have built up with such difficulty 
during the past years. In 1113* recent visitation amongst 
the churches, much to my delight they have all sub 
scribed enough to pay for the support of their preachers 
during the next year. This is all the more gratifying, 
as I was prepared for a certain amount of disaster, be 
cause in the great plain, where the most of them are 
situated, there has recently been an unprecedented flood 
that has submerged their rice crops and has so utterly 
destroyed them that for many square miles they can only 
be used as fodder for the cattle. " 

A vigorous Mandarin in one of the counties has 
appealed to one of our pastors to help him in carrying 
out his plans for the suppression of opium. " I have 
no faith," he said to the pastor, "in the scholars and 
leading men of my district. Main- of them are already 
opium smokers, and their influence will certainly not be 
used to restrict the production of opium. The Chris 
tians have always been opposed to the opium traffic. 
I believe in their honesty, and so I turn to you to aid 
me in the great fight that I am going to have in doing 
away with the production of something that is doing 
infinite mischief to my people." 

Hweianhsien. The evangelistic work in the hos 
pital was pursued with vigor ; both the hospital preacher 
and the matron are most earnest Christians, and plain 
speaking and preaching goes on in the hospital in con 
sequence. It may be safety said on nearly everyone of 
the twenty-six stations there is one person or more who 
first came under Christian influence in the hospital. 



l6S CHINA MISSION* YEAR BOOK. 

Provinces of Kiangsu and Chekiang. 

Shanghai. " Much has been done to conserve to 
the Chinese church meeting in Makkacheon, Shanghai, 
all those rights and privileges which are exercised by 
congregational churches in the homeland. I have been 
present regularly at the meetings of the Church Council, 
and great zeal for the cause of the church has been 
manifested by the members. This church has taken 
over the responsibility for the upkeep of two newly- 
opened stations in the country, and a plan system has 
been followed whereby workers have gone regularly 
from the church to conduct Sunday services at one of 
these places." 

Province of Hupeh. 
Hankow, Wuchang, Siaokan, Hwangpei, Tsaoshih. 

Hankow. The year was one of strongly contrasted 
lights and shades. For many months three members of 
the staff were seriously ill, and the strain of keeping the 
work going upon those who remained at the station was 
almost unbearable. Nevertheless the work was carried 
on and some advance made. The Chinese staff rose to 
the occasion, working earnestly and thoroughly in each 
department. At the beginning of the year a certain 
depression was noticeable in the church, but gradually 
the tone improved, and for man} months, whether tested 
by the size and attentiveness of the congregations, 
or by the largeness of the contributions, there was con 
stant cause for praise. 

Mr. Sparham writes: <{ Early in the year, when 
our foreign staff was at the lowest, some of the leading 
Christians came to me and said that they would like 
to start a Tsz-li Hwui or Self Administration Society. 
Their idea was that the Chinese Christians should raise 
a fund for church purposes which they would them 
selves administer for the purpose of strengthening or 
extending the work of the mother church." 



EVANGELISTIC WORK. 169 

Province of Hunan. 
Changsha, Siaugtan, Hengchowfu. 

Province of SzecJiwan. 
Chungking. 

Province of ChihlL 

Tientsin, Siaochang, Weikiachualig, Tsangchow and 
Yenshan, Peking. 

Tientsin. A series of revival meetings in the spring, 
conducted by a member of the Canadian Presbyterian 
Mission, was extremely helpful to the members of the 
city church, and in the autumn some special meetings, 
led by members of the Methodist Episcopal Mission, 
stirred the people to renewed efforts to bring their friends 
and neighbours to a knowledge of the Gospel. During 
the summer the members of our church and those of the 
American Board commenced a monthly united service in 
the city ; the idea originated with the native Christians 
themselves, and received the hearty sympathy and sup 
port of the foreign missionaries. 

Siaochang. Mr. Grant emphasises the necessity of 
convincing the converts that they are responsible for the 
" running of the church ; " it is a fatal kindness to do 
everything for them, and he adds that " the poverty of 
the Chinese is an invention of the devil to rob the con 
verts of their most precious privileges." 

Peking. The church in the Chinese city continues 
to be the brightest spot in the mission. It is entirely self- 
supporting ; pays the salaries of a preacher and school 
master, and is liberal in gifts to all outside objects. 
It is a living church in the truest sense. 



170 CHINA MISSION VICAR 



Church Missionary Society. 

Sotttlr Ch ina Mission, Fulikieu Mission, Mid-China 
Mission, Western China Mission, 

South China Mission. Provinces of Kwangtung, 
Kwangsi, and Hunan. 

Archdeacon W. Banister, the secretary of the South 
China Mission, who sailed for Fuhkien in 1880, and 
after labouring there for seventeen years, was transferred 
to Hongkong, has been appointed bishop of the new 
missionary diocese in Hunan. 

One of the girls at St. Stephen s Girls College and 
Preparatory School at Hongkong passed the Oxford 
Junior Local Examination the first Chinese girl to do so. 

Two new out-stations were opened in the district of 
Pakhoi, while at Sheungling, a village ten miles from 
Tsaiififshing, in the Canton district, all the inhabitants 
130 in number asked to be taught about Christianity. 
They cast away their idols and charms and removed 
their ancestral tablets, and, though poor people, offered 
a site for a church and $400 for the building. This 
amount was raised by a subscription of $i a head from 
every man, woman, and child, a sum of $120 which was 
formerly devoted to heathen worship, and $150 obtained 
by the sale of certain of their fields. In addition the 
young men promised to provide some bricks for the 
building and to cut down trees for beams. There were 
about 100 inquirers in another village in the Canton 
district, and they too showed their earnestness by giving 
a house to serve as a chapel and undertaking to provide 
$100 towards the expenses of fitting it up. 

Fuhkien Mission. The staff of the Fuhkien mission 
lias been thinned by the appointment of the Rev. W. C. 
White to the episcopal oversight of the new missionary 
diocese of Honan. Mr. White went to Fuhkien under 
the Canadian C. M. S. in 1897. He is the first Canadian 



EVANGELISTIC WORK. 171 

clergyman to be appointed to a missionary bishopric 
beyond the dominion. 

The year 1908 brought with it many trials to the 
Christians in some parts of the Fuhkien province. 
Plague and pestilence broke out and carried off a number 
of them, and here and there they experienced the force 
of the apostle s warning that all that would live godly 
in Christ Jesus shall suffer persecution. Especially was 
this the case at Guaboi, an out-station in the Siengiu 
district, where a difficulty about building a new church 
arose through the action of an unfriendly mandarin. 
The pastor and two other converts were set upon by a 
mob, knocked down, beaten with stones and guns, and 
stripped and robbed. 

The need of agents to shepherd the scattered con 
verts, as well as to evangelize the non-Christians, is 
pressing, but unhappily the Divinity School at Foochow 
only had fourteen students in 1908, almost the lowest 
number since the institution was thoroughly established. 
The reason for the falling off in applications for ad 
mission is said to be the smalluess of the salary and 
insecurity of tenure of catechists in the employment of 
the native church. 

Advantage was taken as far as possible of the 
increased accessibility of the educated classes. At 
Foochow the North Fnkien Religious Tract Society 
opened a large reading-room for the better-class mer 
chants and scholars, in which two Christian teachers 
met the guests and used such opportunities as offered of 
influencing them in favour of Christianity ; at Hok- 
chiang also a book-shop was opened, with good results ; 
and at Siengiu English classes were set on foot, and 
some of their members began to attend the services. 

The adult converts of the year 369 in number- 
included a woman in an almshouse, eighty-four years of 
age, a member of the station class at Dusung, four 
blind women at Kienyang (three of them inmates of 
the C. E. Z. M. S. school for the blind at Kienning), 



172 CHINA MISSION YKAR BOOK. 

and a couple of lepers, both at Fooehow arid Longwong 
Besides these there were 1,500 inquirers ou the roll at 
the close of the year. 

Mid-China Mission. Mention must be made of the 
death, at the age of thirty-four, of Dr. L,i, a Chinese 
evangelist, who conducted special services at several of 
the society s stations in the mission in 1907 with much 
blessing. The Rev. H. W. Moule says : " His great 
ability and intense earnestness and spirituality led many 
to hope that as he gained experience and depth of 
knowledge he would prove a greater and greater power 
for God in China." 

Abiding results seem to have followed the meetings 
conducted at Shaohing in 1907 by Dr. L,i, whose death 
has just been recorded, for some of the Chinese agents 
and other Christians showed an earnest desire for a 
closer walk with God, and at their suggestion special 
prayer- meetings were held on five consecutive days in 

the autumn A revival was witnessed also at 

Hangchow, where a series of afternoon meetings was 
arranged by the Chinese, followed a little later by 
another series, primarily for young people attending the 
schools and colleges. The Christians at some places 
were marked by liberality in their support of the work, 
as in the T aichow district, where their contributions 
advanced from $765 to $1,013, an average of nearly one 
dollar per head, and that in a famine year, and at several 
places in the Chuki district, where the Christians 
prepared and fitted up little chapels, bearing a large 
share of the expense themselves. 

Even in the courtyards of idol temples people 
listened quietly and respectfully when lantern slides or 
Scripture cartoons were explained, and the anxiety of the 
women to hear about Christ is emphasized by several of 
the workers. At some places near Ningpo, however, the 
Chinese showed antagonism to Christianity, and in 
the Shaohiug district, although there was little rudeness, 



EVANGELISTIC WORK. 173 

hearts are said to be in many cases hard as adamant. 
The difficulty experienced at Shaoliing is due to the 
fact that a number of the inhabitants are dependent for 
their living 1 upon the manufacture of paper-money to 
be used in the worship of the gods or ancestors. 

In order to meet the difficulty, by providing some 
other means of gaining a livelihood for women anxious 
to become Christians, a small towel factor)* was opened 
during the year. Special work is carried on in Hang- 
chow among students and also among upper-class ladies. 
Miss D. C. Joynt found some opportunities of speaking 
about the Jesus doctrine to the girls daughters of 
officials and gentry belonging to the Provincial Normal 
School, in which she taught calisthenics, and in the 
summer she was able to take a forward step in con 
nexion with the work among ladies in the yamens. 

Western China Mission. The past years in the 
mission have been largely a time of breaking up the 
ground and sowing the seed ; now the harvest is being 
reaped. Year by year the number of baptisms show an 
increase, and it is evident that the work has got hold, 
and may be expected to grow still further as time goes 
on. The case of Mienchuh exemplifies the change 
which is taking place. During the first six years after 
its occupation, only six converts were received into the 
visible church, but during the last seven years 137 
persons have been baptized and 165 admitted to the 
catechumenate. 



CHAPTER VIL 



I. EVANGELISATION IN THE CITIES. 

w7"HK work of city evangelisation may be conveniently 

v!^ dealt with under two headings, which may be 

roughly classed as Outdoor and Indoor. By 

outdoor work we mean all those efforts in which the 

worker goes out to seek those whom he would influence ; 

by indoor work that which is done in the chapel or 

guest room. 

In outdoor work the colporteur is necessarily to the 
fore. He goes daily with his books to the streets, finds 
a suitable spot for spreading out his most attractive 
pictures or booklets and by conversation or preaching 
endeavours to interest passers-by and secure sales. For 
the most part he is content to lay his books on the 
stones, but we have at least one enterprising colporteur 
in Central China who has designed for himself a colport- 
age stand on wheels, upon the top and sides of this a 
brave display of Gospel truth in prose, in verse and 
in pictorial representation is made, and behind 
it as in a pulpit the preacher can stand and easily preacli 
to the surrounding crowd. Sometimes a visit to the 
larger teashops of the city may prove as effective as re 
maining on the street. Here the colporteur may either go 
quietly from table to table offering his books for sale, but 
making little comment upon them for fear of being 
ejected by the innkeeper, or he may take his seat at 
one of the tables and ordering a cup of tea, secure liberty 
to talk to other customers near him of the work he 
has in hand ; if he is a tactful man it not infrequently 
happens that in this way he may gradually lead in an 
interesting conversation to which a number of other 
tea drinkers are attracted. 



EVANGELISATION IN THE CITIES. 175 

111 the larger cities there are always hotels fre 
quented by merchants from different parts of the empire. 
Excellent work is often done b} r a colporteur visiting 
these houses. It is especially effective if a Hunanese 
colporteur can go to a Hunan hotel, a Szechueii6.se to a 
Szechuen hotel and so on, but given grace and tact a 
man of any province may go to an inn of any province and 
usually make a good sale of books. Years ago when 
Hunan was a closed province the Christian colporteur 
was always welcomed in the large Hunan inns at Hankow 
and found his books purchased with avidity. Hunanese 
away from home were keen to see and possess the 
wicked Christian books of which they had heard 
so much evil, and in many cases took them back 
to villages and cities that otherwise would never 
have had an opportunity of learning the message of 
Christianity. 

In a similar way the boats from a distance that 
crowd the river marts should be regularly visited and 
especial attention be given to the Chinese and foreign 
steamers that are so largely used by nalive travel 
lers, and to railway passengers wherever they can 
be reached. Formerly the steamer passenger beguiled 
the tedium of the journey with the opium pipe, to 
day he provides himself with cheap literature, which 
often means the translation of an undesirable French 
novel. When Christian books are attractively got 
Up, as they usually are to-day, the colporteur can take 
his place among the other booksellers and be sure of 
making sales. 

To make colportage work really effective more time 
should be given to the training of the colporteur ; let at 
least a year s instruction be given him at the commence 
ment of his career and a special school be arranged for 
such workers at least once a year. There is at present 
too little touch between the colporteurs of different 
societies working from one centre, yet they are men of 
similar type and with similar difficulties and temptations, 



!-6 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

and they might well be grouped into one class for 
instruction. 

In the neighbourhood of most large cities in China 
are to be found ancient temples where annual festivals 
are held, and to which the people men and women- 
flock in large numbers. Such festivals are being largely 
availed of in many centres for earnest Christian work. 
It should usually be a point of honour not to press the 
sale of books or to attempt to preach within the precincts 
of the temple. Private conversation with either priests 
or worshippers is seldom resented. The best preachers, 
foreign or Chinese, should band themselves together for 
this work, and probably at about two hundred yards 
distant from the temple they will find their most suitable 
stand. A strong native table forms a good platform, and 
if a succession of interesting preachers can be secured, a 
crowd that slowly changes but does not diminish can be 
held together for hours a time. 

Among the worshippers on such an occasion there 
are usually three well defined classes : 

1. Devotees, chiefly of the vegetarian sects. 

2. Those who come to pray for special help or to return thanks 
in accordance with a vo\v made by themselves or their parents. 

3. Those who are attracted by the excitement and enjoy 
ment the jeh nao that never appeals in vain to the Chinese, 
who tor the most part live in a very grey or drab environment. 

It is not an attack upon idol worship that such an 
occasion demands, but a call to a higher life and the 
pressing home of the knowledge of the all-present, 
ever-living, ever-loving one, who is mighty to save. If 
wisely approached it will be found that each class is 
very receptive. 

While most of the work indicated above must 
necessarily be done by the Chinese staff, the superintend 
ing missionary should keep in touch and as far as prac 
ticable should at least occasionally engage in each form 
of work. The Chinese tend to grade off work as more 
or less respectable, but this tendency is greatly modified 



EVANGELISATION IN THE CITIES. 177 

where a missionary who commands their affection shows 
that he regards it as an honour to take part in any form 
of soul winning. 

There will of course be circumstances when the wise 
leader will see that he can best help by suggestion, leav 
ing the more intelligent of his Chinese friends to make 
their own plans and carry them through also. New forms 
of organisation are developing, and at times the work 
is the stronger for the missionary not obtruding himself. 
Just recently I have heard of good work being done by 
the members of the Y. M. C. A. connected with one of 
the leading Christian colleges in Central China. The 
college is situated in a large provincial capital, where 
camps and government colleges abound. Two young 
men will start out for an afternoon and call at camp 
or college as the case may be. One of them takes the 
lead in general conversation and the usual compli 
mentary talk and then introduces the subject of Chris 
tianity and asks his friend to speak more fully about 
it. I am assured that the visits have been welcomed 
and no unwillingness shown to listen to the Gospel 

sage. 

In the outdoor work for the evangelisation of our 
large cities, women s work must never be forgotten. 
The comparative failure of much of our best effort in the 
past has resulted from its one-sided nature. Great 
efforts have been made to win the men, and comparatively 
so little has been done for the women. Probably the 
complaint that second generation Christians are often 
disappointing is largely to be traced to this cause. The 
simplest and most primitive form of Bible-women s work 
is still the most effective, viz., house-to-house visitation. 
Where the Bible- women are tactful and well instructed 
they seldom meet with a rebuff, although they are at 
times tried by finding the women of the house they visit 
too bus)- at the stove or spinning wheel to give their 
undivided attention to the Gospel message. The most 
satisfactory results are achieved when the Bible-woman 



1 78 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

can arrange to come on certain days to teach her sister 
to read. Intelligent young women often jump at the 
opportunity of learning to read, and while giving valu 
able help in this way the Bible-woman has her oppor 
tunity of giving careful and thorough Christian teaching. 
The wives of the men converts and mothers of the 
children in mission schools should be especially sought 
out. Many churches in China have had congregations 
composed almost entirely of men, but where a wise use 
of suitable Bible-women has been made the women s 
benches rapidly fill up and provide some of the most 
interested and earnest listeners. 

The indoor work of evangelisation in the cities 
may be dealt with more briefly. Street chapel preaching 
has been from the early days of Protestant missions in 
China the most prominent and the most successful means 
of reaching all classes, and while many other agencies 
formerly unknown are now in full activity it is probable 
that no one other agency is so potent to-day as this 
primitive one. A change, however, seems to be taking 
place in two directions. Formerly most of the work 
was done in the day time, and strangers from a distance 
were most in evidence in the congregations ; now the 
tendency is to put more and more stress upon evening 
preaching, and the effort is made to interest and win 
the people of the neighbourhood ; moreover for this even 
ing work it is often found helpful to have hymn singing, 
reading of Scripture and prayer as well as preaching. 
In other words less stress is laid upon wide evangelism 
now that almost every part of the empire is in touch 
with Christian missions and more effort is made to build 
up strong local churches. Again, far less is heard in 
the addresses about the falsity of idolatry and the folly 
of superstition ; all this is now taken for granted, and 
the preacher addresses himself more to the task of 
unfolding the teachings of Christianity, its ethical and 
practical aspects and more especially enforcing the great 
doctrines of grace. In some missions guest room work 



EVANGELISATION IN THE CITIES. 179 

is largely if not entirely taking the place of street chapel 
work. The best results are obtained when the guest 
room with its personal dealing is used as the adjunct of 
the open preaching in the chapel. 

In large student centres special lectures and services 
are greatly appreciated and well attended by the student 
classes. 

The question of efficient evangelistic work in con 
nection with hospitals and dispensaries should receive 
careful thought. While greater skill and thoroughness 
is being shown in surgical and medical work and higher 
results are being attained, so that as object lessons of 
Christian philanthropy our hospitals never stood so high 
as they now do, it is a question whether the evangelistic 
side is pressed as earnestly as was once the case. The 
foreign missionary becomes more and more the leader 
and organiser of a large band of Chinese workers, and 
it is no longer possible for him to spend the time at the 
bedside that once he delighted to do, but it should be 
recognised that this work demands the best efforts of 
our most highly trained evangelists, men who can not 
only lovingly enforce the claims and consolations of 
the Gospel to those in the wards, but can form friend 
ships and carry on correspondence with those who 
have been impressed, after they have returned to their 
homes. 

In closing, I would strongly emphasise the necessity 
of setting apart men as evangelistic missionaries. Edu 
cational \vork, literary work, medical work, business 
work, training work, are all indispensable, but it should 
be our concern to arrange that at each important centre 
at least one man should be set free to specialise as a 
preacher of the Gospel to the masses. Whatever other 
work we attempt, nothing should be allowed to put out 
of sight what is after all our first and greatest duty, 
namely the making Christ known to the people as a 
whole. 

C. G. SPARHAM. 



ISO CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

II. EVANGELISTIC WORK IN THE COUNTRY. 

To report progress during the past three years in 
country evangelism over such a vast area as China, and 
in the very short time given, is a well-nigh impossible 
task if strict accuracy in figures is aimed at. To make 
my statements as accurate as possible I have corresponded 
with representative missionaries in all of China s eighteen 
provinces, but I have altogether refrained from giving 
statistics. These, if given, could be at best only frag 
mentary and altogether an unsafe guide to the student 
of the great evangelistic problem of China. The replies 
from the provinces to my sets of five questions have not 
been all that I could have wished, but in addition to my 
efforts in that way to get the needed information my 
connection with the recently organized Evangelistic 
Association of China has put me in possession of 
information of the greatest value. I do not claim for 
this chapter the strictest accurateness so far as the work 
in every province is concerned, but the conclusions arrived 
at, I venture to say, will be a fairly safe guide to those 
interested in this work. 

Evangelism in the country places is the great press 
ing need at the present moment, and in reporting the 
progress of the work for the past three years it is 
necessary to view the whole question, especially in regard 
to the reasons why it is not more to the front than it is. 
I will do so under the following four general divisions : 

I. The field and present-day opportunities. 
The evangelism of the rank and file. 

III. The regular staff and its limitations. 

IV. The present need. 

I. THK FIELD AND PRESENT-DAY OPPORTUNITIES. 

This is certainly the day of opportunity in China, 
and not from one standpoint only can this be said, for 
both as regards the accessibility of the country and the 
open ear of the people it can most truly be said that 



EVANGELISTIC WORK IN THE COUNTRY. l8l 

China is open as never before. This is the testimony of 
devoted workers in all parts of the Empire. More than 
forty years ago the late Hudson Taylor said that there 
was no need to pray that China might be opened to the 
Gospel, that it was even then open, and God was waiting 
for His people to enter. If that was so then, what shall 
we say of conditions to-day ? God is, in a very real sense, 
waiting for His people to enter, and with the greater 
opportunities come the heavier responsibilities. 

When we speak of China being open do not interpret 
that as meaning that the Chinese are hungering for the 
Gospel. They are hungering for something and we know 
that the Gospel alone can satisfy their real need, whether 
they know it or not. The people everywhere manifest a 
willingness to listen that has not been known before, 
and all the Bible Societies report unprecedented sales of 
Scripture portions. 

It can also be safely said that there are now no 
parts of this immense land that are closed to the mis 
sionary or the Chinese evangelist. Even the small 
hamlets will give welcome to the Chinese evangelist, even 
though sometimes these are now still inaccessible to 
the foreign missionary. If progress in aggressive evan 
gelism in the country district may be thought by some 
to have been slow in the past few years, it has not been 
because of closed doors, but rather because the churches 
at home have not laid hold on their God-given oppor 
tunities. Of no time more than the present could the 
following words have a direct application: "Behold, I 
have set before thee an open door." Will not He who 
opened the door require it of the churches that it be 
entered, and that it be entered speedily, for we know not 
how long it may remain open ? Surely in this respect 
at least there has been progress and that of a divine 
order, for has it not been Jehovah going before His 
people ! 

There may be many conflicting opinions as to the 
secondary causes for the wonderfully open door, but we 



1 82 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

will not now enter into any discussion of these : sufficient 
for us to know that God, who is Lord over all circum 
stances and causes, has set before us this open door. 

We can also report progress as regards the opening 
of new centres. We cannot tabulate the exact number 
opened* during the past three years, but extracts from 
one or two letters may give a fair idea of what has 
been taking place in most parts of China. A letter 
from the far-off province ot Kansuh says: "In the 
south of the province an out-station has been opened 
at Hsihohsieu, and another at a market town. In the 
west an out-station has been opened at Hochow. In 
the northwest an out-station has been opened thirty 
// from Iviaugchowfu. In the central part a mission 
ary is at present living in an inn, hoping to open 
up settled work in Kongchangfu." It is a long dis 
tance from Kansuh in the north to Kiangsi in the south- 
central part of China, but from the latter province we 
have the news that five places have been opened by 
three different missions. These are additional outposts 
ready to be used, with all other missionary centres, 
as bases for extended evangelistic work when the 
churches at home send forth the needed evangelistic 
missionaries. 

With all that is encouraging in connection with mis 
sionary effort in China there is the fact, very much to 
be deplored, that several centres have had to be aban 
doned, not because of riot and opposition but because of 
lack of funds. These things ought not to be ! 

It is most encouraging to note, and it is a very 
real mark of progress, that not a few of the newly- 
opened outposts have been opened by the Chinese Chris 
tians themselves. As the Chinese Christians themselves 
are putting forth efforts for the evangelization of their 
own people, let not the parent churches be behind in 
entering the open doors. 

*Sce Appendix : I^ist of new stations opened since 1907. 



EVANGELISTIC WORK IN THE COUNTRY. 183 

II. THE EVANGELISM OF THE RANK AND FILE. 

By the rank and file I mean the lay and ordinary 
members of the churches in China, who while pursuing 
their ordinary daily callings do very real evangelistic 
work by the witness they bear among their heathen 
neighbours. This is by no means an insignificant part of 
the great problem of evangelism, for testimony abounds 
to the fact that almost wherever there is rapid growth in 
the number of converts, it is very largely due to the faith 
ful witness borne in the country districts by the lives 
of those who have received the Lord Jesus Christ as Lord 
and Saviour. That this is as it ought to be will be 
acknowledged by all, and it is most fitting that this form 
of service should have a front place in a report like this. 

A missionary writes me from the province of Kiang- 
si that another missionary with whom he was conversing 
told him that since the revival last year his difficulty 
had been to keep the Chinese helpers from overworking 
where formerly he had to press them to go to the country. 
When such a zeal possesses the preaching staff we may 
well expect the rank and file to be earnest in their en 
deavours to reach their heathen friends, and reports from 
so many parts of China all bear evidence to this fact. 

A missionary from the province of Shansi told me 
that the Chinese Christians in a certain city, very cold 
and dead in past years, were now most zealous in their 
desire for souls, going out two-and-two each Sunday after 
noon to the near villages. Good results were following. 

Perhaps the most notable instance of the results of 
the individual testimony of the rank and file of the 
churches is to be found in the work among the abor 
iginal tribes of the Western provinces of Yunnan and 
Kweichow ; the large numbers that have been gathered 
into the churches there during the past three years have 
been unique in the history of Chinese missions, and in 
more respects than one the movement resembles that in 
Corea. A missionary writing from the province of Yun 
nan says: "The work among the Chinese has, for the 



!84 CHINA MISSION YKAR BOOK. 

most part, remained stationary, while the work among 
the aboriginals has gone forward by leaps and bounds. 
In the N. E. and N. W. (of the province) the Hwa 
Miao have practically broken away from the past and 
are under Christian instruction. Several thousands have 
been baptized, and they have something over fifty 
chapels; some holding 1,000, others 800. The Lesu, 
Laka gather together for Christian worship and have 
built several chapels." 

That the work of evangelization among the tribes 
people is being carried on chiefly through the agency 
of the native Christians themselves is quite beyond 
all question, for the regular staff consists only of 5 
foreign missionaries, 5 Chinese evangelists, 18 aboriginal 
preachers, and 60 others, who give part of their time 
(sometimes only amounting to one-half). With so 
many baptized converts and enquirers needing constant 
instruction it is quite evident that the time of members 
of the regular staff must be entirely taken up with 
teaching and pastoral duties, leaving direct evangelistic 
effort as a mere side issue as they go to and fro. An 
idea may be formed of how the work spreads from the 
following extract from a letter received : "Leaders and 
choice spirits are selected from the various villages to 
come to the central station for Bible study in regular 
order, and on their return they impart the instruction 
they have received to others." 

From all parts of China we hear of the immense 
value of the voluntary individual testimony of the rank 
and file of the churches, and similar testimonies to those 
given above could be multiplied over and over, but space 
will not permit. This much, however, must be said 
that this personal testimony of believers has very much 
increased in certain parts of China since the times of 
revival were experienced. One of the most noticeable 
features of those revival missions was the deep convic 
tion of sin (often accompanied by physicial pain) because 
of neglect of the souls of others, and need we wonder 



EVANGELISTIC WORK IN THE COUNTRY. 185 

that one of the blessed results of such revivals should be 
doubly renewed efforts on the part of believers for the 
salvation of their heathen neighbours. 

During the past three years there has been very 
decided progress as regards this phase of evangelistic 
work in the country, and we praise God that we are 
able to chronicle it. 

III. THE REGULAR STAFF AND ITS LIMITATIONS. 

For some years direct aggressive evangelistic work 
in the country districts has not been given the place it 
ought to have in such a laud as China. It is well that 
those interested in the cause of missions should enquire 
into the causes for this, and whilst my statement on 
this question will not be exhaustive by any means, it 
will give something by way of suggestion. From letters 
received from all parts of the field I feel that I am on 
perfectly safe ground to say that the cause for the ap 
parent neglect of what all will admit to be the first 
work of the missionary is two-fold. But first let us see 
whether this aggressive form of evangelistic work is 
neglected or not. The Evangelistic Association of China 
was organized by request of the China Centenary Mis 
sionary Conference because of a very general felt need 
for something that would revive direct evangelistic 
work. This in itself is sufficient to convince us that 
this phase of missionary work is not now occupying the 
place it did, or ought to do, but letters received from 
all parts of the Empire speak of the rise of educational 
work and the rapid wane of direct evangelistic work 
by the recognized agents of the missionary societies. 
So we may sajely conclude that direct aggressive evangel 
ism is not where it was, and it is therefore impossible 
to record anything like progress, though we gratefully 
thank God for what He has done by what may be termed 
the irregular evangelistic work of those who had other 
duties to perform. 



1 86 CHINA MISSION YKA tt BOOK. 

There are two outstanding causes for the present 
decline of interest in the direct evangelistic phase of 
missionary work. The first cause is given most candidly 
in the following extract from a letter received from the 
province of Chekiang : "The lack of both foreign and 
Chinese workers in our own district is such that time for 
aggressive evangelistic work grows less and less as the 
churches grow." From the above it will readily be 
gathered that pastoral and teaching duties are so absorb 
ing the time of both foreign and Chinese workers that 
no time can be spared for direct evangelistic work. This 
is further shown by what follows in the same letter : 
" Perhaps I had better indicate as briefly as I can how we 
are situated in our district. At the present moment there 
are four country churches and 10 other preaching stations, 
with a total membership of over 500, and for the pastoral 
work involved in those figures I am the only foreign 
missionary available, and there is no Chinese pastor. 
That statement in itself shows the impossibility of any 
aggressive evangelistic work being done by the mission 
ary himself, for at the best evangelistic effort comes in 
as a side issue as one is passing along from one point to 
another, or by embracing the opportunities offered while 
visiting members, etc. I think you will see my point. 
Your questions are all to do with pure evangelistic work, 
whereas now I seldom go out : with that sole object in 
view ; there is always some other objective ; a family to 
be visited, a service to be conducted, a quarrel to settle, 
a building to be inspected, examinations to be held, 
conferences to be arranged for, Bible schools conducted, 
deacons to be met, and so on. Then if we turn to the 
Chinese workers we find ourselves much in the same 
position ; they are either voluntary helpers o^ what we call 
subsidized workers, i.e., those able and willing to give a 
portion of their time to the oversight of some preaching 
stations, responsible for the Sunday services, etc., but 
not able to devote that time without some return. Of 
full time evangelists we have only three : one is too old 



EVANGEUSTIC WORK IN THE COUNTRY. 187 

to do very much now, another practically gives all his 
time to assisting me in various wa)^s correspondence, en 
quiries, journeys, etc. There is only one really free, and 
he has charge of two out-stations with their members." 

The above is a very fair example of conditions in 
many parts of China, and from statistics gathered in 
connection with the issue of the appeal for additional 
evangelistic workers it was only too evident that there 
were very few workers, Chinese or foreign, free to engage 
in anything like aggressive evangelistic work. The 
results, therefore, of the work of the past few years have 
been very largely brought about by the rank and file of 
the churches, the missionaries and Chinese workers while 
caring for pastoral and other duties, and those who are 
engaged in educational, medical, and other forms of what 
is known as institutional work. Conditions in China 
to-day demand a well-devised plan of aggressive evangel 
istic work, and if such a plan was carried out the results 
would certainly be phenomenal. 

Direct and aggressive evangelistic work is not only 
handicapped by the absorption in pastoral work of the 
greater number of foreign and Chinese workers in the 
growing pastoral work of the churches, but also by the 
strong emphasis now laid on the importance of educa 
tional work as compared with direct evangelistic effort. 
A missionary in Shansi writes: "I should say less 
evangelistic work is being done these days here, as the 
foreigners are being increasingly drawn off for educa 
tional and pastoral work." The same thing is true of 
most parts of China, and let it be remembered that the 
home churches are in a very large measure responsible 
for this condition of things. Let the supporters of mis 
sions at home only realize that educational work can 
only be pushed in proportion as the evangelistic work 
increases, and we shall then have things in their right 
proportion. We would not for a moment suggest that 
too much educational work is being done in China, but 
we would emphasise the fact that far too little attention 



1 88 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

is paid to direct aggressive evangelistic work. This 
latter is the first duty of the missionary societies, and 
we feel quite within the mark to say that for every 
missionary, or Chinese worker, engaged in educational, 
pastoral, medical, and all other forms of institutional 
work there should be at least four set apart for direct 
aggressive evangelistic work. 

In this department alone can we record not progress 
but retrogression, but let us hope that we are on the eve 
of new things. 

IV. THE PRESENT NEED. 

Enough has been said, both in regard to the open 
door in China and the present unsatisfactory state in 
which aggressive evangelistic work is, to indicate that 
very real needs exist. The evangelization of the world 
in this generation has become of late years almost a 
household word, but do not let our familiarity with its 
use make its power to be less felt upon us. It is true 
that the only generation we can be a blessing to is our 
own, and there is therefore great urgency in the call to 
evangelize the still unreached millions of China. The 
wide open doors of this vast land call loudly to the 
home churches to arise and enter in. The present 
condition of direct evangelistic effort demands a greatly 
increased staff of men and women specially set apart for 
that work, and just as definitely set apart as men and 
women are for educational and medical work. 

Federated effort is now not only possible in China 
but most desirable, and in no branch of missionary effort 
could this be more easily done than in direct aggressive 
evangelistic effort in the country districts. All the 
societies now at work in China should combine in a great 
united effort for the evangelization of the unreached 
millions in China, and should aim at the work being 
accomplished speedily, for who can tell how long this 

door will remain open. 

ALEX. R. SAUNDERS. 



CHAPTER VIII* 



INDEPENDENCE AND SELF-SUPPORT. 

Progress of Independence and Self-Support in North China. 

MANCHURIA. 

(TT HOUGH the Christians in Manchuria were im- 
Vll poverished by the Russo-Japanese war, they have 
of late been making rapid strides toward independ 
ence and self-support. In the Scotch Presbyterian Mis 
sion the rule is that pastors must be supported by their 
congregations. Under this rule there are native pastors 
in eiglit large cities, and in one of them Mukden two. 
Besides these the Mukden church supports two ordained 
missionaries in Chichihar province. Nearly all the 
primary education and a large part of the secondary is 
at the cost of the Christians. Mukden last year sup 
ported a large primary boys school with three or four 
teachers, a secondary boys school with three teachers, 
and a girls school with one teacher. The teachers 
salaries are double or treble what they were a few years 
a*>o. The Mukden church at the same time supported 
si x evangelists and four Bible-women in the city. The 
east Mukden church has, this past year, contributed 
over $5,000. Its pastor and elders do much evangelistic 
work in the circle of its twenty-five out-stations. It has 
lately provided a refuge for homeless men and women 
members of the church, perhaps the first of the kind in 

China. 

The churches under the Irish Presbyterian Mission, 
with 10, 203 members and 3,043 catechumens, contributed 
last year approximately $16,000. Four pastors are 
entirely supported by their churches. The churches 
also sustain two missionaries in Heilungchiang province. 
Without exception all the boys schools, with 1,272 



I 9 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

scholars, are self-supporting. Of the girls schools, with 
603 pupils, nearly one-half of the expense is met by the 
native church. Local churches pay all their current 
expenses, and also the cost of maintaining street chapels 
in connection with them ; only the evangelists salaries 
being drawn from mission funds. 

CHIHLI. 

In the United Methodist Mission all funds raised 
from Chinese sources are under the control of the native 
church courts. The ideal of making all branches of 
work self-supporting is being slowly attained. Strong 
centres are established, in which evangelistic, educa 
tional, and medical work is carried on by resident mis 
sionaries, by mission funds and subscriptions from the 
general public. The churches springing from this work 
are linked together in one circuit and share in full the 
benefits of the central institution. Three of the larger 
churches are nearly self-supporting. The pastors or 
preachers in four or five others are maintained by the 
generosity of wealthy members. In a hundred or more 
places houses of worship are provided rent free by the 
owners. 

In the Methodist Episcopal Mission the rule in 
church, educational, and medical work is self-support in 
proportion to ability. The amounts contributed last 
year will give an idea of how the rule is carried out. 
They were : for pastoral support, $3,026 ; for home and 
foreign missions, $3,229 ; for church buildings, $304; for 
current expenses, $1,698 ; for medical work, $4, 603, and 
for education, $22,135, making a total of $34,995. 

The churches in the Condon Mission field have the 
past year established a series of church councils : first, the 
individual church ; second, the district church council ; 
third, the annual Chinese church council, corresponding 
somewhat to the English Congregational Union. This 
scheme is not theoretical merely, but essentially practical, 



INDEPENDENCE AND SELF-SUPPORT. IQI 

having grown out of a keenly felt need. The east city 
church supports its pastor, its chapel keeper, the teachers 
in two schools, pays its own incidental expenses, and 
meets the expenses of two branch churches. The west 
city church, small and poor, meets the incidental ex 
penses of the church and of a preaching chapel, and 
supports a school teacher. Of the sixty chapels in the 
Hsiaochang district more than thirty have been provided 
by the church members without help, and for the re 
mainder the whole sum contributed by the mission was 
but Taels 500. The Anglo-Chinese church in Tientsin 
supports evangelists in three districts Tsangchou, Wei- 
che n, and Tungchou. 

In the Church of England Mission native churches 
share in the government ; first in the local council, which 
raises and administers funds for the maintenance of 
schools, church expenses, etc., which funds are raised 
by weekly offerings, semi-annual collections, and by 
assessments on male communicants in proportion to their 
means and standing, and second in the district council 
which, worked from a central station, binds together and 
controls the individual churches. This scheme is prov 
ing efficient not only in developing self-support in the 
churches, but in propagating the Gospel amongst those 
that are without. 

The field of the American Presbyterian Church was 
in the storm centre in the Boxer outbreak in 1900. Not 
only was two-thirds of the church s members in city and 
country massacred, but so much terror inspired in the 
east and north that until recently few dared even to 
listen to the Gospel, much less to accept it. In the city, 
however, the church has more than recovered its 
strength, and with growing numbers has grown in in 
dependence and self-support. The east Peking church, 
out of its poverty, contributed about Tls. 1,000 for the 
furnishing of their new church building. Recently, with 
a little help from others, they have purchased and 
repaired an excellent building for a chapel at Chingho, 



!Q2 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

where they maintain then- own evangelist, who is a. 
graduate of the Union Theological School. The west 
church, but recently organized, is also doing its share in 
self-support and giving the Gospel to those outside. In 
Paotingfu all the country churches are giving liberally 
for buildings and pastors, and are more and more taking 
upon themselves the burdens of church duties and 
responsibilities. In all three stations of the mission- 
Peking, Paotingfu, and Shuntefu medical and educa 
tional work, both of which are on a large scale, are 
generously sustained by fees and gifts. These, this last 
year, approximated $10,000. 

In the extensive region covered by the American 
Board Mission, self-support is making headway, though 
not so rapidly as might be desired. In Peking the 
north congregational church, under the guidance of a 
wise and experienced pastor, has for a number of years 
been entirely self-supporting and also entirely independ 
ent of foreign control. It is considered a model Chinese 
church, after which many others, it is hoped, will soon 
be patterned. 

In the South Chihli Mission a central committee of 
five, chosen by delegates from aU the churches, collects 
and disburses all funds contributed by Chinese members. 
It now has fifteen regular native evangelists at work 
and eighteen others on the field under instruction, of 
whom ten are nearly ready to be added to the regular 
preaching corps. These evangelists are all chosen men, 
and several of them have literary degrees. A monthly 
church meeting is held, at which all are expected to be 
piesent and make contributions. 

SHANSI. 

Since the massacre of 1900 the English Baptist 
Mission has begun its work de novo. Though still in 
the first stages of self-support, the church elects its own 
officers, gives generously, controls its own funds, and 



INDEPENDENCE AND SELF-SUPPORT. 193 

meets, to a large extent, expenses of evangelizing out 
lying districts. Two attempts to found an independent 
church one in the south of the province by Baptists 
and the other at Taiku by converts of the American 
Board Mission were premature and have ended in 
failure. But in the Baptist, American Board, and China 
Inland Missions self-support is kept steadily in view, 
and is being pushed as rapidly as the condition of the 
province admits. 

HONAN. 

In the Canadian Presbyterian Mission in Honan 
self-support has taken the form of providing places of 
worship, supporting in whole or in part Chinese evangel 
ists, and establishing country schools. One pastor 
holds services at six places in buildings for worship 
erected by the Chinese themselves. Another ministers 
in three buildings given by Christians after special 
services. Two pastors have each had, during part of 
the past year, assistant evangelists supported by the 
communities in which they labored. Two central stations 
support three evangelists each. As a rule the mission 
pays a part of the salaries of teachers in country schools 
at the beginning, but withdraws support after two or 
three years. Successive crop failures have lessened the 
ability of the Honan Christians to make their school and 
evangelistic work commensurate with their desires, and 
even caused a considerable number of them, to seek more 
favorable conditions in a neighboring province. 

In the China Inland Mission, with Kaifeng as a 
centre, there are 41 organized churches where the Lord s 
Supper is administered, 71 out-stations, 1,469 baptized 
members, 9 boarding-schools, with 157 scholars, and 18 
day-schools with 260 scholars, all of whom pay school 
fees. The school at Kaifeng pays in full the salary of 
an evangelist, half the rent of a street chapel, and meets 
the expenses, including rent, of an out-station. Bible 
schools are held each year at each station, both for men 



194 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

and women, and all who attend furnish or pay for their 
own food. It is the rule of the mission that each church 
should rent, purchase or erect its own buildings. Annual 
conferences are held at each station, and are attended 
by hundreds, all of whom provide their own food. Most 
churches have their own evangelists supported by 
church funds. Almost all out-stations have buildings 
provided by their own communities, in which services 
are conducted voluntarily by unpaid men. Church 
members contribute freely of their time and means in 
evangelistic work at the markets and fairs. 

SHANTUNG. 

In Tsinan, the capital, mission work, though still 
behind other places in the province, has made striking 
advances the past few years. In the Presbyterian Mis 
sion three churches have recently been erected by the 
Chinese \vith their own money, and three girls schools, 
in two of which graduate teachers are employed ; the 
third being in charge of an educated woman. The 
country Christians willingly paid the salary of Pastor 
Ting, a most successful evangelist, during protracted 
special services. One deacon supports an evangelist and 
a Bible- woman. An elder and a deacon have employed 
a teacher in a school which has grown from 12 to 33 
pupils. A union of Baptists and Presbyterians has called 
a Chinese pastor of their own. 

Weihsien Presbytery has 8 ordained Chinese minis 
ters supported by their churches, with salaries varying 
from $100 to $160 per annum. All church buildings 
outside of the mission compound have been built by the 
native Christians. One of them is of brick with tile 
roof, and seats 400 people. While erecting this build 
ing the congregation paid their pastor s salary and two- 
thirds of the running expenses of two schools. In the 
Weihsien mission all schools provide their own build 
ings. Twenty out-stations in the district under charge 



INDEPENDENCE AND SELF-SUPPORT. 1 95 

of the Rev. F. H. Cbalfant pay in full the salaries of 
their pastors. Of the 140 other out-stations many do 
the same. 

The church at Chefoo supports an assistant pastor 
at a salary of $240, pays $9 per month to a country 
evangelist, and supports wholly a school of 20 young 
women. This church last year built a parsonage cost 
ing over $1,000. Two elders have built a school-house 
and pay the teacher. One young woman has provided 
a building and teaches a school at her own charges. 
Another woman conducts a school without assistance 
from the mission. The churches at Tsingtau, Shentan 
and Tengchowfu support their own pastors. 

J. WHERRY. 

Progress in Independence and Self-support in South China. 

This report is based upon fifty-four papers (being 
the answers to fifteen questions) I have received from 
missionaries living in South China, i.e., from Taichow 
in Chekiang to Pakhoi in Kwangtung and Hainan. 
A careful reading of these reports from about sixty 
central stations shows that there is at present very little 
demand for independence in the form of anti-foreign 
agitation in sympathy with the national spirit such as 
we find upon reading the Chinese secular papers. 
Practically all missionaries report that the measure of 
independence which the Chinese Christians have already 
attained has been due to a mature growth on their part. 
Self-support, which opens the way to self-government, 
in nearly all denominations is, however, a slow attain 
ment. Very few central stations are able to report any 
marked advance since the Centenary Conference. It is 
only in larger missions in which the church membership 
numbers several thousands that self-support may be 
said to be a real issue. 

From the data which I have, it would seem as 
though the Christians living in the southern half of the 



196 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Fokien province, especially near Amoy, were the most 
liberal givers among all onr Christians of South China, 
and I have no doubt they rank well with the best 
supporters of Christian work in all China. From what 
I gather four societies working in that part of the 
province, i.e., the London Mission, the English Pres 
byterian, the American Methodist, and the American 
Reformed Missions have a total church-membership of 
over 15,000 in good standing, and their total contri 
butions received from Christians and adherents make the 
splendid average of over $6.00 Mex. per church member. 
Or in other words, excluding the expenses for educational 
work, the Christians in that region are paying about 
80 per cent, of all the funds needed to carry on their 
local church work. That is far better than these same 
societies are doing in other parts of China, and would 
indicate that it is not due to any special effort of teaching 
or methods used by any one or all of these societies, but 
is rather due to the inherent qualities of the Chinese in 
that district to do larger things for their own church 
work. In the Swatow region the 8,000 Presbyterian and 
Baptist Christians raise a little over $4.00 Mex. per 
church member, and in several parts of that Mission 
field the Christians raise 80 per cent, of all the funds 
needed to carry on their local church work. 

In the Canton delta some of the larger missions are 
able to raise about $3.00 Mex. per church member. 
Different methods of presenting church statistics may, 
however, easily lead to wrong conclusions. Thus the 
three German mission societies who labour in the 
Kwangtung province (Basel, Rhenish, and Berlin) con 
stitute the largest Christian body in that province. They 
have now united into a closer federation and have a 
church membership of over 15,000 and are doing most 
excellent work in every way. But by their method of 
reporting contributions of local churches towards self- 
support, one would get the impression that they do not 
begin to raise the sums of money which is usually the 



INDEPENDENCE AND SELF-SUPPORT. 197 

case in American and English missions. But t?iis is 
only seemingly so. I believe that if their contributions 
for all objects were given in a lump sum tlie totals 
received would not be much different from the sums 
raised in other missions working in the same district. 

Though many of the larger congregations are now 
able to pa} their own local church expenses, that by 
itself is still a far cry to complete self-support. The 
expenses for educational work in all its higher branches 
are practically paid entirely by foreign mission societies. 
A small tuition fee is demanded by some institutions and 
is a beginning in the right direction. It is a serious 
question whether the high standard of seminary, college, 
and academy buildings, now being erected in all parts of 
China with foreign money, does not make self-support of 
the Chinese church in the real sense of the word 
absolutely impossible for many generations to come. 
The fact is the Chinese churches would be unable to 
keep these great buildings in decent repair, were they 
intrusted to their care at this time. And as to ability to 
raise the main 7 tens of thousands of dollars necessary to 
pay the running expenses of these institutions, that will 
be impossible until the Christian constituency numbers 
millions where now it numbers only myriads. Thus 
when we speak about self-support to-day, we can only 
use the phrase in a limited sense. It can only refer to 
the ability of local congregations to pay the expenses of 
their local church work. 

The establishment of home mission societies to 
carry on mission work in distant fields offers excellent 
opportunity by which the churches are led to bear 
responsibilities. It also has the effect of widening their 
conceptions of the greatness and costliness of the work 
of extending the kingdom of God. The reflex effect 
upon the churches is very wholesome, and the establish 
ment of mission societies has brought great blessings to 
those churches who have taken up the work with zeal 
and energy. In all there are about ten home mission 



198 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

vSocieties established in South China, and it is not 
surprising to find that these churches are the strongest 
and most progressive in all South China. 

It is not to the credit of the Chinese Christians that 
they have been so slow in establishing philanthropic 
institutions of their own. This is due no doubt to their 
great poverty as a race. The Christian churches are 
supposed to care for their poor. Whether they do 
really meet that need, or are able to do so is problematic. 
In our larger Christian communities a good deal of 
interest is taken in hospital work, but as this work is 
paid largely out of foreign funds it cannot be called 
philanthropy of the Chinese church. We do have a 
beginning of philanthropic institutions in a number of 
mission centres. In Canton, apart from educational 
institutions purely under Chinese control, there is an 
orphanage, an asylum for the blind, and opium refuges. 
One mission has a large fund for the alleviation of the 
poor. In the Swatow district one mission has a fund 
for aiding destitute families of preachers and another 
mission is undertaking the establishment of a home for 
old people. There are similar kinds of institutions 
being established in the Fukieu province. The day 
seems close at hand when Chinese Christians will exercise 
practical Christianity upon their own initiative and 
without foreign aid. 

The two reasons given by the majority of cor 
respondents to the question "What (if any) are the 
present hindrances to complete self-support of local 
churches throughout your field ? " have been : 

First. The great poverty of the Chinese Christians. 

Secondly. The lack of reliable leaders, both or 
dained and unordained. 

As the church in China grows more numerous these 
difficulties will be overcome, though it will be many 
years, if ever, before the Chinese church will be able to 
carry on missionary work at the pace which European 
and American missionary societies are setting at present. 



INDEPENDENCE AND SELF-SUPPORT. 199 

As to the present status of self-support and inde 
pendence of the best developed fields in South China, I 
fully agree with a large number of missionaries who have 
replied to the question, " Do you think the Chinese Chris 
tians of your mission able to carry on their local church 
work (not school work) independently of the foreign mis 
sionary ?" as follows; "Yes, but it would not be done 
so effectively. The churches would languish spiritually. 
They still need the help of the foreign missionary." 

In conclusion, I will add that if we continue to 
uphold European and American ideals of church life 
and order as a criterion for the Chinese Christians to 
follow, we will need foreign missionaries to the end of 
time. But if the local churches were compelled by the 
foreign missionaries to work out their own local destinies, 
even though that involved poor church buildings in 
mean quarters and a typical Chinese religious service, 
the day of having a strong, independent church, virile 
in every act and expression; will not be very distant. 

JACOB SPEICHER. 

Progress of Independence and Self-support in Central China. 

Questions sent out .by Rev. W. C. Longden for the 
chapter on " Progress in Independence and Self-support " 
in Central China, with their answers. 

i. Do you find there is a growing desire on the 
part of the Chinese Christians for independence ? 

(a) Rev. L. I. Moffett, A. P. M., So., Kiangyin. No. 

(b) Rev. J. L. vStuart, A. P. M., So., Hangchow. Yes. 

(c) Rev. G. F. Mosher, A. P. E., Wusih. Yes. 

(d) Rev. T. Britton, A. B., So., Soochow. I think so. 

(e) Rev. R. A. Parker, M. E., So., Changchow. Yes. 

(f) Rev. J. R. Goddard, A. B. M. U., Ningpo. Yes. 

(g) Rev. J. L. Hendry, M. E., So., Huchowfu. Yes, they are 
looking forward to the time when they can direct and control 
their own church. In this I am in full sympathy with them. 

(h) Rev. O. C. Crawford, A. P. M., Soochow. Yes. 
(i) Bishop H. J. Molony, D.I)., C. M. S., Ningpo. Yes, the 
desire is growing. 



200 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

2. If so, is there a corresponding readiness to under 
take the support of the work ? 

00 - 

(b) No. 

(c) A slight, but by no means corresponding readiness. 

(d) They seem cominen<lably ready to give. 

(e) No." 

(f) Yes, as far as they are able. 

(g) Tliere is a willingness lo do what they can, but they 
lack ability. 

(h) Chinese Christians doing all they can according to their 
ability, financially. 

(I) There is considerable growth in support of the pastors, 
and there is also a flourishing missionary society. 

3. DJ you think the Chinese Christians in your 
field able to carry on the local church work independently 
of the missionary society ? 

(a) Two churches could if thev were disposed to do so. 

(b) No. 

(c) No. 

(d) Not yet. 

(e) Most certainly, no, 

(f) No. 

(g) No, not for some time yet The older portion of the 
field is showing a decided disposition to support their pastors 
and are paying their salaries, but rents and travel they are not 
able to pay. 

(h) Practically so. 

(i) I expect we shall have about twenty pastors in Chekiang 
supported by the Chinese, with the help of some endowment, 
about fifteen to twenty years hence. Two pastors are fully and 
others partially supported now. 

4. Is the government and discipline of your local 
churches administered by Chinese, or by missionaries, 
or by both jointly ? 

(a) Jointly. 

(b) Mostly by Chinese. 

(c) Both jointly. 

(d) By the church itself ; the missionary being a member 
generally. 

(e) Largelv by missionaries. 

(f) By Chinese, with the help and advice of the missionary. 



INDEPENDENCE AND SELF-SUPPORT. 2OI 

(g) In the older portions of the field native pastors are in 
charge under a presiding elder, and in those parts the native 
pastors administer discipline. In other parts where there are 
foreign senior pastors, they administer the discipline and govern 
ment jointly. 

(h) Jointly. Foreigners and natives on an equal basis in all 
church matters. Just now have a foreigner as a stated supply, 
but ordinarily the church is under a native pastor and session 
and is for all practical purposes independent. 

(i) Government and discipline are in the hands of a synod, 
of which about three-fourths are Chinese, the rest missionaries. 

5. What proportion of the cost of the following 
items is borne by the Chinese Christians : a. Day- 
schools ? b. Pastors salaries ? c. Local expenses ? 
d. Church buildings, or halls for worship? 

(a) Local expenses and about one-half of rent for chapels. 

(b) Probably one-half. 

(c) Can t say. 

(d) Nearly all the local expenses. 

(e) Nothing for day-schools, twenty per cent, for pastors 
salaries, ten per cent, for local expenses, nothing for church 
buildings, etc. 

(f ) a. About half; b. From two mouths to full salary ; c. A 
large part ; d. None. 

(g) a. Day-schools are partly supported by the mission, say, 
fifty per cent, and balance by the patrons, b. Some older circuits 
pay in full, while newer work pays according to their ability and 
the Board funds pay the balance. All rents paid from Board 
funds, except a few chapels that have been opened by our local 
missionary society. 

(h) About two-thirds of the native pastor s salary. He acts 
as an assistant to the foreign stated supply. 

(i) a. None ; all belong to the mission, b. In two cases the 
whole, in two more about three-fourths, others in reducing ratio. 
c. Not understood. Upkeep of places of worship, all ; mission, 
none. d. One church entirely built by a Chinese Christian 
family ; others partly. 

6. How many churches have you that wholly pro 
vide the cost of either or all of these items ? How many 
that provide none ? 

(a) One that provides all, but its pastor is voluntarily draw 
ing no salary. None that provide nothing. 

(b) None. None. 



202 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

(c) Can t say. 

(d) None. 

(e) None. None. 

(f) Two give the whole of the pastor s salary. All give 
something according to ability. 

(g) There is no church that provides all expenses. Every 
church helps in the matter of the pastor s salary. Also most in 
cidentals are paid by native members. 

(h) One. 

(i) Answer to first fact included above. All congregations 
make some contribution. 

7. How do the total contributions of 1909 compare 
with those ot 1906? What the average contribution now 
and then? (Per member.) 

(a) 1906, .07 c. 1909, .30 c. 

(b) In 1906, $642., in 1909, $603. The average in 1906 was 
$1.52. The average in 1909 was #1.30. 

(c) Increase. Can t say. 

(d) 

(e) Very slight increase. Do not know. 

(f) About the same. For several years the contributions 
have averaged about $2.00 per member. 

(g) The increase has been considerable. 

(h) Contributions better now than ever. Cannot give the 
average per member. Our people are giving more each year. 

(i) A little under a dollar a head, but full statistics not 
available, and underrated owing to want of separation between 
European and Chinese offertories in some congregations. 

8. Is there a growing readiness on the part of in 
dividual Chinese Christians to contribute a. fair portion of 
one s time to the work of the church? 

(a) No, except in rare cases. 

(b) Probably. 

(c) Yes, growing. 

(d) I think so. 

(e) I think not. 

(f) Yes. 

(g) Yes, decidedly. I have on this work two men who are 
self-supporting, and who devote most of their time to preaching. 

(h) I think so. 

(i) Few give time, except on Sunday, when wardens con 
duct divine worship voluntarily in many places. 



INDEPENDENCE AND SELF-SUPPORT. 203 

9. Have the Chinese Christians of your mission 
organized a home missionary society ? If so, what is it 
accomplishing? 

(a) No. 

(b) Yes. Our mission paid its proportion in a joint work 
at Cbanghsing $46.19. 

(c) Yes. 

(d) Yes. Supports one evangelist. 

(e) There is a conference society, with contributions from 
foreigners and Chinese in the proportion of about two to one in 
favour of the foreigners. 

(f) Yes. It maintains three preachers at a place called Dipu. 

(g) Yes, and are opening chapels in certain districts. 
Success good. 

(h) Our synod has a home missionary society, and all of the 
churches under it and within its bounds contribute to that 
society. They have an independent church at Dzanghyin 
which they support. The laud, building, and furnishings, and 
now the pastor s salary, and I think a helper is also supported by 
this society. They aiso have a good day-school and some out- 
station work in connection with that church. 

(i) Yes, employs one Chinese clergyman and two catechists 
in the country northwest of Hangchow city. Has gained about 
sixty converts in ten years. 

10. What, if any, are the substantial hindrances to 
complete self-support of local church work in your field 
at this time? 

(a) Chiefly the view that the mission has money and the 
unwillingness to pay for what they can get free. 

(b) They could do it with some self-denial. 

(c) Comparative poverty and insufficient understanding of 
the duty. 

(d) Most of the members poor, and a small proportion give. 

(e) Unwillingness to self-sacrifice. 

(f) The only hindrance that I know is the fewness and 
poverty of the members. 

(g) The principal difficulty standing in the way of self- 
support is the lack of financial strength on the part of the church. 

(h) There is no hindrance except the poverty and fewness 
of the church members. Expect to see the local church self- 
supporting in a year s time. 

(i) Poverty of the majority of converts (4,000 in number). 
Converts being very scattered, needing a number of pastors. 



204 CHINA MISSION YP^AR BOOK. 

11. Briefly stated what is your financial scheme? 
Is the onus of supporting the work placed upon the 
Chinese Christians, the Mission Board simply giving 
grants in aid? Or, does the Mission Board undertake 
the financial responsibility, securing from the local 
church such contributions as they may be willing and 
able to give ? 

(a) The Mission Board takes responsibility and gets from 
the church what it can. 

(b) The Mission Board undertakes the financial responsi 
bility and secures from the church such contributions as they 
may be able and willing to give. 

(c) The last. 

(d) Generally at first the Mission Board does all, and then 
the church takes over part as it is able. 

(e) No uniform plan. Most emphatically the latter. 

(f) Practically the latter, -until a church is strong enough to 
carry the burden, .when the burden is put on it. 

(g) In order to open up new fields, the Board has had to 
take the initiative and furnish funds to establish the work. 

(h) Mission Board undertakes financial responsibility and 
secures such contributions as the church is able to give. 

(i) We block our congregations (100 in Chekiang) into 
pastorates and the pastorates into three councils. Within each 
council area all subscribe to a common pastor s fund, to which 
a grant from home is added and all the pastors paid from it. 
We expect the home grants to cease in 15 or 20 years. 

12. To what extent is the Chinese church of your 
mission self-governing? 

(a) Foreigners and natives together constitute a Presbytery 
on the " Amoy Plan," and this Presbytery nominally controls the 
church. But this Presbytery has no control of funds all of 
which are controlled by the mission and administered by the 
foreigners. 

(b) Almost entirely self-governing. 

(c) Can t say. 

(d) Entirely. 

(e) Theoretically largely self-governing, practically largely 
governed by missionaries. 

(f) Practically each church is self-governing. 

(g) To the extent that our Methodist discipline grants 
them. They enjoy practically the same liberty the churches at 
home have. 



INDEPENDENCE AND SELF-SUPPORT. 205 

(h) Entirely so. Our church is a Chinese church pure and 
simple. It has its own governing bodies and has no connection 
whatever with any home or foreign church. 

(i) See (4). The synod is three-fourths native. The 
councils are entirely native, except chairman. 



Progress in Self-Support and Independence in West China. 

In the matter of self-support statistics reported 
annually to the Advisory Board show a steady rise 
during the past three years in the amount of contribu 
tions from Chinese Christians. 

This increase is, however, in no place adequate for 
anything like independent action, or for a self-support 
ing church. 

The disposition on the part of ill-instructed or 
partially instructed probationers to subscribe and rent 
a meeting place in small towns remote from mission 
centres is still a good deal in evidence. As a rule, 
not much encouragement is given by the various mis 
sions in the western provinces to this kind of contribu 
tion. Contributions of this kind are encouraged when 
the mission concerned is able to place an evangelist 
or a .school teacher in charge who is directly respon 
sible to the mission, and an increasing number of such 
places are being supported wholly or in part by the 
freewill offerings of Chinese Christians. 

The strong encouragement given by the London 
Missionary Society s deputation of 1903-4 to Chinese 
congregations to build their own places of worship in 
stead of depending on foreign funds for such a purpose 
has met with some response. In Chungking a site and 
new church, costing five thousand taels, was opened in 
December, 1907, towards which Chinese contributed 
about sixteen hundred taels. 

I quite expect if there were only time to collect 
the facts from all the other missions in these western 
provinces they would show more or less of the same 
kind of response. 



206 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

There is a manifest desire for native control of the 
Christian church in these provinces, and there is a 
corresponding disposition on the part of the missionaries 
to devolve an increasing share of the control as the 
knowledge and experience of the Chinese members and 
helpers increase. 

But there is not yet such a knowledge of what a 
Christian church should be, nor such a devotion to 
spiritual aims as to induce a sufficient number of con 
verts to unite in assuming responsibility. Practice 
varies of course in different missions. Some are more 
conservative than others in accepting pecuniary aid from 
professing Christians. Very little is received as far as 
one can gather from non-professors. 

I have stated the general attitude so far as it has 
been manifested, and if you are bringing out a Year 
Book next year facts collected meanwhile would prob 
ably bear out what I have said. 

I feel very sure that any backwardness in the matter 
of independence and self-support is due more to the 
unwillingness of the Christians to assume responsibility 
than to any disinclination on the part of missionaries to 
share or devolve it. 

ARTHUR K. CLAXTON. 



Independence and Self-Support of the Chinese Church from 
Nanking to Ichang. 

In this field there is a general but slow advance in 
independence and self-support. It is a healthy growth. 
There is no general or pronounced criticism, in the 
church, of the missionary and his methods of administer 
ing the affairs of the church. An extended enquiry 
revealed no desire to break away from the restraining or 
guiding hand of the missionary. On the other hand the 
missionaries are urging independence upon the churches 
as fast as they are willing to assume it. The leading 



INDEPENDENCE AND SELF-SUPPORT. 207 

Chinese Christian workers are being taken more fully 
into the mission councils, and as the burden of the 
work comes to rest more heavily upon them, they desire 
more than ever the helpful counsel of the experienced 
missionary. 

The churches realize that not only the wisdom to 
direct their own work, but also the ability and willing 
ness to support it, must be attained before they can 
become independent. 

The degree of independence urged upon them by 
the missionary, and the share in mission councils, has 
had a most salutary effect upon the spirit of self-support 
in the Chinese churches. Their counsel is given with 
wisdom and caution, and the work is developing on more 
healthful lines than in the past. 

The self-support developing now is very different 
from a kind that was all too prominent some years ago 
in many parts of our field. Then enquirers and strangers 
were anxious to contribute funds for the opening of 
chapels in their own neighbourhood for the influence 
the chapels would have on affairs not properly belonging 
to the church. Our work has suffered greatly in the 
past from lack of discretion in meeting such conditions. 
The missionaries and Chinese leaders, with perhaps still 
a few exceptions, are now wise enough to refrain from 
receiving these contributions or lending influence to 
these spurious self-supporting efforts. 

In most all our chapels the incidental expenses, as 
for oil, tea, and so forth, are met by the local Christians. 
In a large number of cases the chapel rents, or price of 
land and buildings, have been furnished locally. Many 
of the chapels and churches have locally supported 
preachers ministering to the needs of the congregations. 
At least seven of the missions have seen organized in 
their churches home missionary societies for the carry 
ing of the Gospel to regions beyond. 

Almost all the missions report a gain in the con 
tributions per member in the last few years. As yet, 



208 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

however, the amounts are shamefully small. The aver 
age, in the various missions reporting, runs from a few 
cents to three dollars and seventy-seven cents yearly per 
member. The total average is probably not far from 
one dollar. This is a poor showing. 

Most missions give poverty as the excuse for lack of 
self-support. One large mission says : "Our members 
are mostly poor ; some of them very poor. We have 
very few indeed who do not have to work hard for a 
meagre living." Several give the lack of zeal and the 
smallness of the membership as the chief causes. 

Other missions report their churches able to support 
all their work, except schools and hospitals. Others 
report some few able and the larger number of churches 
unable to do so. 

The fact that there is such a diversity in amounts 
given, where other conditions are fairly uniform, would 
indicate a lack of proper training and leadership to be 
the chief cause of failure to properly support the work. 

When we compare our average contributions with 
those of the older missions, as for instance those at Arnoy, 
where the average for three missions is a little over 
seven dollars a year per member, we must confess that 
there is no sufficient excuse for our being so far behind 
as to give but one dollar. 

A few missions report a decline in the amount of 
contributions during the last few years. This is partly 
because of the large increase of student membership in 
the churches. It may also indicate a change to a better 
basis and motive in giving. Again it is easier to raise 
funds for new work, oftentimes, than for the running 
expenses of old work. Many of the missions are giving 
more attention to the development of present stations 
and less to the opening up of new work. 

There has been a general increase in the willingness 
of the Christians for independent witness and work for 
the Master. A few evangelists are supported individual 
ly by laymen. One man supports a school for orphans. 



INDEPENDENCE AND SEl^F-SUPPORT. 2OQ 

Three missions report their churches interested in 
the support of orphanages. In many places the Chris 
tians are aiding in the support of boys or girls in the 
mission schools. In a few cases individuals are support 
ing a child, not their own, in school. Some churches 
contribute to the support of their mission theological 
school. Other churches are planning for philanthropic 
work on industrial lines. 

Independent revival effort and hearty support of 
union evangelistic work are growing and becoming 
characteristic of the work in this field. This is one of 
the most promising features of the work. It will, if 
carefully directed, greatly increase Christian zeal and 
further self-support and independent enterprise. 

All missions are giving more attention to the train 
ing of pastors and preachers. When the church is well 
supplied with these properly trained leaders, they will 
make more rapid strides toward independence and self- 
support. 

FRANK GARRETT. 



I 



CHAPTER IX. 

MEDICAL MISSIONARY WORK. 
An Evangelistic and Philanthropic Agency. 

N reviewing the present-day position of medical mis 
sion work in China, the first note to be struck must 
be one of thankfulness and hope. 
God has richly blessed the efforts put forth in the 
past and has put before us an open door, both great 
and effectual, to enter into in the future. 

This form of work is acting with power and success, 
as an evangelistic agency, to soften and save men s souls. 
As a philanthropic and humanitarian influence it is 
demonstrating that altruism and love which our Master 
commanded His followers to show forth when He said 
"Go and do thou likewise." Within the past few 
years the number of medical missionaries has steadily 
increased throughout the Empire, and there is to-day 
an organisation and solidarity about the whole work 
which has never existed heretofore. 

In harmony with the spirit of the age, cooperation 
and union are also being brought about between different 
hospitals and the medical work of different missions. 

The suggestion that medical missionary work in 
China is played out, is an entirely erroneous one. 
Never was such a work more needed, never has it been 
more successful. 

Individual hospitals, here and there, may be strait 
ened, but it is only in the lack of resources available 
to carry on the work. Where societies cannot fill up 
gaps, or give relief during much needed furlough-time, 
there a hiatus exists, yearning deep and wide, around 
which press hundreds of unrelieved sick and suffering, 
paralysed and in dismay. Such cases do exist, and it is 



MEDICAL MISSIONARY WORK. 211 

sad to contemplate the loss accruing both to the crippled 
societies and to the suffering districts in which they 
are located. 

In China to-day, as it ever has been, medical mis 
sions are one of the greatest forces at work throughout 
the length and breadth of the Empire, enlightening the 
ignorant, winning the opposed, saving the suffering and 
pointing to the Saviour of the world. 

One interested in hospital work, and willing to 
travel through China to investigate, would find great 
improvement in hospital construction and plant during 
the past few years. Beginning in the north, where Dr. 
Christie in Mukden has recently erected a handsome 
up-to-date hospital ; going far away west, where in 
Chentu marvellous changes have taken place and where 
a big union educational work is being organised ; taking 
in Peking, Taiyuen, Hankow, Nanking, Foochow, 
and many other large centres, and ending in Canton 
it would be found that large, well-built, up-to-date 
sanitary buildings replace former dark, ill-drained, ill- 
suited native structures. The large Chinese hospital 
in Shantung Road, Shanghai, where sixty-seven years 
ago Dr. lyockhart, the first British medical missionary 
to China, commenced his work, has once again come 
under mission management, thus bringing thousands 
year by year under Christian influence and teaching. 

These facts point to a general advance all along 
the line. 

Along with this advance in hospital accommodation 
other and most important progress has been made. One 
of the greatest needs of to-day is that of well-trained 
native nurses and assistants. The past few years has 
seen a marked effort to meet this need. Medical schools, 
union or individual, have been instituted in several 
centres, and as far as circumstances permit are doing 
first rate work. As tins subject is being dealt with 
elsewhere under the heading of education, we will not 
deal with it further here. 



212 CHINA MISSION YKAR BOOK. 

The China Medical Missionary Association, which 
for twenty-five years has sought to bind its members 
together for mutual help both in the professional and 
spiritual life, is now a large and influential association 
with about four hundred members. Some sixty or 
seventy medical missionaries have attended each of its 
last three triennial conferences ; the last being held in 
Hankow. By thus meeting much help and stimulus was 
obtained and much forward impetus given to the cause. 
Its bi-monthly journal the China Medical Journal 
under the able editorship of Dr. W. H. Jefferys, is 
exerting an influence not confined to China and has a 
very largely increased circulation. 

The association, through its Publication Committee, 
is publishing in Chinese, year by year, the best standard 
works in medicine and surgery. The E. P. Mission 
have kindly lent the services of Dr. P. B. Cousland to 
be devoted solely to translation work. Funds have 
been donated, by private individuals and a few Mission 
Boards, to further this most necessary work. Also 
through the liberality of H. S. Wellcome, Esq., London, 
a "trust" has been formed to perpetuate this trans 
lation work, which forms the basis of all medical 
education and enlightenment. 

Again, in connection with the association a re 
search committee* has been at work investigating the 
diseases of China. This committee has already done 
some excellent work, the results of which have been 
published. Further, several local branches of the associa 
tion exist, holding monthly meetings for mutual help 
and dealing with local evils, distributing sheet tracts on 
disease, contagion, sanitation, etc.; by these means striv 
ing to enlighten the ignorant and obviate suffering. 

Thus it will be seen the medical missionary work 
is a living, active force throughout the Empire, with 
promise of still greater usefulness in the future. 

* See Dr. Houghtou s paper in chapter cm Medical Education. 



MEDICAL MISSIONARY WORK. 



METHODS. 

These are in the main unchanged, and yet great 
changes have gone on, and are going on. 

Our commission to heal the sick and say unto them 
the Kingdom of God has come nigh, still stands upper 
most, and by attracting crowds to wards and dispen 
saries, this commission is being daily carried out. 

To do this to-day, better plant and better work is 
indispensable. The Chinese differentiate between good 
and indifferent work. Competition is daily increasing. 
The Japanese are pushing their medical practice and 
doing a large trade in medicine. The Chinese them 
selves are here and there instituting hospitals and training 
centres. We rejoice that it is so, but realise that no 
Christian influence accompanies these efforts. It behoves 
us therefore to keep ahead of the times that our work may 
draw the most, and therefore exert the widest, influence. 
This we believe is being done to-day to some forty or 
fifty thousand in-patients and some two million out 
patients ; the medical missionary work is preaching the 
Gospel and healing the sick year by year. 

There is much need for developing special institu 
tions. The few which already exist are doing splendid 
work. 

The John G. Kerr Home for Insane in Canton, 
under the able and devoted care of Dr. Selden, is supply 
ing a great need and heartily appreciated by the Chinese. 
Its wards are always full, and many have been restored 
to their friends in their right mind. Though liberal 
support is given by the Chinese, the sphere of usefulness 
of the home is still somewhat restricted by want of 
funds. This, alas, is the only home as yet existing in 
China for the insane. 

Three or four homes for lepers exist. The largest, 
under Dr. Kilhne, near Canton, provides 150 beds. That 
under Dr. Fowler, near Hankow, provides 50-60 beds. 
These institutions are the means of bringing comfort 



214 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

and salvation to a great number of these poor diseased 
sufferers. No body of patients have proved to be so 
open to receive the Gospel as these hopelessly affected 
lepers. 

Some few homes for the blind exist, but these do not 
come under medical mission work. 

We feel strongly that these special institutions 
should be largely developed. No work shows better the 
love and spirit of Christ than does the work which they 
do. The want of time, means, and assistance render it 
impossible, as medical missions are in China to-day, for 
more of these special institutions to be established. 

RESULTS. 

These are hard to put into a report, or write down 
with pen and ink. 

We know a case recently, and this is but one of 
thousands, where a patient with his friend had come 
some 300 miles, from an out-of-the-way spot, to be 
treated. He got complete cure and relief after operation. 
Whilst in hospital the Gospel was brought to him and 
his friend. When he returned home he took it with 
him. Who can focus the result of .such work, or proph 
esy what it will lead to, or say where it will end ? 

And yet in some hundreds of centres, day by day, 
such voices are speaking and such influences are at 
work. That the Chinese themselves realize the good 
work being done is proved by all the support received 
from them. When last statistics were compiled, it was 
found that, to meet current expenses of some hundred 
hospitals to the amount of ,25,000, ,20,000 was raised 
on the. field by fees, donations, etc. 

We see medical and surgical results in abundance. 
We see social and material results on every hand. 

Thank God we also see much spiritual result, but 
eternity alone can reveal in full all that this evangelistic 
and philanthropic agency is doing. 



MKDICAI, MISSIONARY WORK. 215 

PROSPECTS. 

As may be gathered from the above we consider the 
outlook to-day exceedingly bright. Our policy must be 
in the future to strengthen and to train, multiplying 
ourselves through our qualified Christian natives. To do 
this, medical mission work needs strengthening all round, 
and we are thankful to see that societies are aware of 
this fact and working towards this end. No medical 
mission should be one-manned. At least five good union 
medical schools should be established in the various 
quarters of the Empire. We have heard much of large 
university schemes. We trust soon we may see them 
planted down and at work. Some may ask, "Is there 
any chance of the government taking these matters in 
hand, as in Japan, and excluding mission work?" We 
think not, for two or three decades at least. They have 
no trained men, they have no stability ; four hundred 
millions of people call for help. So far their one or two 
attempts have miserably failed. Chinese students, who 
have obtained excellent Western training and qualifica 
tion, on their return to China, stop to teach English, or 
engage in other lucrative employments which will gain 
them official recognition. Their profession, their tech 
nical education, goes. But the call for army doctors, 
for public health doctors, for navy doctors, increases 
year by year. 

It appears to us that now, and probably for the next 
fifteen or twenty years, a unique opportunity exists for 
the Christian churches. China must have, and will get, 
her supply. Let the churches see to it that a wide, 
strong basis be supplied through Christian channels. 
No greater gift could the West give to the East than 
a devoted Christian body of nurses and doctors. 

We plead that they may not neglect it, but enter 
the open door and take possession of the field lying white 
unto harvest, ere the opportunity passes away for ever. 

CECII+ J. DAVENPORT, F.fi.C.S. 



CHAPTER X. 

MEDICAL EDUCATION. 

In North China and Manchuria. 

UNION MEDICAL COLLEGE, PEKING, "^ ft ^ ^. 

is the medical college of the North China Edu- 



cational Union ; the arts and theological colleges of 
the union being located with the American Board 
Mission and the American Presbyterian Mission respect 
ively. In addition,- the Methodist Episcopal Mission, 
the Medical Missionary Association of London, and the 
Church of England North China Mission also participate 
in the work of the college. There are thus five societies 
in Peking united in this enterprise and a sixth in Lon 
don, which forms a link with the home medical schools. 

The college was built and equipped by the London 
Missionary Society, which is specially responsible for its 
maintenance. 

It w r as opened early in 1906 by a special commis 
sioner deputed by her late Imperial Majesty the Empress- 
Dowager of China, who also contributed handsomely to 
its funds. The college has received another special 
mark of favour in being registered by the Imperial 
Board of Education, so that its successful students will 
receive government diplomas. 

The aim of the college is to give to well- educated 
Chinese students, in their own language, and under 
Christian influences, as thorough a knowledge as possible 
of the various branches of medicine and surgery. 

A large dormitory block has been added since the 
college buildings were erected and further hospital build 
ing is now being planned. The college is year by year 
becoming more efficient. We have now over 100 students, 
but we could accommodate a much larger number. 



MEDICAL EDUCATION. 2 17 

Syllab2is. 

The subjects of the preliminary examination are all 
compulsory. For 1910 these subjects are as follows: 

Chinese : We"n-li Composition. Physics. 
Arithmetic. Chemistry. 

Geography. English. 

Certificates of proficiency in these subjects will be 
accepted, in lieu of examination, from either the North 
China Union College, or from the College of liberal 
Arts of the Peking University, or from other accredited 
schools and colleges. Students who may wish to make 
preparation for entrance to the Medical College can 
receive instruction at either of the above-mentioned 
institutions. 

Faculty. 

Thomas Cochrane, M.B., C.M., Dean. 

Nehemiah S. Hopkins, M.D., O. et A., Chir. 

James H. Ingram, M.D. 

George D. lyowry, M.A., M.D. 

Ernest J. Peill, M.B., Ch.B., F.R.C.S. (Edin.) 

Charles W. Young, B.S., M.D. 

W. H. Graham Aspland, M.D., C.M., F.R.C.S. (Edin.) 

F. J. Hall, B.A., M.D. 

H. V. Wenham, M.B., B.S., F.R.C.S. (Eng.) 

K. R. Wheeler, M.B., B.S. 

J. M. Stenhouse, B.A. (Cantab.), M.B., B.C. 

J. G. Gibb, M.I)., B.S., F.R.C.S. (Eng.) 

R. A. P. Hill, B.A. (Cantab.), M.B., B.C., D.P.H. 

E. J. vStuckey, B.Sc., M.B., B.S. 
B. T. Read, M.P.S., Ph.C. (Eng.) 

F. E. Dilley, M.D. 
J. J. Mulloney, M.D. 

The following, residing at a distance, will give short 
courses of lectures : 

Chas. Lewis, M.A., M.D. 
Thomas W. Avers, M.D. 
George Douglas Gray, M.D. 
Thomas Bragg, L.R.C.P. and S. 



218 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Examining Board. 

Officials of the Imperial Board of Education. 

The Dean of the College. 

The Professor of the Subject for Examination. 

George Douglas Gray, Esq., M.D., British legation. 

M. le Capitaiue Docteur L. di Giura, Legation d ltalie. 

General Plan of Instruction and Course of Study. 

The medical course covers five years of nine months 
each. The year begins on or about the 2otli of the 
Chinese first month and continues until about the 2Oth 
of June ; this autumn term begins on or about the 5th of 
September and continues until the Chinese New Year. 

For further information apply to the dean of the 
College, or the secretary, Mr. Geo. G. Wilson, Peking. 

UNION MEDICAL COLLEGE, TSINAN. 

The Union Medical College in Tsinan, Shantung, 
was opened for the reception of students on March ist, 
1910. The college is the medical department of the 
Shantung Christian University, which includes an arts 
and science department in Weihsien and a theological 
and normal school department in Tsingchowfu. 

The whole plant of the Union Medical College and 
Hospital is provided by the Baptist Missionary Society 
of London from grants made by the trustees of the 
Arthiugton Fund, but while the buildings belong to the 
English Baptist Mission, the college is a union institu 
tion under the joint control at present of the English 
Baptist and American Presbyterian Missions through 
the University Board of Directors. It is confidently 
anticipated, however, that other Protestant missions in 
Shantung, and possibly in some of the adjoining prov 
inces, will share in this union undertaking for the train 
ing of Christian doctors for Chinese. 

^ The aim and policy of the college, as stated in the 
basis of union, is " To give a medical education, under 



MEDICAL EDUCATION . 2 19 

distinctively Christian influences, to youtig men chiefly 
from Christian families." In accordance with this aim 
every effort will be made to maintain the distinctively 
Christian character with which the institution starts out, 
and it will be the endeavor of those in charge to turn out 
not only well-trained doctors, but earnest Christian men 
as well. At the same time young men from non-Christian 
families will be admitted, provided they are able to meet 
the entrance requirements, are of good character, and 
are willing to abide by the rules of the institution. 

Requirements for Entrance. 

1. Parts of the Odes and History to be memorised. (Abridged 

edition obtainable from Weihsien College.) 

2. Exposition of the Four Books. 

3. Arithmetic : Mateer s, 3 vols. or an equivalent. 

4. Algebra through Quadratics. 

5. General Descriptive Geography : Chapin s or equivalent. 

6. Outline of Universal History : " Wu Chon Shih Lue. 

7. Outline of Old and New Testament History. 

8. Short Kssay : Mandarin or Wen-li. 

Curriculum. 

The curriculum, which consists of a six years course, 
will be divided into two parts as follows : 

A. One year of scientific study in the Union College of Arts 
and Science at Weihsieu in the following subjects : 

1. Physics Experimental lectures and laboratory work. 

2. Chemistry Gillison s, whole volume. Laboratory 

work in Inorganic Chemistry. 

3. Biology Elementary. 

4. Botany Elementary. 

B. Five years of purely professional work in the Union 
Medical College in Tsinan. 

Teaching Staff. 

All teaching w.ill be in Chinese. In the Union 
College of Arts and Science at Weihsien the students will 
be under the direct personal instruction of the following 
teachers : 



220 CHINA MISSION YKAR BOOK. 

Paul D. Bergen, M.A., D.D. 
Harold G. Whitcher, B.Sc. 
H. S. Couseus, B.A. 

The teaching staff of the Medical College, so far as 
at present constituted, consists of the following foreign 
members, who will be assisted by competent Chinese : 

James Boyd Neal, M.A., M.D., President. 

K. 1 Yeiherr von Werthern, Dr. Med. et Chir. 

Charles F. Johnson, ]M.D. 

James Russell Watson, M.B., M.R.C.vS., D.P.H., Tsing- 

chowfu, Shantung. 
Thomas C. Paterson, M.B., C/M., Tsouping, Shantung. 

The first three of the above named will teach 
regularly in the institution, while the last two will give 
such courses of instruction as their other duties will 
permit. 

Besides the teaching force already arranged for, it is 
confidently expected that other qualified medical men, 
belonging to neighboring stations, will consent to give 
short courses of instruction to the students. 

Regular teaching began on nth March, 1910, with 
10 men in the first class and 10 in the old class, under 
instruction for three years past. 

; We are endeavoring to make laboratory work a 
rather marked feature of our training here ; the equip 
ment for four laboratories "being now on the ground, 
though owing to the exigencies of ouilding, only one the 
histological laboratory is at present in commission. 
The other three are those of pharmaceutical chemistry 
and pharmacy, physiological chemistry, and clinical 
pathology, all of which will be well equipped and in 
running order by autumn." 



An endeavour is being made to establish a college in 
Moukden in connection with the Presbyterian Mission 



there. 



MEDICAL EDUCATION. 221 

A MEDICAL COLLEGE FOR MANCHURIA. 

"At the annual united conference of the missions 
of Manchuria the United Free, the Irish Presbyterian, 
and the Danish Lutheran held in Newchwang in May, 
resolutions were unanimously passed strongly urging the 
establishment of such a college, and heartily recommend 
ing it to the liberal support of all interested in the 
welfare of the Chinese. It will be essentially a mission 
ary institution, run on Christian principles, permeated 
by Christian influence, and with a great deal of direct 
Christian teaching. The majority of the students will be 
from Christian homes, and there will be systematic 
training in evangelistic and other branches of Christian 
work. Through the generosity of the Chinese, a suitable 
site for the college came into our possession contiguous 
to the hospital, and well situated. The Viceroy of 
Manchuria then guaranteed Tls. 3,000 (about ,420) a 
year for ten years toward the college. During January 
and February, 1909, Chinese officials and other friend s 
subscribed $5,000 (about ^450) toward the building 
fund. In this country also many friends of our own and 
other churches have come forward to the support of the 
college, and over ,2,000 has already been received. 
Free Church Monthly. 

. COCHRANE. 



Medical Education for Men in Central China Ningpo to Chentu. 

With one exception whatever medical education of 
men is being done in Central China is in connection with 
mission schools. The exception is the recently estab 
lished German medical school in Shanghai, which pro 
poses to teach medicine in the German language and 
hopes to start its first medical classes next autumn 
(1910). Up to the present time a great deal has been 
done in the matter of organization, and something like 
seventy students have been enrolled for preliminary 
work in German and science. The school has sustained 



222 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

a great loss in the death of Dr. Paiiltm, its founder, 
but the nucleus of a strong faculty remains, and con 
siderable support, both locally and from Germany, is 
assured. 

The following mission schools are teaching medi 
cine : 

Teaching in 

Han^chow, Chekiang. C. M. S. Mandarin. 

Shanghai, Kiangsu. St. John s University. English. 

Soochow, Kiangsu. M.E., South. ,, and vernacular. 

Nanking, Kiangsu. A. P. M., South, M. E- M., 

Christian and Friends 

Missions. Mandarin. 

Hankow, Hupeh. Union. ,, 

Wuchang, Hupeh. Boone University . English. 

Changsha, Hunan. Yale Mission. Mandarin. 

Cheutu, Szechuan. Union. Mandarin. 

The one word of all these schools is Union. 
There is a widespread feeling that the day is passed 
when it is the part of wisdom to educate Chinese 
physicians with the sole aim of their employment in 
mission hospitals. This enterprise had its day of useful 
ness, but it does not meet the present demand, and it 
involves tremendous risks, where these insufficiently 
educated men break loose from mission hospital ties and 
supervision and start out for themselves, all too often 
on the highroad of malpractice and quackery. More 
over, even as hospital assistants they are found lacking 
in the better teaching and discipline of the up-to-date 
mission hospital. It is realized that in union of forces 
where various hospitals and their staffs are within a 
feasible teaching radius, there lie the possibilities of 
giving Chinese men a variety and thoroughness of 
training that in certain cases may approach the ultimate 
desirable. By this method Chinese physicians of con 
siderable ability and reliability may be educated to meet 
the pressing demand for foreign-trained physicians in the 
navy, army, and in civil life, as well as afford hospital 
internes of real ability. 

The school in Hangchow is entirely at present under 
the English Church Mission. The faculty consists of 



MEDICAL EDUCATION. 223 

three foreign physicians and a number of natives. 
Between thirty and forty students are usually in training 
at any one time. There is a perfect willingness here for 
cooperation, but no other schools are near enough to 
make the thing feasible. 

St. John s University, Shanghai, gives a five years 
course in medicine, requiring entrance examinations to 
its junior college year for matriculation. The first two 
years are devoted to the preliminary branches ; students 
residing in the university. The last three years are 
spent in its Hongkew medical school, which is an 
integral part of St. Luke s Hospital. The university is 
chartered by the District of Columbia and gives an M.D. 
for high-standing five years of professional work. All 
the teaching is in English. This fact limits the number 
of students very positively, but affords a much wider 
range of text-books and literature and better teaching. 
There are eight foreign teachers in the medical faculty. 

Soochow University is incorporated under the laws 
of the State of Tennessee, and also gives an M.D. degree. 
The teaching is in the vernacular and in English. 
Students must hold a certificate from the academic 
department of the university, or pass entrance examina 
tions to the college. The faculty is not large, but gets 
considerable assistance from the college in its elementary 
branches. A small school of pharmacy is allied to it. 

At Soochow the American Presbyterian Church, 
South, has a school with a larger than the average 
number of students, but there is no regular curriculum, 
as the teaching, being in the hands of only two men, 
is variable in time and quantity. There is a good pros 
pect of this school becoming amalgamated with the 
Nanking University School. 

The schools in Nanking are at present all on a very 
small scale. All teach in Mandarin, and have no organic 
union, but there is a very promising prospect of the 
formation in the near future of a union medical school for 
the Central Yangtze Valley to embrace the three or four 



224 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

small enterprises in Nanking. The teaching will be in 
southern Mandarin, and there is every prospect of success. 

Several union plans have been tried in Hankow. 
The matter has settled down to a union school on the 
Hankow side (teaching in Mandarin) and an English 
school in Boone University on the Wuchang side. The 
conditions at Boone are similar to those at St. John s in 
Shanghai small numbers but the advantages of Eng 
lish. The Hankow school is in a hopeful condition. 

At Changsha the Yale Mission has made a begin 
ning. Its ideals are fine, but there have been discourag 
ing delays. There is a proposition at present for moving 
this school to Wuchang with a view of furthering some 
union scheme. 

At Cheutu there is the foundation laid of a repre 
sentative union in connection with the university enter 
prise in Chungking. This seeks to include all the 
educational interests in Szechuan. 

Besides these established and to-be-established in 
stitutions, there are hospitals in Ningpo, Wuhu, An- 
king, Yangcbow, Chang ten, and many other places, 
which still do something in the matter of training their 
own hospital assistants. 

The last three years has developed certain other 
conditions besides the desire for union. First and fore 
most there is a realization of the imperative need of at 
least one thoroughly equipped and unquestionably stand 
ard school in Central China, a school which can train 
teachers and leaders without involving the necessity of 
residence abroad. Three enterprises have considered 
this proposition. The Baptist interests, purporting to 
represent Mr. Rockefeller, have looked over the field, 
and it is generally understood that if anything is done 
by them it will mean the establishment of a Christian 
university in Nanking. A much more promising plan 
is that of Lord William Cecil for the establishment of 
Cambridge and Oxford interests in founding a central 
union faculty of specially-trained teachers in Wuchang, 



MEDICAL EDUCATION. 225 

or possibly Hankow, to be the hub of a wheel of which 
all present colleges, higher schools, and medical schools 
will form the spokes. Then, in Shanghai, probably, 
certain Harvard University interests are proposing to 
found a first-class medical school to be taught in Eng 
lish, to establish well-equipped laboratories for scientific 
research, and to throw their special efforts on subjects 
involved under the general heading of tropical medicine. 
It is conceivable that lar^e interests and plenty of 
money might accomplish these hopes, but it must be 
realized that for sixty years new enterprises have been 
started in China, few willing to combine with any others, 
mosth 7 weak and tentative and struggling. Only either 
by positive union or overwhelming support can success 
be expected. It is perhaps overlooked also by those 
interested that the difficulties involved in planting a 
faculty of specialists in Wuchang to study Chinese them 
selves and then teach their branches in Chinese are not 
very far from insuperable. And for such an enterprise 
as Harvard s to establish an English-speaking school 
in Shanghai, without some very definite plan for students 
well-trained in English to be supplied, is quite as hope 
less. The average Chinese youth of eighteen to twenty 
years is no more fitted to study medicine than a new 
born babe. The needs of the future lie in cooperation and 
strengthening, in supplying better trained men with more 
liberal support and equipment to match. There is no 
place in China s medical scheme for any more weakly 
supported and insufficiently manned medical institutions. 

W. H. JEFFERYS. 

Medical Educational Work for Men in South China. 

In looking over the results of medical educational 
work done by Dr. Kerr and his co-laborers in past years 
in South China, one would not hesitate a moment to say 
that this line of work is one of the most important that 
the medical missionary can do. Dr. Kerr, though dead in 



226 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

body, still lives in the lives of those graduated by him, 
who are, almost without exception, strong influential 
Christian men ; many of them elders in the churches 
throughout South China. 

The work which Dr. Kerr did and the work which 
his graduates are doing has created a great demand 
for Western medical education, and it is greatly to be 
deplored that the missionary body was not ready to meet 
this demand. 

At present there are seven medical schools for men 
in Canton, with no less than 250 students, who are 
taking a four years course. Of the seven schools four 
(190 students) are controlled by the Chinese ; one by 
the French, which does not claim to be missionary in 
object ; one by the University Medical School, and one 
by the Canton Medical Missionary Society. The latter 
society is composed of foreigners, who contribute ten 
dollars or more a }^ear to its institution. This leaves 
only one the University Medical School which has a 
majorit} r missionary control. Two of the schools con 
trolled by the Chinese and the Canton Medical Mission 
ary Society s school have mostly Christian teachers, 
and more or less Christian work is done among the 
students, but the results are very unsatisfactory, either 
from a professional or missionary standpoint. 

The South China Branch of the China Medical 
Missionary Association, at a meeting in July, 1909, 
passed the following resolution : Whereas the conditions 
in South China demand a higher standard of medical 
education than is being given in any of the several 
men s medical schools now in existance, therefore we, 
the members of the Canton and West River Branches 
(now the South China Branch) of the China Medical 
Missionary Association in joint meeting assembled, 
resolve that a union medical college be formed in Canton. 
The resolution goes on to say on what basis the union 
should be formed. The idea is to bring about a union 
of the University Medical School, the Canton Medical 



MEDICAL EDUCATION. 227 

Missionary Society s School, and the different Mission 
Boards having physicians in Canton and vicinity. The 
South China Branch, almost to a member, are strong in 
the opinion : 

ist. That medical educational work is the most important 
of the medical missionary s work at this time. 

2nd. That the strongest and best Christian influence should 
be brought to bear upon the students, and that the most 
thorough Christian work possible be done among them during 
their course. 

3rd. That the best way to do this thorough Christian medic 
al educational work is by a union of forces. 

The South China Branch of the China Medical Mis 
sionary Association has been laboring hard, through its 
individual members, for this union, and last January 
the Canton Medical Missionary Society at their annual 
meeting passed a resolution favoring union with the 
University Medical School and with the different mis 
sion Boards. The University Medical School is strongly 
in favor of union, so all that remains is the perfecting of 
the union scheme, which we hope will be accomplished 
in the near future. There are over thirty medical mis 
sionaries in Canton and vicinity, and it is thought that 
at least ten of these will be available as teachers. 

The Canton Medical Missionary Society has a school 
building and dormitories valued at about fifty thousand 
dollars. The University Medical School has property 
and funds of about that amount. This, together with the 
men who are on the field, would make a good foundation 
for a union medical school. It is hoped that one or 
two of the schools controlled by the Chinese can be 
brought into the union, but at this time there is a strong 
feeling of "China for the Chinese," and we may have 
to wait until the union school is well established before 
they will come in. 

The Canton Medical Missionary Society s School 
building and hospital would be well adapted for the 
fourth and fifth year classes. The property which the 
University School has purchased, and which is situated 



228 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

about three miles east of the city, near the Christian 
college, would make an excellent site for the school 
buildings and dormitories for the first three years classes. 
About one hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars 
will be needed for the erection of these buildings and 
their equipment. When the buildings and equipment 
are established, the institution will be self-supporting, 
that is, it will be able to support all its running expenses 
and native teachers and, 110 doubt, part of the foreign 
teachers. 

P. J. Tom>. 

Medical Education for Women, 

THE NORTH CHINA UNION MEDICAL COLLEGE 
FOR WOMEN. 

The North China Union Medical College for Women 
is located with the American Methodist Mission,. 
Peking. The college was opened in February, 1908, 
and enters classes but once in two years, The teaching 
staff, consisting of eight foreign doctors, is drawn from 
the American Methodist, the American Board, and the 
American Presbyterian Missions. 

The subjects for preliminary examinations are : 

English Harper s First and Second Readers or equivalent. 
Chinese Outlines of Chinese History.. 

Good Penmanship 

Compositions in Kuan Hua and WeUi-lu 
Mathematics Mateer s Arithmetic or equivalent. 
Algebra, through single quadratics. 
History Sheffield s Universal History. 
Geography Chapin s. 
Physics Parker s. 
Physiology Porter s or equivalent in new terminology. 

The course of study covers six years of eight months 
each, and a high grade of work is required of the stu 
dents. The tuition fee is forty taels a year. Dormitory 
accommodations are furnished at the school, and board 
costs not less than four dollars Mexican per month. 



MEDICAL EDUCATION. 229 

At present our students represent Canton, Foochow, 
Nanking, and Peking. Students who must first acquire 
a working knowledge of Northern Mandarin can be 
accommodated in the Girls High School, located with 
the W. F. M. S. of the Methodist Mission, or in the 
Bridgman Preparatory School, located with the American 
Board Mission, Peking. Preparatory work may also be 
taken in these schools if desirable. 

The two girls of the first medical class have made 
splendid records. The questions from the New York 
State examinations in anatomy were given, and both 
passed over ninety-five per cent, on a written examina 
tion. They passed equally well in physiology. These 
girls are Methodists and are earnest Christians. The 
next class will include two girls from our Foochow 
school, another from Nanking, and two daughters of 
an official in Tientsin. The Nurses School has become 
an essential part of our work, and demands Miss Powell s 
best efforts. As yet there are no graduate nurses, but 
in time valuable assistance is expected from this source. 

ELIZA E. LEONARD, M.D., Dean. 

THE HACKETT MEDICAL COLLEGE FOR WOMEN, CANTON. 

Just after Chinese New Year, 1901, the medical 
school for women, called the Kwong Tung, was opened in 
the first floor of the Theodore Cuyler (First Presby 
terian) Church, Canton. Nine students were admitted. 

The following year the David Gregg Hospital for 
Women and Children was opened, and the young women 
students were temporarily removed to the third floor of 
this building. 

In 1902, December, the first building, for distinctive 
college use, was finished. It contained recitation and 
reception rooms on the second floor, bed rooms on the 
third. To this the students gladly removed. 

This large three-story building was the gift of Mr. 
E. A. K. Hackett, of Indiana, United States of America. 



230 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

The name of the college was changed to that of its 
donor. 

In 1903 diplomas, bearing the new college seal, 
were given to two students. In 1904, four received 
diplomas. In 1905, three. In 1906, three more. 

Through the generosity of Mr. Hackett a second 
hall was built. The number of students increasing, it 
became necessary to use the entire first building for a 
dormitory. The new building contained lecture and 
laboratory rooms. 

In 1907, seven received diplomas. This was our 
fifth mile-stone. We now had two fine buildings. The 
course of study was extended to four years. The 
Viceroy of the Two Kwongs stamped our diplomas. 
This, together with the stamp of the United States 
Consulate, was the highest official recognition obtainable. 
These are the only diplomas in the province thus 
stamped. 

The Viceroy, as a further token of his appreciation 
of what we are doing, sent three gold watches as prizes 
to the three students having the highest average for the 
four years. Ex-minister to the United States, Wu Ting- 
fang, being present, kindly gave an address. 

In 1908, six graduated. Amongst these was our 
first student from a distant province. For the first 
time in the history of missions in this part of China the 
Viceroy, Cheung Yan-tsun, attended our commence 
ment exercises in person. The Theodore Cuyler Church 
was beautifully decorated with wreaths of banyan 
and flowers. The church, which holds six or seven 
hundred when crowded, was jammed with a thousand 
or more. A guard of honor of five hundred soldiers was 
sent. We were again fortunate in having another Ex- 
minister to the United States, Sir Leung Shing, present. 
He also kindly favoured us with a fine address. The 
Viceroy, speaking only Mandarin, had his address read. 

In 1909, seven received diplomas. Owing to the 
mourning for the Emperor and Dowager-Empress very 



MEDICAI, EDUCATION. 231 

few officials could attend commencement. Dr. Amos 
Wilder, Consul-General of the United States at Hong 
kong, and Dr. J. C. McCrackeu, of the Canton Christian 
College, gave fine addresses. 

The college buildings form a part of the Lafayette 
Compound at the end of Fung Un Sai Street in the 
western suburbs of Canton. The compound may be 
reached either by chair or boat. Board and lodging are 
provided for the students on the grounds. 

The course of study requires four years for its 
completion. The college year is divided into two terms. 
The first term begins soon after Chinese New Year and 
ends the beginning of July. The second begins in Sep 
tember and ends with commencement day in January. 

Terms of Admission. 

Applicant should be at least eighteen years of age. Must 
read and write Chinese fluently. 

No one should apply who does not intend to take the full 
course. No married women (except widow s) will be accepted. 
No one will be allowed to continue her studies at the college if 
she marries during the four years. 

The right is reserved to advise discontinuance of stud) 7 if for 
any reason a young lady is deemed unfitted for the practice of 
medicine, and to make any change in anything pertaining to the 
college when such change seems best. 

All teaching is given through the medium of Can 
tonese. Students speaking a different dialect would 
better be here a few months before the time of opening. 

Expenses . ( Mex . ) 

Entrance examination fee $ i.oo 

Registration ... .. ... ... ... ... i.oo 

General ticket, entitling entrance to all lectures 80.00 

Chemical material ... ... ... ... ... 10.00 

Board, rooms, light, washing, a month 6.50 

Books, different prices, from $1.00 to $2.50. 

Diploma ... ... ,.. ... ... ... 5.00 

No money for any reason will be returned. 



232 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

The teachers consist of five foreigners and eleven 
Chinese. 

In connection with the David Gregg Hospital for 
Women, nurses are being trained. Eleven are now 
studying. Four have graduated. All are in the con 
stant demand and give satisfaction to both foreigners 
and Chinese. All are Christians. 

MARY H. FULTON, M.D. 



Medical Research Work. 

In former years definite systematic research in medi 
cine was undertaken practically by none among mission 
ary physicians, and this in the main for two reasons 
the first that men as a rule were put singlehanded in 
charge of work too heavy for one to handle alone, and 
beyond rapid routine work, often necessarily slip-shod 
and unsatisfactory, nothing could be attempted ; the 
second reason was that laboratories properly equipped 
for such work were very few. A number of individuals, 
however, working more or less alone, have in the past 
done some excellent work. 

At the triennial conference of the China Medical 
Missionary Association, held in 1907, the first move 
toward a systematic work of medical research was made 
by the formation of a research committee, consisting 
of seven or eight members, wrhose locations were scat 
tered over the Empire, from Korea to Hongkong, and 
as far inland as Hunan. It was decided that the only 
work undertaken by the committee for the triennium 
1907-1910 should consist of an intensive study of 
intestinal parasites. The working out of the geograph 
ical distribution and an approximate idea of the pro 
portion of population affected by the various injurious 
helminths was felt to be exceedingly important, not only 
for purposes of more accurate diagnosis and helpful treat 
ment, but as well from an economic standpoint, and it was 



MEDICAL EDUCATION. 233 

felt, moreover, that careful examination of large series 
of cases might bring new species to light, or show some 
tangible causative factor for conditions previously ob 
scure. The work of the succeeding three years showed 
how well founded this view was. 

This committee and other members of the Medical 
Association have published annual reports in the China 
Medical Journal, carefully collated by the chairman. 
The final report and summary, recently published, shows 
reports, more or less complete, from twelve provinces, 
not including Korea, Manchuria, Formosa, Hongkong, 
and Siam. The principal facts brought out were : 

(a). The almost universal distribution in China of Anky- 
lostomutn (hookworm), the great number of cases of remediable 
anemia and disability due to infections with this parasite, and 
the presence in China of both the old world (Ankylostomunx 
duodenale) and the new world (Necator americ.) species, 

(b). The wide distribution in the Yangtse Valley and its 
tributary waters of Schistosomum japonicum (blood-fluke) aud 
the extensive and fatal ravages due to it. 

(c). The description of at least one new species. 

In considering the final report of the chairman of 
this Research Committee at the triennial meeting of the 
C. M. M. A., held in Hankow during February, 1910, it 
was agreed that the results of their work, though limited 
in many ways, were satisfactory and the continuance 
and expansion of the work highly necessary. In pro 
viding for the research of the next three years it was 
felt wisest to make the various branches of the Associ- 
tiou responsible for the actual work, permitting thus 
a great increase in the numbers of investigators, and the 
covering of special problems by men specially fitted for 
such work. The general supervision of these activi 
ties is placed in the capable hands of Dr. J. L. Max 
well, of Tainan, Formosa, the former chairman of the 
Research Committee. He will be responsible also for 
the collecting and publishing in systematic form of 
all reports made. The general scope of research is to 
include : 



234 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

(i). Continuation of the study of intestinal parasites. 

(2). Special investigation into blood parasites, more especially 
of diseases caused by protozoa. 

(3). Examination into diseases or pathological conditions 
which are local or circumscribed in their distribution. 

(4). The causation of fevers of an obscure nature. 

This program opens the door to many problems of 
great importance ; the solution of any one of those above 
outlined would be of the highest usefulness, from the 
humanitarian as well as the scientific standpoint. 

There is, finally, a wide field for the prosecution of 
research developing in the various schools of medicine 
which are gradually being established at large centres. 
It is mainly to these laboratories that we must in the 
future look for organised and systematic investigation 
into the causes of obscure Oriental diseases and along 
lines of preventive medicine. In the union medical 
school, for instance, which will open in Nanking prob 
ably before the end of this year, definite provision will 
be made for this sort of work. 

A tangible beginning has been made, and though 
the number of men who are free to follow out such 
problems is small, with increasing facilities in educational 
centres and the advent of men with highly specialised 
training, much may be done in the near future along 
these broadly humanitarian lines of prevention and 
prophylaxis and the clarification of unknown and obscure 
pathologic states. 

HENRY S. HOUGHTON. 



CHAPTER XL 

THEOLOGICAL EDUCATION. 
Theological Education in North China. 

RACTlCAIvLY all the Missions in North China hold 
from time to time, sometimes for a regular period 
of one or two months in summer or winter, some 
times as occasion may arise, classes for the training of 
Chinese evangelists and colporteurs, to which certain of 
the foreign missionaries devote themselves during the 
term of instruction. In at least two cases, those of Dr. 
Hunter Corbett, of Chefoo, Shantung, and Rev. H. W. 
Houlding, of Taimingfu, Chihli, the few months of class 
instruction annually are interspersed with long itinera 
tions of teacher and pupils, sometimes in small bands 
uniting for a day of prayer and Bible study every few 
days, sometimes in larger company for more protracted 
periods. In Peking for the past two years (1908-1909) a 
union summer school for colporteurs and evangelists has 
been maintained by the London Mission, the American 
Methodists, Cougregationalists, and Presbyterians at the 
Union Theological College, with an attendance one year 
of eighty-six, the other year fifty-eight ; both teachers and 
taught being drawn from the four Missions, and Chinese 
as well as foreigners joining in the work of instruction. 
In this, the third year of the school, a regular curriculum, 
covering a period of five or six years, is being prepared. 
The number of fully developed theological colleges, 
so far as ascertained, is not large, comprising: (i). The 
Gotch-Robinson (Union) Theological College at Tsing- 
chowfu, Shantung, connected with the Shantung Chris 
tian University and supported by the English Baptist 
and American Presbyterian Missions. (2). The North 
China Union Theological College at Peking, Chihli, one 
department of the North China Uuiou College, supported 



236 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

by the American Board, American Presbyterian, and 
London Missions. (3). The Peking University School 
of Theology at Peking, under the American Methodist 
Episcopal Mission. (4). The United Methodist Theolog 
ical College at Tientsin. (5). The Theological College 
of the Scotch and Irish Presbyterian Missions at 
Motikclen, Manchuria; and (6). The Scandinavian 
Alliance Mission Seminary at Hsianfu, Shensi. 

The Catch- Robinson {Union) Theological College, 
Tsingchowfu, organized in 1905 as a combination of the 
previous peripatetic classes of the Presbyterian Mission 
and the Theological Department of the Gotch-Robinson 
Bible Institute of the English Baptist Mission. It 
provides for a three years course of eight months each. 
The instruction is given entirely in Chinese. Twenty- 
two students have been graduated, two of whom are 
engaged in the Arts Department of the University, and 
all the rest are in pastoral or evangelistic work. Present 
number of regular students, twenty-one. The faculty 
consists of Rev. J. P. Bruce, M.A. , president, Rev. \V, M. 
Hayes, D.D., with the recent addition of Rev. W. P. 
Cbalfant. In the Bible Institute connected with the 
college there are over 160 students. 

North China Union Theological College, Peking, 
organized in 1895 by the transfer of the Gordon Memorial 
Theological Seminary of the American Board Mission 
from Tungchow to Peking ; the plant and equipment to 
be furnished by the American Presbyterian Mission as its 
contribution to the North China union colleges. The 
seminary had already been in existence for 30 years. 
The new institution gives all its theological instruction 
in Chinese, but provides a course in biblical English for 
those who have previously made a beginning in the 
language. In the regular course ten have been 
graduated, in the special course (for those without 
previous arts course) twelve men ; all but two of these 
graduates are preaching, and one of the two is teaching 
in a mission school. The present number of students 



THEOLOGICAL EDUCATION . 237 

is thirty-three. The faculty consists of Rev. C. H. 
Fenn, D.D., dean, Rev. C. Goodrich, D.D., Rev. S. E. 
Meech, and Rev. J. W. Wherry, D.D. 

Peking University School oj Fheology, Peking. 
Classes are organized according to the demand. There 
are at present fifteen men taking the course under the 
instruction of various men of the University Faculty. 
For those who cannot take the full course there is 
a four years course for all preachers who enter the 
conference ; the candidates being examined each year on 
the subjects for the year. This includes the elements of 
science, as well as the usual theological subjects and a 
course of general reading. 

United Methodist Theological College, Tientsin. 
Founded in 1868, but no adequate buildings until 1878. 
A three years course and usually three classes under 
instruction. In some cases the course is extended to 
five years. The present number of students is seventeen, 
chiefly from the middle schools of the Mission. Rev. 
John Hedley is the principal. 

Presbyterian Theological College, Manchuria. This 
school provides a four years course of five months per 
year, under the instruction of Rev. John Ross, D.D., and 
Rev. Thos. C. Fulton. The students are selected from 
among the best of the evangelists, who in youth have se 
cured a good Chinese education, and as evangelists have, 
for at least four years, reached a certain standard in the 
annual examinations. The course will also be adapted 
to those now graduating from the Mission s recently 
established higher educational institutions. The number 
of students last year was eighteen, this year twenty-nine. 

Scandinavian Alliance Mission Seminary, Hsianfu. 
Organized 1906. The course covers three years, about 
half of which time is given to definitely theological 
training. Both evangelists and school teachers are 
educated in the institution. The present number of 
students is thirty-one. The faculty consists of Rev. O. 



238 CHINA MISvSION YEAR BOOK. 

Bengtsson, principal, C. F. Jensen, and two Chinese 
assistants. 

The Canadian Presbyterian Mission in Honan holds 
a summer training class each summer for all the 
evangelists of the Mission, having planned a six years 
course, and expecting to ordain a few of the best men at 
the end of the course. 

In the regularly organized theological colleges the 
curriculm does not differ materially, being quite similar 
to those offered in the home lands, with the exception of 
Greek and Hebrew, which none have as yet introduced. 
The general outline of a three years course is about as 
follows : 

FIRST YEAR. 

Systematic Theology Theology Encyclopedia and Theology 

Proper. 

Church History Apostolic Age to Constantine, 
Exegetical Gospels in Harmony and Pentateuch, with Biblical 

introduction. 
Horniletical Theoretical and Practical Hoiuiletics. 

SECOND YEAR. 

Systematic Theology Anthropology and Soteriology. 
Church History Constantine to Middle Ages. 
Exegetical Acts and Kpistles in Harmony, Romans, Old Testa 
ment Historical Books. 
Horniletical Practical Preparation of Sertnons. 

THIRD YEAR. 

Systematic Theology Eschatology and Ecclesiology, 
Church History Reformation Period and Modern Church. 
Exegetical Pastoral Epistles, Old Testament Prophets. 
Pastoral Theology. 

"Christian Evidences, "Apologetics," "Com 
parative Religion," are either included under the above 
heads or given prominence in lecture courses ; the first 
named, however, being usually included in the course of 
preparation for the theological school. 

It is quite evident that a large part of the develop 
ment in theological education of a high grade has taken 



THEOLOGICAL EDUCATION. 239 

place within the last five or six years. Yet larger things 
are planning in man} directions, the establishment of 
other institutions, the attainment of larger and more 
perfect unions, and the more thorough equipment and 
endowment of all. The development of a strong spirit 
of consecration to the Christian ministry during the past 
year and the prospective orgatiization of a "Student 
Volunteer Movement" for this purpose, will render 
imperative such expansion. 

Arthington Training Institute, Tsangchow, for the 
training of evangelists, school teachers and non-college 
men, especially for the rural missions of the London 
Missionary Society in North China. A start was made 
in 1905, and in 1907 the institute was adopted by the 
Arthington trustees, who gave money for buildings and 
also give an annual grant enough to help twenty men. 
The present number is twenty-five. 

The full course is four years, including two years 
chiefly arts and the latter two years in theological 
studies. The first batch of men (six in number) grad 
uated at the end of 1909. The students get plenty of 
practice in preaching in city and country on Sundays 
and at special fairs. The rural missions need this class 
of man as local leaders and teachers. Some of the finest 
workers come from the ranks men who have some 
Chinese scholarship, but no collegiate education. The 
training of the evangelists includes training in the con 
duct of all kinds of meetings, including business meetings 
and native church councils. They are well doctrinated 
with sound ideas on self-support. Q jj FENN 

Theological Education in Central China, 
GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

Public speaking, as a means of influencing the 
masses, has but yesterday begun to come into repute 
among the Chinese. The Christian propaganda has 
long been scorned by the literati because of our will- 



240 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

ingness to preach to the common people. But of late, 
as evidenced by a leading article in the most influential 
Chinese daily, public lectures for the uneducated are 
recognized to be next in importance to schools and 
newspapers in the training of the nation for representa 
tive government. This would seem to be at least an 
unconscious tribute to the power of preaching as prac 
tised by the heralds of the Gospel. 

The calling of a pastor, in its two-fold duties of 
preaching and the care of souls, has hitherto had little 
attractiveness to Chinese youth seeking a life work. 
To us a profession held in great honor, to them it has 
too much seemed a difficult and odium-incurring service 
of foreign missionaries. Yet in spite of this difficulty, 
the church in China has, during the past decades, 
produced many faithful and consecrated ministers of 
the Gospel. 

The theological training of these men has been 
secured in various ways : in classes, or in home study 
under the direction of individual pastors, or in yet more 
desultory method. The educational qualifications required 
in men so trained has also varied greatly. But the call 
for theological schools has, within recent years, become 
more and more insistent. The past decade has seen the 
establishment of over a dozen schools in the part of 
China IKMV under review, and a number of others are 
projected. The necessity of many such schools is 
vouched for both by the rapid growth of the church and 
by the tremendous area to be covered. This report 
covers the provinces of Kiangsu, Chekiang, Anhui, 
Kiangsi, Hupeh, Hunan, and Szechwau, a territory as 
large as that of the United States east of a line running 
south from the foot of Lake Michigan, or five times the 
size of Great Britain and Ireland. With the attention 
of the educated classes turned toward the truth as never 
before, the need grows more and more imperative of the 
most talented and best equipped men possible as preach 
ers and pastors. The fact that there are good training 



THEOLOGICAL EDUCATION. 24! 

schools available, is beginning to prove an incentive to 
young men of this type to offer themselves for the 
ministry. 

The field covered by the seven provinces named 
above is far from homogeneous. Some parts are very 
difficult of access, some are fairly developed as mission 
fields, others are quite new. Near the coast theological 
training has been going on for over fifty years ; in many 
places less than a decade. In some parts of the field 
the church has become self-conscious and self-governing, 
while in others the foundations are but just being laid. 
But the whole missionary body now recognizes the 
immediate importance of obtaining a carefully trained 
force of pastors and evangelists for this whole field. 
Many consider this as of more pressing urgency than 
even tlie doubling or trebling of our missionary force as 
a measure for the coordination and strengthening of the 
church, as well as for the evangelizing of the masses yet 
untouched. 

METHODS OK TRAINING. 

It is difficult to obtain full reports of those under 
training for the ministry. In many an out-of-the-way 
station men are under the supervision of the missionary, 
as student-helpers, evangelists, preachers, assistant 
pastors. Some of these gradually develop into efficient 
and devoted pastors. In many instances the home 
studies of these men are supplemented by some weeks 
of Bible study in institute or Bible class. In larger 
centres will be found a number of catechetical or Bible 
training schools, where worthy men of inferior education 
are gaining a knowledge of the Bible, church history, 
etc., and receiving practical and homiletical training. 
In the case of mo.it of the missions, the graduates of 
such training schools are not ordained at the conclusion 
of their course, but must pursue further studies and 
meet further examinations set by their ecclesiastical 
superiors. In addition to such schools, there are a 



242 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

number of theological colleges, where men of school 
training are taking more advanced courses to go out 
directly into the ordained ministry. Statistics, as given 
below, show rapid increase in the number of such 
institutions in the past four years. 

The courses of study provided by the advanced 
theological schools are approximations, in name at least, 
to those of divinity schools at home. In practice up to 
the present few young men of high training have been 
available as students ; hence men of less education who 
definitely hear the call to the ministry are received and 
given such training as they are able to acquire. But 
the Chinese church, and particularly its older pastors, 
desire earnestly that the succeeding generation of or 
dained men shall have the advantage of the most 
thorough theological education possible, including the 
knowledge of the Scriptures in the original tongues. 
All that can be obtained in the seminaries of the West 
should be made available here. The courses in all the 
theological colleges are rising to a higher standard year 
by year, and at the same time the claims of the ministry 
are being presented to college students in every way, 
including the publishing of articles showing the depth 
and variety of learning necessary to any real mastery of 
theological science. 

In four institutions the instruction is given in 
English. While the number able to pursue their studies 
in English is small, among this number will be found 
most promising and most consecrated workers. On the 
other hand, the need for schools providing the whole 
theological course in Chinese will not cease. The source 
of supply of students acquainted with English is too 
small for the demands of the field ; beside which the 
ability of the churches to support their pastors is limited, 
and the man who knows English will, for some time, be 
a higher priced man than the one who does not. A 
thorough theological education can be imparted through 
the medium of the Chinese language, and this will 



THEOLOGICAL EDUCATION. 243 

doubtless continue to be the main method employed in 
the majority of these schools, while yet making such 
use of English books as students are able for. 

It is proper to say that the colleges under considera 
tion are intensely practical in character. Even those 
schools which carefully preserve their own denomina 
tional affiliations are not doing so in sectarian spirit. 
Nor are the schools allowed to become scholastic or 
unpractical in tone. The purpose is ever kept foremost 
to prepare men for a ministry of service that they may 
meet the deep religious needs of their fellow-countrymen. 
The strong and growing sense of solidarity between 
Chinese Christians of various denominations is a bright 
sign of promise fcr the future, and careful study of the 
work done in these schools leads one to believe that the 
training given is such as will definitely tend to the 
establishment of a common Christianity in China. 

The statistics given below will show that three new- 
seminaries have been established since the Centenary 
Conference, while six of the twelve training schools for 
lay workers reported have opened within the same time. 
A number of additional schools of both kinds are 
projected at various centres, while reports indicate rapid 
increase in the number and quality of students, the 
grade of instruction, and the number of teachers giving 
whole or part time to this work. Missions, Chinese 
churches, and school superintendents are pressing the 
claims of the ministry upon young men as never before. 
The great spiritual movements within the church have 
resulted not only in deeper consecration, but also in the 
dedication of many lives to the work of preaching the 
Gospel. The students conferences, under the auspices 
of the Y. M. C. A., have contributed largely to this 
result. While exact figures are not available, it is 
known that in the past three years, in four of the seven 
provinces under review, six hundred have dedicated 
their lives to Christian service, and about one-third 
of these must be nearing graduation, and hence almost 



244 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

or quite ready to enter the theological schools. There 
is growing 1 interest on the part of the Chinese churches 
and individuals in the problem of the support of ministerial 
candidates. One large body, the Synod of the Five 
Provinces, representing a number of Presbyterian 
missions, is projecting a "Board of Education" for the 
assistance of students for the ministry. The number 
of grants from societies at home, and of special gifts for 
the erection of new buildings, which have become 
available within three years, shows that the Home 
Boards and Societies are realizing as never before the 
urgency of this work. 

UNION MOVEMENTS. 

The trend toward union in theological instruction is 
marked. The Baptist Seminary at Shanghai and the 
Presbyterian Seminary at Nanking are union schools 
under the joint management of denominations organically 
separate in the United States. There is a growing 
sentiment in favor of wider unions, where possible, 
between various denominational schools in the same 
section. In Kiangsu and in Szechwau such union effort 
in the training school work may be said to be near at 
hand. 

PROBLEMS AND NEEDS. 

The reports from the various schools show many 
needs and problems. They may be gathered into the 
following general statements : 

1. Deeper spiritual life and higher ideals among the students, 

2. More students of thorough preparation, good ability, and 
social standing. 

3. Greater interest in this work on the part of the Chinese 
church, and higher views, especially on the part of Christian 
parents, of the sacred calling. 

4. More teachers for theological work, both foreigners and 
Chinese. 

5. Better and more thorough text-books. 

6. Fuller cooperation between missions in this work. 



Catechetical c 





T3 












V 


a 




a 


u 


Name of School. 


jJiiH 
1 


co 2 

*l 


1 


tn v 

11 


1 




8 


& 




fe 


J 


All Saints Catechetical School 


1896 


A. C. M. 


Hankow, 
Hupeh 


2 


1 


Shanghai Catechetical School 




A. C. M. 


Shanghai, 
Kiangsu 






W. China Diocesan Training School 


1903 


C. M. S. 
C. I. M. 


Paoning, 
Szechuan 


2 




Training School of Presbyterian Theo 
logical Seminary 


1904 


A.P.M.(N.) 
S. P. M. 


Nanking, 
Kiangsu 


3 


1 


C. I. M. Bible Training School 


1904 


C. I. M. 


Chengtu, 
Szechuan 


i 




Training School of Nanking Bible College 


1907 


F. C. M.S. 


Nanking 
Kiangsu 


5 


1 


Norwegian Missionary Society Theo 
logical School 


1908 


N. M. S. 


lyang, 
Hunan 


i 


2 


Joyce Bible Training School 


1909 


M. K. M. 


Chengtu, 
Szechuen 


i 


i 


Canadian Methodist Training School ... 




C. M. M. 


Chengtn, 
Szechnen 






Theological Institute .. 




I,. M. S. 


Shanghai, 
Kiangsu 


i 




Burrows Memorial Bible School 


1910 


C. I. M. 


Nanchang, 
Kiatvgsi 


i 


1 


C. I. M. Bible Institute 


1910 


C. I M. 


Ilaimchow, 
Chekiang 






M. K. Biblical Training School 


1903 


M K. M. 


Chengtu, 


i 


. 


Blackstone Bible Institute 


1908 


C & M. A. 


Wuchang, 






Wuchang Training Institution 


1901 


W. M. S. 


Wuchang, 


1 




Church of Scotland Training Institution.. 


1906 


C. S. M. 


Ichang, 


i 





246 



r Lay Training Schools, J9JO. 



IM 




3 


i 


.2 C 
11 


Requirements for 
Entrance. 


3 

o 


President or Mission 
ary in Charge. 


Remarks. 






C 










V 




54 


Fair Chinese and script 
ural knowledge 


3 


Rev. S.H. Uttell, B.A. 


Temporarily combined with 










school at Hankow. 


13 


Fair Chinese and script 
ural knowledge 


2 


Rev. C H. Parsons. 




20 


Fair Chinese and script 
ural knowledge 


3 


Rev. J.W. Davis, D.D. 




19 


Fair Chinese and script 
ural knowledge 


2 


A. Grainger. 




14 


Fair Chinese and script 
ural knowledge 


3 


Rev. A. E. Cory, M.A. 




20 


Fair Chinese and script 
ural knowledge 


3 


Rev. A. Hirscher. 




23 










3 






Rev. E. Box. 




10 


Fair Chinese and script 
ural knowledge 


2 


W. W. Home. 








3 


Rev. Joseph Beech, 








B.A. 






Ability to carry studies 








17 


prescribed 












Mr. R.H Glover. M.D. 






i 


Rev. C. W. Allan. 






Chinese education, good , 








Christian character, -\ 


Rev. F. Tocher. 






knowU-dgt- of N.T., etc. 







J. C. GAKKITT. 



THEOLOGICAL EDUCATION. 247 

Theological Education in Canton and Fukien Provinces. 

The following account of the present state of theo 
logical education in the provinces of Canton and Fnkien 
is*based on replies from the various missions to questions 
which were sent to them. By comparing what is here 
stated with the Resolutions on the Chinese Ministry 
which were passed at the Shanghai Centenary Con 
ference of 1907, it will be seen that the progress of 
theological education is in the main in accord with the 
policy laid down at that time. 

EXISTING INSTITUTIONS. 

The importance of theological education is recog 
nised. In Fukien province all the missions give prom 
inence to this branch of the work. The American 
Methodist Episcopal Mission has theological schools in 
Foochow and in Shaowu, the American Board Mission 
has schools in Foochow and Hinghwa, and the Church 
Missionary Society has a college in Foochow with 
theological classes at Hinghwa and Kienning. As 
regards South Fukien the three missions which are at 
work there, namely the American Reformed Mission, the 
London Mission, and the English Presbyterian Mission, 
have combined to establish a union theological college 
in Amoy. The London Mission have also made a begin 
ning of theological education in the city of Tingchiu. 

In the province of Canton five out of sixteen mis 
sions have no theological college of their own. These 
missions are : the American Board Mission, the London 
Mission, the Presbyterian Church of New Zealand Mis 
sion, the American Scandinavian Mission, and the United 
Brethren Mission. The American Board Mission, how 
ever, report that they hope to have a good training 
school in the near future, the London Mission organises 
preachers training classes, and the remaining missions, 
which are as yet small in size, look forward rather to 
uniting with other missions in theological training than 



248 CHINA MISSION YEAH BOOK. 

to starting schools of their own. The existing theo 
logical colleges in the Canton province are eleven in 
number. These are : in Canton city the colleges of the 
American Presbyterian Mission, the American Southern 
Baptist Mission, the Wesleyan Missionary Society, the 
Berlin Mission, and the Church Missionary Society ; and 
in other places the colleges of the American Reformed 
Presbyterian Mission in Takhing (west of Canton), of 
the Rhenish Missionary Society in Hongkong, of the 
Basel Missionary Society at Lilong (North of Hong 
kong), of the American Baptist Missionary Society in 
Swatow, and of the English Presbyterian Mission in 
Swatow and Wukingfu (Hak ka Mission). 

THE STUDENTS. 

The theological college of a mission is usually 
the highest of a series of schools and colleges, rising 
from lower to higher grades, and it is satisfactory to 
learn from the reports that the large majority of theolog 
ical students have actually passed through the prepara 
tory schools of the mission to which they belong, that is 
to say, have had as complete a preliminary training as 
the mission has so far made provision to give them. It 
is a point of first importance that the standard of this 
preparatory education be raised as high as possible. 
At the same time there will be room in the Chinese 
church for a long time to come for men of earnest piety 
and evangelistic gifts, who, though deficient in general 
education, are yet desirous of becoming preachers. All 
the theological colleges above mentioned, with the 
exception apparently of the American Board College in 
Foochow, receive such men as students, modifying the 
curriculum in some respects to meet their special case. 

To a question whether the number of theological 
students is increasing, the answer given is, in most cases, 
in the negative. Only four missions give an unqualified 
Yes in reply. The Centenary Conference recommend- 



THKOLOGICAI, EDUCATION. 249 

ed that the subject of the Chinese ministry should be 
brought prominently before the churches, but in no case 
is this being done in any systematic way ; the matter 
being left to the zeal of individuals, assisted perhaps by 
an occasional appeal at some assembly of the church. 

THE CURRICULUM. 

With regard to the curriculum, there are some 
subjects which naturally find a place in the curriculum 
of every theological school. These are biblical introduc 
tion and exegesis, biblical theology and church his 
tory, together with homiletics and pastoral theology. 
Bible history is also taught, if it has not been studied 
in the preparatory schools. In several of the colleges 
some attempt is made to teach apologetics, ethics, and 
comparative religion. Students are, in all cases, allowed 
time for the study of Chinese literature and for Chinese 
composition that they may not lose influence and respect 
among their fellow-countrymen through lack of Chinese 
scholarship. Canton and Fukien being non-mandarin- 
speaking provinces, Mandarin also finds a place in some 
of the curricula. Other non-theological subjects, such 
as arithmetic, geography, physical science, astronomy 
and pedagogy are also, in some cases, taught according 
as the students are deficient in general knowledge and 
scholarship, but the study of these subjects must encroach 
seriously upon the time which the students have for 
theological reading. In none of the reports received is 
there any reference to training in Sunday school methods 
as having any prescribed place in the curriculum. The 
teaching in the above mentioned colleges is given in 
Chinese, but in two colleges English is also taught, and 
in one case, that of the Berlin Mission, German is 
taught. The length of the course is either three years 
or four years. In only two cases is it two years. Some 
times the students are sent out in the middle of the 
course to gain a year s experience in teaching. 



250 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

POST GRADUATE STUDY. 

Most of the missions require further study from 
students who have left the college and have become 
preachers. The methods employed sometimes separate 
ly, sometimes in combination are examinations and 
gatherings for Bible study. The Church Missionary 
Society prescribes courses of study for all catechists, with 
yearly examinations. The American Board Mission 
requires preachers, after leaving college, to pass through 
a further course of three years. The Methodist Epis 
copal Mission, through its general conference, arranges a 
four years course of study for all preachers who enter 
the regular ministry. The English Presbyterian Mission, 
in addition to the Presbyterial examinations which 
candidates for the ministry have to pass, seeks to en 
courage all its preachers to engage in systematic study. 
In Swatow, for example, preachers are expected to pass a 
semi-annual examination. In Wukingfu the preachers 
gather together in spring for a fortnight of Bible teach 
ing and in the autumn are examined on the teaching 
given in spring. A similar plan is followed in the 
Amoy field, except that the teaching is sometimes given 
at the ordinary preaching meetings, when the preachers 
gather together in different places for special evangelistic 
work. The Berlin Mission reports that Bible teaching 
is given at quarterly conferences. The Wesleyan 
Methodist Mission organises conventions for Bible study 
in country centres. The American Presbyterian Mission 
in Canton made the experiment last year of a four days 
Bible study conference during the vacation, an experi 
ment which they report will probably be repeated. The 
Basel Mission arranges annually a short course of instruc 
tion for its preachers, and further requires them to enter 
an outline of the sermons they preach in a book. The 
suggestion made at the Shanghai Conference to establish 
correspondence classes for Bible study does not seem to 
have been tried, so far as the provinces of Canton and 



THEOLOGICAL EDUCATION. 251 

Fukien are concerned, and unless the district in which 
a mission works is one of enormous extent, the plan of 
conferences for Bible teaching is likely to be more 
effective than that of correspondence classes. Much can 
yet be done to develop this department of the work, 
which is one of great importance and profit. 

There is at present but little cooperation between 
the missions in the matter of theological education. In 
Canton some of the missions which have no theological 
school of their own send their students to the colleges of 
other missions, and union with other missions in this 
department of the work is at present a subject under 
discussion in the case of at least one important college 
in Canton city. But the only existing union college in 
the provinces which we are dealing with is the college 
in Arnoy. The American Reformed Church Mission 
and the Knglish Presbyterian Mission have, from an 
early period, made common cause in the matter of 
theological education, but in 1907 the union was broad 
ened to include the L,ondon Mission. Each mission 
appoints two members to represent it on the Board of 
Management of the college, and bears a proportional 
share in the expenses of the institution, besides helping 
in the teaching. Union in theological teaching certainly 
makes for economy and efficiency, but those who attempt 
to carry it into practice must be prepared to meet with 
many and great difficulties, which it will require much 
tact and patience to overcome. This at least has 
been the experience of the missions in the Arnoy field. 
Nor do the difficulties arise only from the side of the 
missionaries. It is surprising to find outbursts of a 
sectarian spirit amongst the Chinese also leading to 
squabbles between the students of the different mis 
sions, but the fact that sectarian feeling is already in 
evidence should surely act as a spur to all movements 
towards federation and union, that the seeds of division 
may not become more deeply rooted in the Chinese 
churches. 



252 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

The theological colleges will, sooner or later, pre 
sumably be placed under the control of the Chinese 
church. At present they are maintained by foreign 
funds, and are almost entirely under foreign manage 
ment. The Methodist Episcopal Mission reports that 
there are Chinese on the Theological College Committee, 
but in the other cases, while the Chinese are consulted 
unofficially on matters where their advice is deemed 
important, they have no share in the management of 
the college. In some cases the admission of students 
depends upon the recommendation of a committee on 
which Chinese have a seat. In reply to a question 
whether there is a tendency on the part of the Chinese 
church to demand a larger share of control in the affairs 
of the theological college, the majority of the replies 
are in the negative. In two cases a move in this direc 
tion is regarded as probable, and in one case, that of 
the Amoy college, the question of management and 
control was brought up for discussion at the Chinese 
Synod of the Presbyterian Church there, and a com 
mittee was appointed to investigate and to report on the 
whole subject. The question of raising funds for the 
support of the students is also being discussed by the 
native church in the Anioy field, and the discussion of 
this question may lead to far-reaching changes. 

The L,. M. S. report for 1909 says: " For the past 
few years an attempt has been made to start a union 
theological school, and during 1908 the Chinese came 
forward with a plan of their own. They had ascertained 
that Mr. Yeung Seung-pa would be available for the 
next year, and they decided to start a class for the 
training of preachers, and invite Mr. Yeung to take 
charge of it, The missionaries were asked to assist in 
the teaching, and the control was to be in the hands of 
the Chinese church. 

A three years course is proposed, with a preparatory 
year in addition, if necessary. Mr. Yeung will have 
charge of the students, and will also teach some biblical 



THEOLOGICAL EDUCATION. 253 

as well as some general subjects. Mr. Clayson will 
teach theology and church history, and three members 
of the church have volunteered to give help in teaching 
some of the subjects in the arts course, viz., Mr. Ho 
Chup-mun, Mr. Lum Paak-woh, and Mr. Mak Siu-ki." 
This brief account of the present status of theolog 
ical education in the southern coast provinces of China 
gives cause for encouragement and good hope. The 
theological colleges of the various missions are well- 
organised, and are attracting students who have had a 
good preliminary training, and are likely to do good 
service as preachers. But the missions are not content 
with the standards already attained, and are in many 
cases planning to strengthen the curriculum of the 
preparatory schools and of the theological colleges 
themselves. The present is a transition stage when we 
must press forward with all our strength towards the 
establishment of theological colleges that shall be fully 
worthy of the great church that is rising up in China. 

H. W. OLDHAM. 



NOTE: A special chapter on "Bible Training 
Schools" was being prepared by Rev. W. J. Doherty, 
but that gentleman s illness prevented its completion. 
The subject will, however, be dealt with in next issue 
of the Year Book. ED. 



CHAPTER XII. 



THE BIBLE STUDY MOVEMENT. 

S Relation to the General Movement. The Bible 
Study movement in China is oue of the many 
movements that has resulted from the revival in 
Bible study in various parts of the world. 

The Bible Study Movement in China prior to the 
Centenary Conference. Prior to the Centenary Confer 
ence the movement was in no way a united one, but 
various organizations, missions and individual mission 
aries, were doing something to stimulate Bible study 
among their Christians and to promote it among the 
Chinese Christian workers with whom they came in 
contact. As a result of the general world-wide Bible 
study movement and of the sporadic attempts in China 
of various organizations and individuals along Bible 
study lines, one of the needs most frequently and 
emphatically expressed at the Centenary Conference 
was for definite plans to be formed for promoting and 
stimulating Bible study among Chinese Christian workers. 

The Organization at the Ce?itenary Conference, 
iqoj. The Centenary Conference therefore appointed a 
Bible study committee, which was afterwards enlarged 
until now the personnel of the committee is as fol 
lows : 

D. Willard Lyon, Shanghai, Chairman. 

A. E. Cory, Nanking, Secretary. 

A. J. Bowen, Nanking, Treasurer. 

\V. N. Bitton, Shanghai. 

J. C. Garritt, Nanking. 

A. P. Parker, Shanghai. 

A. Sydenstricker, Chinkiang. 

W. H. Warren, Shaoshing. 



THE BIBLE STUDY MOVEMENT. 255 

F. J. White, Shanghai. 

E. \V. Burt, Weihsien. 

W. H. Gillespie, Kwanchengtzu. 

L. Lloyd, Foochow. 

T. W. Pearce, Hongkong. 

D. Z. Sheffield, North Tungchow. 

G. G. Warren, Changsha. 

F. Zahn, Fukwing. 

It is now felt that there must be a still further 
enlargement, and that in the enlargement, which will 
take place immediately, Chinese members must be added 
to a sufficient number to identify the movement intimate 
ly with the Chinese church. 

The Work of Investigation. One of the first things 
that the Bible Study Committee did was to carefully 
investigate the question as to whether there was a needy 
field for the promotion of Bible study in China. From 
nearly every mission in China, and from every province, 
came the emphatic reply that there was a great lack of, 
and an imperative demand for, the promotion of Bible 
study. Suffice it to say that nowhere was there a 
negative reply. The only criticism that was passed on 
the committee was, that the work, as planned, was to 
too limited a number. It was first planned that the 
committee was to promote Bible study among pastors, 
evangelists, helpers, colporteurs, bible-women, and other 
workers of the church as they were variously designated 
by the different missions. Missionaries in all parts of 
China felt that the work should cover the whole church, 
so the scope has been gradually broadened until to-day 
the plans include Bible study promotion for the entire 
church. 

The Work of Coordination. One of the most im 
portant tasks of the committee has been to coordinate 
throughout China the Bible study movements. It was 
found that several organizations were working along the 
same general line. Careful plans have been made so 
that there is no competition among any of the organiza- 



256 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

tious, and the field has been divided so that it could be 
as nearly covered as possible and that no part of it be 
left undeveloped if possible. The Y. P. S. C. E., the 
Sunday School Committee, the Federation Councils, 
and the various Missions and individuals have cooperat 
ed most heartily. The Y. M. C. A. has placed its 
machinery at the disposal of the committee, and in a 
large measure made possible anything the committee 
has been able to accomplish. 

Organization. There has been no attempt to make 
the Bible study movement a union movement, but the 
committee has sought to make existing organizations, 
wherever possible, serve so as not to bring new organiza 
tions into existence. The work has been promoted in 
every province in some form or other. In some prov 
inces it has been most efficient and has accomplished a 
great deal, while in others it is in the early stages. 
This has been accomplished either by the appointment 
of denominational committees, mission committees, or 
by using federation councils or existing organizations. 
A mission working in a certain locality appointed its 
committee, and that committee carried forward the 
Bible study work in its mission. Bible study com 
mittees have been appointed by various provincial 
federation councils, and they have carried the work 
forward either along denominational or federation lines 
as it seemed best. In one or two cases the work has 
been united with some existing committee, like a tract 
society or a Sunday school committee. 

The Nature of the Work Done. The work, to state 
it briefly has, up to this time, taken some five forms ; the 
most prominent, perhaps, being gatherings like the 
Bible institutes, conferences, or Bible classes which 
were held ; the length of time and the nature of the 
conference being determined by the kind of people they 
were attempting to reach, and the locality in which they 
were held. 



THE BIBLE STUDY MOVEMENT. 257 

GATHERINGS. 

Bible institutes have been held in several provinces. 
The most prominent of these having been in Fukien, 
Chekiang, Anhwei, Kiangsu, and Shantung. The in 
stitutes were from seventeen days to a month in length. 
The management in each case was entirely local, as was 
the case in all the institutes, Bible classes and confer 
ences that have been held. 

In the Nanking institute, which has been held the 
longest, 130 were enrolled last year. As this institute is 
typical of many that are being held, we outline it briefly. 
Eighty of these one hundred and thirty came from fifty- 
five widely separated districts ; mostly from Kiangsu, 
some from Anhwei. The day s program was divided as 
follows : 

8.30 to 9.00, Devotional. 
9.00 to 10.00, Lecture Period. 
10.00 to 10.50, Study or Recess Period. 
10.50 to 12.00, Lecture Period. 
12.00 to 2.00, Noon Recess. 
2.00 to 2.45, Class Period. 
2.45 to 3.15, Study and Recess Period. 
3.15 to 4.15, General Lecture Hour. 
7.30 to 9.00, Kvening Services for the Deepening 
of the vSpiritual Life. 

The lecture period was composed of courses of 
lectures of six or seven lectures each. They were 
actual instruction on some book of the Bible, or on some 
biblical topic. 

Organized Class Work. In addition to the lectures 
the students were divided, as far as possible, according 
to their ability, into primary, intermediate and advanced 
grades. Lyon s "Studies in Mark" were studied by 
the entire institute. 

General Lecture Period. There was a period when 
special lectures were given dealing with general topics 
like Sunday school work, characters in church history, 
the revival movement, methods of Bible study, art of 
preaching, etc. 



258 CHINA MISSION YKAR BOOK. 

Devotional and Evangelistic Meetings. In addition 
to these, devotional meetings were held every night for 
the deepening of the spiritual life. Such institutes as 
the one at Nanking were held particularly for Christian 
workers. This brief outline is given in order to show 
the nature of some of the work that was done. 

Bible Classes. Bible classes have been held for the 
church members and inquirers. These have been any 
where from four to eight days in length. In some places 
the attendance has been large. The purpose has been 
to give simple Bible teaching at a time when there could 
be a large attendance. The Bible class system is one 
that has been worked most successfully in Korea. The 
Bible Study Committee has investigated the work done 
in Korea and believe it should be adopted in China, and 
plans are being made for immediate promotion through 
out the empire. 

Bible Conferences. Bible conferences have been held 
in many localities. They have, generally, been two or 
three days in length and have been for inspirational 
purposes, in order that the church might be stimulated 
to a greater zeal along Bible study lines. 

CITY BIBLE CLASSES. 

Following the institutes, or conferences, weekly, 
semi-monthly, or monthly Bible classes are being held 
in large centres. These classes have been union in some 
centres and denominational in others. Such classes 
have been of the greatest influence in deepening the 
spiritual life of the workers and ill strengthening the 
spirit of fellowship and union. 

HOME STUDY COURSES. 

One of the greatest demands and the one most 
difficult to supply has been to outline a home study or 
correspondence course for workers not under regular 



THK BIBLE STUDY MOVEMENT. 259 

instruction that would spur them on to regular Bible 
study. A sub-committee of the Bible Study Committee 
outlined a temporary course, which has been used as a 
basis of a correspondence course in some missions. The 
work has been tested far enough to show that such 
courses are of tremenduous value. A course is being 
submitted to the missionary body, based largely on the 
Korean system of Bible study. It will cover the 
home study, correspondence, and supplementary reading 
course idea. The work will be carried forward through 
various committees and local organizations. 

DEVOTIONAL BIBLE STUDY. 

An aggressive campaign has been carried forward 
through the Y. P. S. C. E., Y. M. C. A., and Mission 
organizations to the enlisting of many thousands in the 
observance of the Quiet Hour and the Morning Watch. 
This campaign has been most successful. 

THE POCKET TESTAMENT LEAGUE. 

Before there can be Bible study there must be a 
reading of the Bible. A prominent bishop said to the 
writer that he did not believe that fifty per cent, of his 
church members in China were Bible readers. Many of 
them did not own a Bible. This condition is not peculiar 
to any church or locality. The committee, upon realiz 
ing this condition, were most glad to welcome the Pocket 
Testament League. It is a movement which has recently 
been inaugurated for the study and distribution of God s 
Word. The movement was originated in Birmingham, 
England, a number of years ago by Mrs. Charles M. 
Alexander. It is a simple organization, with a simple 
pledge, which says : " I hereby accept membership in 
the Pocket Testament League by making it a rule of 
my life to read at least one chapter in the Bible each day 
and to carry a Testament or Bible with me wherever I 
go." It is an effective method of building up Christians 



260 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

in the faith and of leading- the unsaved to Christ by 
enlisting them in three distinct lines of activity : First, to 
read a chapter in God s Word daily ; second, to carry a 
Bible or Testament wherever one goes ; and third, to dis 
tribute God s Word. The league is now spreading with 
wonderful rapidity throughout the world, and it is meet 
ing a most cordial reception wherever it has been pre 
sented in China. 

SUMMARY. 

To state it briefly, the Bible study movement has a 
committee which has been at work since the Centenary 
Conference. By personal visitation, by correspondence, 
and by careful investigation, the field has been carefully 
investigated, its needs, its requirements and its opportuni 
ties made known. The work has been coordinated, 
so that all organizations that have the promotion of 
Bible study as an aim are working in harmony. The 
work has been organized until in some form or other 
ever} 7 province has been touched. In the three years 
since the Centenary Conference more than one hundred 
Bible institutes or conferences have been held. These 
have been both union and denominational. City Bible 
classes have been organized, and are now being held in 
many centres. Bible study courses have been planned, 
and many thousands have been enlisted in the " Quiet 
Hour," or " Morning Watch." The Pocket Testament 
League has been launched, and is meeting with a great 
reception. In the various summer resorts the cause of 
Bible study has been presented in the past, and this year 
institutes under the direction of Dr. W. W. White 
(assisted by three colleagues) have been definitely 
arranged for in five summer resorts. This, in brief, out 
lines what has been done, and what has been done in the 
past will be but the basis of the work in the future. If 
the church in China is to be strong and powerful, it must 
be a church that reads and studies the Word of God. 

A. E. CORY. 



CHAPTER XIII 



SUNDAY SCHOOL AND CHRISTIAN ENDEAVOR. 

THE CHINA CENTENARY CONFERENCE SUNDAY 
SCHOOL COMMITTEE. 

JttOR many years now, in certain districts of China, 
&,\ considerable efforts in the direction of Sunday 
school work have been made. These, however, 
were not correlated and were largely dependent upon 
the energy of a mission or a few individuals. North 
China, with its long-established Sunday school work 
and the Sunday School Lessons Committee, and the 
region of Foochow, with its Sunday School Associa 
tion and its widespread work, are instances of districts 
where work has been systematically carried on for a 
considerable time. So in certain of the treaty ports 
Sunday school work was not neglected. Among the 
missions, the Methodist churches may be spoken of as 
especially active in the Sunday school movement. 

Some time before the meeting of the China Centenary 
Missionary Conference, it had been felt that mission 
work in China was missing a great opportunity in its 
neglect of Sunday schools and that the times were ripe 
for a forward movement. The paper which was read 
before the conference by the Reverend William C. 
White,* of the Church Missionary Society, made a deep 
impression on the minds of those present, showing as it 
did how entirely inadequate had been the attempts made 
to reach the children of this land and to provide for 
their education in the Christian life. As the result of 
this a representative committee was appointed to take 
up the question of Sunday school work throughout the 
whole of China, with a view to organizing a Sunday 
school union for this Empire. The following is a list of 
the members of this committee : 

* Now Bishop of Iloiian. 



262 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Rev. \V. H. LACY, D.D., Chairman. 
Rev. W. N. BITTON, A. T. S., Secretary. 
Members, of Rev. T. I). BEGG, Treasurer. 
Executive \ Rev. I). W. I/YON, B.A. 
Committee. Rev. D. MACGILUVRAY, D.D. 

Rev. J. W. CI<INE, D.D., Rev. J. N. HAYWARD, 
.Mr. F. C. COOPER, Rev. Dr. DARROCH, 

INIrs. S. L. HART, Rev. F. S. JOYCE, 

Rev. W. HUNTER, Dr. W. F. SEYMOUR, 

H. W. OLDHAM, Rev. W. C. WHITE, 
vS. H. LITTEIJ,, ,, J. C. OWEN, 

J. R. GODDARD, ,, \V. GlESEWETTER, 

J. F^NDICOTT, ,, F. BROWN, 

A. GRAINGER, Mr. E. J. BI.ANDFORD. 

he committee appointed by conference to carry on 
the work of Sunday schools elected an executive com 
mittee from its number, and this executive committee 
proceeded at once to put itself in communication with 
the British Sunday School Union, and in correspondence 
with Mr. F. A. Belsey, chairman, and Rev. Carey 
Bonner, secretary, received promises of substantial aid in 
the event of a secretary being appointed on the mission 
field. It had been felt that the appointment of a perma 
nent secretary, who should spend his whole time in organ 
izing the Sunday school movement in China, was essential 
to succsss. Various attempts were made to secure the 
services of men who were known to be interested in 
Sunday school work, and at last the Executive Commit 
tee had the joy of securing the appointment of the Rev. 
J. Darroch, a former member of the China Inland Mission. 
Dr. Darroch signified his willingness to take up this office 
after a brief furlough in Kngland, and was to become or 
ganizing secretary of the Sunday School Union for China 
from the first of September, 1908, assuming the respon 
sibilities of office in China from the first of January, 1909. 
Unfortunately, in the event, these expectations were 
altogether unrealized. The British Sunday School Union 
found itvSelf financially handicapped so that it was unable 
to meet the demands made upon it, and Dr. J. Darroch, 
in the interval, accepted another appointment from the 



SUNDAY SCHOOL AND CHRISTIAN KNDKAVOR. 263 

Religious Tract Society of London, which Society, how 
ever, kindly permitted him to devote part of his time for 
a definite period of six months to the assistance of the 
China Sunday School Committee and its work. 

At the present time this committee is negotiating 
with a Chinese Christian pastor, who has been educated 
abroad, for his services as secretary to the organization. 
His salary will be met by the funds which are available 
through the help of the British Sunday School Union, 
and some measure of usefulness is assured by the services 
of such a man. 

The Rev. F. Brown, F.R.G.S.,of Tientsin, was the 
official representative of the China committee at the 
World s Sunday School Convention at Washington in 
May, 1910, and it was expected that the American 
committee would take up the support of an organizing 
secretary, by whom much traveling must be done, that 
local organizations may be formed in the important cen 
tres of missionary activity. 

The publication of the International Lessons was 
begun by the committee with the beginning of 1909 ; the 
lessons for the first half being prepared by Dr. MacGil- 
livray. At present the publications include (i) a lesson 
quarterly of over sixty pages, (2) an illustrated leaflet 
issued separately for each lesson, (3) a book of golden texts 
in large type for the entire year, and (4) reward cards 
having colored floral borders with Scripture texts. The 
quarterlies and leaflets are issued in both Mandarin and 
Wen-li, and their circulation is rapidly increasing. The 
Executive Committee has authorized local committees 
at Ningpo, Foochow, Canton, Hankow, and Chengtu, 
to issue their own editions of the lesson notes as pre 
pared by the Central Committee, and thus the good 
results of our efforts are being multiplied. 

One of the surprises of the present movement is the 
readiness with which heathen children can be got to 
attend a Sunday School. The old fear is gone. 

W. H. LACY. 



264 CHINA MISSION YKAR BOOK. 

The Christian Endeavor Society. 

The Society of Christian Endeavor originated in 
a revival which, in the winter of 1880-1881, blessed 
the Williston Church of Portland, Maine, U. S. A. 
On the evening of February 2, 1881, several scores of 
young converts were gathered together in the pastor s 
study, and the first Young People s Society of Christian 
Kndeavor was formed, with essentially the present con 
stitution, pledge and methods of work. The practical 
results of this first society went far beyond the expecta 
tions of its founder and of its early members. The young 
people s prayer-meeting, which had been a dead-and-alive 
affair in that church, took on new vigor and continuous 
energy. Instead of the two or three elderly young 
people, who with their pastor had before sustained it, 
the forty or fifty active members who had signed the 
pledge took their part, and the activities of the young 
people, when systematically arranged and definitely 
organized, became ten-fold greater than ever before. The 
more they did, the more they found they were able to 
do. Some of the youngest and most timid members of 
the society soon led the meetings acceptably and helpfully, 
and the spiritual lives of the young people were deepened 
as they formed habits of daily devotional Bible study. 
In a word, the Society had inaugurated a new era 
of spiritual things in that church, and a quiet but real 
revival spirit seemed to be perpetual, year in and year 
out, among the young people. This experience has 
been repeated in thousands of churches where C. E. 
Societies have been organized in all parts of the world. 

Dr. F. E. Clark, the founder of the Society, has 
named the following as the four essential principles of 
the Christian Endeavor Societ) 7 : 

1. Confession of Christ. 

2. Service for Christ. 

3. Loyalty to Christ s Church. 

4. Fellowship with Christ s People. 



SUNDAY SCHOOL AND CHRISTIAN ENDEAVOR. 265 

He says : " With these roots the C. E. tree will bear 
fruit in any soil/ and his words are fortified by a world 
wide experience. 

The great changes which have taken place in the 
church during the past quarter of a century are largely 
due to the Christian Endeavor Society. Denominational 
barriers have been broken down, and the most cordial 
meetings of Christians, of all shades of opinions, are 
proved possibilities under the C. E. flag the world o er. 
The laity in the church have come to realize that it 
is their duty to engage in active service for Christ just as 
truly as it is the duty of the clergy. The remarkable 
missionary enthusiasm which has recently developed, 
in the church, is largely the results of the systematic 
study of missions in C. E. mission-study classes ; many 
of the leaders in the laymen s movement imbibed their 
first missionary zeal in the Christian Endeavor Society. 
The majority of the missionaries who have come to the 
field in recent years surrendered themselves in Endeavor 
meetings. 

The first Christian Endeavor Society outside of 
America was organized in China, at Foochow, March 
29th, 1885. The movement has spread into all parts of 
the Empire. Over (400) four hundred societies have 
been organized by missionaries working under more than 
a score of Boards in practically every province. The 
missionaries everywhere testify to the helpfulness of the 
society in training the native Christians to speak and 
work for Christ. In many places the endeavorers are 
going out in "evangelistic bands" to preach and 
distribute tracts, etc., on the city streets and in the 
villages. The Society is appreciated by the missionaries 
because its members are in no way drawn away from the 
church, but on the contrary are pledged to its loyal 
support. 

In mission schools the C. E. Society has been a 
vital force in deepening the spiritual lives of the stu 
dents. 



266 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

The United Society of Christian Endeavor for China 
was organized in Shanghai in 1893 for the purpose of 
preparing and circulating C. E. literature, arranging for 
C. E. conventions in the various sections of the Empire 
and promoting the C. E. cause generally. Much self- 
sacrificing work has been done by the missionaries who 
have been officers in the United Society, but the work 
has been handicapped because there has been no 
regularly employed secretary on the field, excepting 
the brief term of service of Rev. G. W. Hinnian (1903- 
1905), whose faithful and efficient work resulted in the 
organization of many societies and gave a great impetus 
to the movement. Dr. Hallock acted as honorary 
secretary from the time of Mr. Hinman s resignation 
until the arrival of the present secretaries on the field, 
in the spring of 1909. During the past year the C. E. 
movement has made a decided advance ; the general 
secretaries have corresponded with missionaries and 
Chinese workers in every province and have traveled 
in Shantung, Kiangsu, Kwangtung, Kwangsi, and 
Fukien. A goodly number of new societies have been 
organized. The National Convention held at Nanking 
in May, 1909, was the largest and in many respects the 
most successful in the history of the United Society. 
Enthusiastic rallies were held in Canton and Hongkong 
during the visit of Dr. Clark and party in December, 
1909, en route from the World s C. E. Convention in 
India. The services at Foochow, March 29th, in 
connection with the celebration of the twenty-fifth 
anniversary of the founding of the first C. E Society 
in China, were most inspiring, being attended by 
missionaries and Chinese from all the Missions. En 
couraging reports of union meetings held recently in 
Ningpo and other places have been received. 

It is hoped that the next National C. E. Conven 
tion, which is to be held in Peking, next spring, will 
give a great impetus to the movement throughout the 
Empire. 



SUNDAY SCHOOL AND CHRISTIAN ENDKAVOR. 267 



EXECUTIVK COMMITTEE. 

Rev. G. F. Fitch, D.D., President. 
Mr. L. T. Yoen, Vice-President. 
Mr. I). Y. Tsang, Honorary Secretary. 
Mr. E. S. Little, Honorary Treasurer. 
Rev. J. Parroch, Editorial Secretary. 

Miss E. S Hartwell. Secretary for Junior C. E. in Fukien. 
Mr. and Mrs. E. E. Strother, General Secretaries for Christian 
Endeavor and Junior C. E. 

PROVINCIAL SRCRKTARIES. 

Chairman, Mr. E. E. Strother, Shanghai. 

Anhwei Dr. E. I. Osgood, Chuchow. 

Chekiang J. E. Shoemaker, Yii-yao. 

Chihli Miss N. N. Russell, Peking. 

Fukien G. H. Hubbard, Pagoda Anch. 

Honan H. T. Ford, Taikang. 

Hunan ... ... ... ... A. R. Kepler, Siangtan. 

Hupeh A. W. Lagerquist, Laohokow. 

Kansu G. Andrew, Lanchowfu. 

Kiangsi R. A. McCulloch. Jaochow. 

Kiangsu ... ... ... ... Frank Garrett, Nanking. 

Kwangsi F. J. Child. Kweiling. 

Kwangtung ... ... ... Mrs. C. A. Nelson, Canton. 

Kweichow ... ... ... I). W. Crofts, Chenyuan. 

Manchuria ... ... ... James Stobie, Kaiyuan. 

Shansi ... ... ... ... A. Sowerby, Taiyuanfu. 

Shantung... 

Shensi ... ... ... ... A. Goold, Mienhsien. 

Szechuan... ,.. ... ... Miss E. Harris, Tungchuan. 

Yunnan ... ... ... ... J. McCarthy, Yunnanfu. 



Mr. and Mrs. E. E. STROTHER. 



CHAPTER XIV, 

WOMAN S WORK IN GENERAL. 

(Exclusive of Educational and Medical.) 

Mid-China. 

scope of this article is work in the Yangtze 
provinces and Chekiang, namely, Kiangsu, An- 
hwei, Hnpeh, Szechuen, lying wholly or in part 
north of the river, and Chekiang, Kiangsi, Hunan, and 
Kweichow, south of the river. 

The material herein used has been culled from 
letters received in answer to requests for information 
addressed to many of the stations of this territory and 
also from the published reports of the various mission 
boards represented in this region. 

We find a marked similarity in these reports of 
woman s work, the aim everywhere being : 

1. The reaching of the Chinese women and the preaching to 
them the Gospel story. 

2. The giving to them of Bible instruction and preparing 
them for church membership. 

3. The nurturing of the spiritual welfare of the convert and 
the upbuilding of Christian womanhood, with the further training 
of some among them for the work of Bible-women, but this last 
comes more properly under the head of educational work. 

REACHING THE WOMEN. 

Ca) By guest-room work, that is, by extending friendliness 
and hospital it v to them in their visits, often of mere curiosity to 
the home of the foreigner or to the "foreign school." 

" We have many guests often as many as fifty a 
day," writes one lady in Anhwei. "During festive 
seasons our guest-room (Chinese reception-room) cannot 
accommodate the crowds." 



WOMAN S WORK IN GENERAL. 269 

(b) By liospital Bible-women, that is, by preaching to clinic 
patients and their friends when assembled in the waiting-room or 
by talking to individuals among them ; by morning and evening 
prayers conducted for the in-patients and servants, and by 
personal work in the wards. 

(c) By dispensing charity at times of special distress, as for 
instance in the famine region. "The sense of gratitude has 
turned indifference and even antagonism to cordiality to the 
missionary and her message." 

(d) By giving out to neighboring women such work as 
sewing, embroider} , etc., by which the very needy may gain a 
help, at least, toward their livelihood. 

" The primary object is not industrial work so much 
as to get in touch with more women. Several have 
become enquirers." In one place (near Ningpo) a small 
towel factory was started to provide employment for 
women, where formerly the Christian workers met 
antagonism, as there the livelihood of the women was 
dependent on their manufacture of paper money (idol 
money). The work is now full of encouragement. 

(e) By means of meetings held regularly once or twice a 
week, to which Christian women are urged to bring heathen 
friends and neighbors. 

(f) And last, and perhaps the most important and effective, 
because of the personal work involved, by visiting in the homes, 
including house to house visiting, following up hospital patients 
in their homes, responding to invitations to call, and by itinera 
ries to less cultivated regions of from a few days to several 
weeks in duration. 

One lady, though responsible for school work at an 
important centre, writes of her itinerary on a donkey on 
an eighty-mile "circuit," and of how one day she rode 
fifteen miles and held meetings in six different villages, 
finding attentive listeners everywhere. "This work is 
so needed that we should like to give our entire time to 
it," she says. 

Though visiting has been largely in the homes of 
the poor and ignorant and among the great middle class, 
occasional reports come in telling of work among heathen 



270 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

women of intelligence and position. In one place "Miss 
J. was presented to the officials, gaining acquaintance 
through teaching calisthenics in the Provincial Normal 
vSchool, and later visited the yanien ladies. A Bible 
class, twice weekly, has followed. One lady of rank, and, 
through her influence, also her brother, a man of official 
importance, have determined to be baptized." 

Reports from Nanking and Changsha tell of calls 
made regularly in "Widows Homes," institutions 
maintained by the government, one of which houses as 
many as a thousand inmates. 

Through the Bible- women, women addicted to the 
opium habit have been brought to the hospitals and 
been " saved to serve." 

More than one report tells of the winning to Christ 
of women who for years had been zealous Buddhist 
devotees even nuns among them one a young woman 
of unusual intelligence, herself the teacher of a girls 
school, who after much questioning and months of 
private study of the Bible found "the truth" for 
which she had long sought in vain. 

Practically all the stations report these methods of 
reaching the women ; their work varying in degree rather 
than kind. Two facts impress one : the willingness of 
the u omoi to hear and the lamentably inadequate supply 
of workers for this particular line of ivork. From the 
reports we quote: "In many places we are but 
touching the work, and cannot do more till more workers 
are sent to enter the field in earnest" (Szechnen). 
"It is sad to see so many groping after God in the 
dark and no one to teach them." "Work for women 
is still in its infancy with us, but we have cause to 
hope for great things, for the work has grown most 
encouragingly now that a foreign lady has come to take 
charge." " Evangelistic work has been intermittent 
owing to lack of lady workers." "Not much of a 
report can be given so far. Only married ladies with 
their own family cares have beeu at our station till 



WOMAN S WORK IN GENERAL. 271 

now." "Visits are occasionally made to the women in 
their homes by Miss B.. but she must give most of her 
time to the girls boarding-school." " We can do house- 
to-house visiting only as time permits." ;( Wherever 
we have gone we have met a hearty welcome and been 
entreated to remain and teach, or to return soon. One 
district is six days journey from end to end with 
numerous stations between, so it is only possible to stay 
a few days at each, two or three times a year. Shall 
we condemn them if sometimes they wander away and 
forget what the missionary tells them? Rather we 
marvel that months after when she returns she finds 
them faithful and trying to keep alive the little fire that 
had been kindled in their hearts." "On every side 
opportunities now press upon the worker." i4 We met 
hundreds of attentive listeners and hungry hearts on our 
evangelistic trip along the canals." " Scarcelv ever do 
we meet a closed door in visiting the women, and usually 
marked courtesy." "Many are eager to be taught a 
short prayer." "This has been our best year yet in 
reaching the women." From far Kweichow we hear: 
"During a two months stay much interest was mani 
fested and considerable opportunity for work among the 
women, but later there was no one to keep up the work 
begun." And even from Kiangsu, speaking of the 
Grand Canal district, comes: "This district is badly 
off for Christian workers." " Work has been maintained 
in the central places, but a larger staff is needed to carry 
it on in the many out-stations." " Missionaries in these 
three years have had little difficulty in gaining an 
attentive hearing, whether preaching to crowds or 
talking to groups in the streets of a great city (like 
Hangchow) or itinerating among villages of a densely 
populated district (like that around Ningpo)." In 
another report from Chekiang we hear of long itineraries ; 
one including thirty-six market towns and many villages. 
From Anhwei : "Women s work is carried on at 
great disadvantage, as we have no one to visit country 



272 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

stations." Again, "In all districts more are needed to 
give time to frequent visiting to help the uninstructed 
gropers after truth. So little guidance can be given that 
adherents only too often fall victims to the various evils 
which choke the Word." 

Bishop Graves, of Shanghai, says: " What we need 
is a greater number to do woman s work, wholly 
devoting their time to it. ... Where now we have two, 
we need six at once, women who will not be tied by 
schools or other institutions, but who will direct the 
work of a number of Bible-women and make the religious 
care of the women in every station their particular 
business." Bishop Roots, of Hankow, writes: "Wom 
an s work is improving, especially where it has the 
benefit of foreign and trained Chinese women workers 
laboring together." 

PREPARATION FOR CHURCH MEMBERSHIP. 

Wherever possible a Sunday class is held for enquir 
ers, and usually a week-da} 7 class as welt. Wuchang 
(Hupeh) reports a class held on Sundays an hour before 
the preaching service, when the text of the morning is 
explained in simplest language, so that afterward the 
sermon is more readily grasped and appreciated. 

An excellent report comes from Changteh (Hunan) : 
"At the Wednesday catechism class the attendance is 
good ; women come early and stay late ; they memorize 
allotted portions of Scripture and always the Golden 
Text for the following Sunday ; a number of new hymns 
are committed to memory each year ; the women are 
encouraged to lead in prayer, to read the Scripture 
lesson, and to publicly testify to God s grace. On 
Thursday a class is held for the study of Chinese char 
acter. All members who read are invited to help in the 
teaching, as the character class is composed mostly of 
enquirers and heathen women. Hymns aud a prayer 
are also taught to them." 



WOMAN S WORK IN GENERAL. 273 

UP-BUILDING AND STRENGTHENING OF CHRISTIAN 

WOMANHOOD. 

The weekly meetings have proven in many places a 
most encouraging means of grace. One writes: "Our 
mid-week meetings have been wonderfully blessed this 
year. The Spirit of God has been very manifest. It 
has been such a joy to watch the growth of the women. 
They have had such freedom in prayer and testimony, 
and their example has been a means of inspiration to the 
brethren of the church. They join cheerfully in the 
visitation work to increase the attendance at the church 
services and to stimulate any who are cold and indifferent, 
and to get outside women interested in the Gospel." 

Another: "A number of women join church each 
year, but the great need is not so much the teaching 
the letter of the Gospels as to help them to understand 
the mind and spirit of Christ. There is an increasing 
number, however, who are beginning to know the true 
joy of being laborers together with Christ." 

Hwaiyuen reports mothers meetings, where are 
taught the privileges and duties of the Christian wife 
and mother in the home, and at the same time a play- 
hour is planned for the children, who are provided with 
a sand-box, etc., under proper supervision. 

Stereopticoii lectures on various informational sub 
jects have been given at certain centres, and have not 
only attracted new women of the more exclusive classes, 
but have widened the horizon and enlarged the sympa 
thies of the women of the church. 

Many of the centres have an "institute" for Bible 
study ; some each autumn, some twice a year. One 
Kiangsu lady reports a three weeks session each spring 
and autumn, at which the women pay their own ex 
penses ; she providing only the teachers and the dormi 
tory. Others have regularly six weeks, others a month 
each autumn, of daily classes for Bible reading and 
spiritual instruction. 



274 CHINA MISSION YKAK KOOK. 

A Saturday evening class for the women Christians 
who help on Sunday in teaching the Sunday School 
lesson to heathen strangers has been most beneficial. 
(Hunan.) 

This little sketch of woman s work in this region 
must not close without making mention of the beautiful 
testimonies which have come in of the faithful lives and 
efficient work of the Chinese women helpers pastors 
wives and day-school teachers, as well as Bible- women 
of greatly varied training not only in important centres 
but often in lonely and particularly difficult fields. For 
such work as theirs statistics are impossible, but we are 
convinced that their influence for good in the uplift of 
the womanhood and the home-life of China has been 
incalculable. 

ELSIE vSiTES RAVEN. 
(Mrs. Frank J. Raven.) 



Women s Work in General South China. 

The scope of this article is work in the three 
southern provinces Fukien, Kwangtung, Kwangsi 
and information has been collected from seven societies. 
There are doubtless other Protestant societies working 
for the women of these provinces, but it has not been 
found possible to obtain knowledge of what they are 
doing. Study of letters and reports gives a general im 
pression that there has been steady progress during these 
three years, but not much that is new or startling ; this 
indeed might be expected from the nature of the work. 

BIBLE-WOMEN. 

One notes that the work of Bible-women is con 
stantly larger and more appreciated. One writer tells 
us that the pastors find that they can do little without 
the Bible-women to carry on in the homes what they do 
in the church, while another refers to their labours as 



WOMAN S WORK IN GHNKRAL 275 

"not noised on earth, praised more in heaven." And 
again we are told that "the Bible-women ;ire doing 
honest work ; miles and miles have been travelled 
through heat and cold, visits have been made in homes, 
prayer meetings held, the Gospel preached, personal talks 
given ; and as a result lives are being transformed." In 
these three provinces a band of fully three hundred and 
fifty women is at work ; the Methodist Episcopal Mission 
leading the van with over one hundred and twenty. 
The work entrusted to these women varies somewhat ; 
perhaps in the majority of cases they give all their time 
to house-to-house work, either among Christians or 
heathen as openings occur. But again, in the American 
Board Mission in the Foochow district, we find them in 
charge of station classes, and are told that this work 
" puts them to the test." Sometimes they are put to 
teach small girls schools, and others do good work 
teaching women and girls in their homes to read 
Romanised colloquial ; this is a feature of their work in 
all the missions at work in the Amoj 7 district, and as the 
years pass the number of women who learn to read their 
Bibles by this agency is rapidly increasing. 

The training the Bible- women receive also varies ; at 
Foochow in all the missions there are definite " training 
schools" with a fixed course of study and opportunities 
for practical work in the station class or hospital ward. 
In most other cases the women s school takes all women 
who are able and willing to study for shorter or longer 
periods, and any among these who are fit to become 
Bible-women are kept longer and given more teaching. 
Yet again, in the smaller and newer mission stations the 
women and girls study in the one school, an arrangement 
which probably all would allow to be not ideal. Some 
missionaries are strongly opposed to admitting little 
children to the women s school, while others specially 
mention these little ones, and have started kindergartens 
for their benefit ; this is a feature of the A. B. C. F. M. 
work at Foochow. Several centres have held summer 



276 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

(or winter) schools for the workers ; in the English 
Presbyterian Mission in Swatow district this has been a 
routine practice for several years, and is found to be of 
great value to all who attend. A recently founded society 
for all the preachers wives in the Hinghwa district, for 
study and work, gives promise of yielding rich results 
among these workers. 

EVANGEL ISTIC WORK. 

Turning to methods of evangelistic work, one finds 
very little that is new, but everywhere there is reference 
to the increased opportunities, whether in the homes of 
the people or in hospital wards and waiting rooms. 
At Fooclunv an A. B. C. F. M. worker holds a weekly 
social, to which the Bible-women invite any non-Christian 
women who will come ; pictures are shown, new r spapers 
read ; any who wish are taught to read, and a Gospel talk 
closes the afternoon. At Tingchowfu, the L,. M. S. 
missionary is "at home " on Saturday afternoons, and 
sometimes fifty or sixty women will come to "play," 
but with few exceptions are pleased to listen to the 
Gospel. At Canton the Baptist Mission has a guest 
room, and we are told that many women leave with 
" faces brighter and hearts more hopeful." At Foochow 
in the Methodist Mission a poor woman who accepted 
the Gospel and developed leprosy became the first 
worker in the leper village, where a very encouraging 
work is now carried on. In the C. M. S. at Foo 
chow an interesting work is carried on among the 
numerous boatwomen ; the workers go in their own 
boat among the sampans and preach to all who are 
willing to come and listen, and a half-day school 
is held for young women and girls. On the whole 
one is impressed with the man} 7 openings for w r ork and 
inclined to think there may be room for ingenuity and 
"push" in finding new methods for " compelling them 
to come in. " 



WOMAN S WORK IN GENERAL. 27- 



INDUSTRIAL WORK. 

A form of work which is for Christians and non- 
Christians alike is industrial work, but this is not 
largely developed in South China. In Foochow both 
C. M. S. and M. E. M. have industrial homes with a 
large number of women workers ; at Kucheng there is a 
similar home ; more than one writer from the Amoy 
district speaks of the desirability of such work ; while 
at Hongkong with the L- M. S. it is being tried in the 
women s school, but without great success so far. 

WORK OF CHRISTIAN WOMEN. 

It remains to notice voluntary work done by 
Christian women. This alas, is by no means considerable, 
but there has evidently been growth in the right 
direction during these three years. Several of the 
Amoy stations speak of the "sisters" going out on 
certain days to visit and teach heathen neighbours, and 
at Chinchew a regular campaign was held at Chinese 
New Year time, when much earnest work was done by 
the women. At Canton True Light Seminary the 
seventy-eight pupils (women and girls) now support 
three Bible- women. At Hweian the women take up a 
collection every Sunday, and at the end of the year, at 
an annual social gathering, vote the money to some 
branch of mission work, or some special object. These 
may be taken as specimens of what is going on quietly 
in many stations, when the thought " saved to save" is 
gradually dawning on the hearts of the sisters as Christ 
becomes more real to them. In this connection it is 
encouraging to note the increase of self-support in 
many of the schools. It is still the day of small things, 
but there is life, and therefore growth, and every reason 
to thank God and take courage. 

E. BEN HAM. 



27^ CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Womens Work in General In the North. 

While the educational work can be tabulated with 
some degree of accuracy, the general work for women is 
so varied in method and much of trie very best so 
personal and non-consecutive that very few figures can 
be given and a general review presents peculiar difficulties. 
It may, however, be divided into several departments, 
which, although related to each other and generally 
carried on together, have each distinct features. Of 
these the main ones may be called medical, educa 
tional, evangelistic, and social. Of the first and second 
special reports will be made elsewhere. Here they will 
be mentioned in their relation to the evangelistic and 
social only. 

From what has been gathered from replies to ques 
tions to various missions it appears that the greatest 
change in the three years under review has been in the 
increased opportunities in the social department in some 
of the large centres, while the other three have advanced 
in the grade of work attempted and accomplished and in 
the increasing ability of the Chinese women themselves 
to carry them forward. If one looks at the present 
conditions in cities like Tsinanfu, Paotingfu, and Peking, 
the contrast to these of even three years ago is most 
striking, but if one observes the larger field, the almost 
countless small cities and villages, much the old state of 
things prevails. Yet it is so much that anywhere, 
especially that in the capitals, from which influence 
spreads more rapidly than from those cities to which 
fewer officials come and go, there is real interest in 
larger things than of old that the outlook is one of hope. 
In Peking there is not only widespread demand for the 
education of the young, but eager craving on the part of 
many of mature years for such knowledge as was denied 
them in their youth. The women who appear upon the 
streets much more fieely than of old are not merely 
from the lower classes, but also from those of position 



WOMAN S WORK IN GKNKRAL. 279 

and refinement. Instead of riding in chairs or closely 
curtained carts, they enjoy the glass enclosed broughams ; 
this is typical of much else. They are beginning to look 
out. Among the things which they see is the type of 
social intercourse and home life represented by the 
Westerners in their midst, and they are groping after a 
new life of their own. It is true that they often copy 
first the least desirable things, as in exchanging the soft 
folds of their graceful garments for the close cut which 
emphasises the defects of their figures and the uncertain 
carriage resulting from their bound feet, or the giving 
up of their dignified and attractive forms of salutations 
for a curt or stiff bow which seems to them Western. 
But it is much that they are ready to make any change, 
to seek that which is connected with another civilization 
than their own. They may make mistakes in their 
selection, but they will learn by experience, as beginners 
do everywhere, and the openness to new impressions 
gives such opportunity as has never been found before 
for approaching them with the best and most ennobling 
ideals which we have to offer. 

MEDICAL WORK. 

In many hospitals throughout the northern prov 
inces disease has been treated both in dispensaries and 
in the homes of the people. This outpractice of mission 
ary physicians has greatly increased, and is one of the 
very important agencies in bringing about mutual under 
standing, mutual respect, and in not a few cases mutual 
affection. The maternity wards of the hospitals are 
much more sought than formerly, not alone by the poor 
but by those able and willing to give a fair return for 
the service rendered, and the lady physicians are more 
and more frequently called to give like aid in the homes. 
Almost the entire expense of one of the Peking hos 
pitals is met by fees paid for outside practice, or for 
private patients, and the work for the destitute is not 



280 CHINA MISSION YKAR BOOK. 

-decreased. No one in need is turned away, but those 
able to pay are called upon to do so, that those who 
are unfortunate may be cared for, not at the expense of 
Western friends, but by the giving of a just return for 
service by the well-to-do Chinese. 

The trained nurses carry into the homes standards 
of cleanliness and care quite unknown before, and by 
their skill, devotion, and gentle dignity are giving to 
many a glimpse of the beauty and honor of service. It 
was not easy for them to discard all their old prejudices 
against menial work as beneath the woman of refinement 
and education, but not a few have learned to do so, and 
their example as pioneers will have lasting and widening 
effect. When the Woman s Union Medical College sends 
out its graduates to take their places as skillful and 
thoroughly educated physicians they will find less prej 
udice against women filling such positions than greeted 
their Western sisters a generation or two ago. The 
missionary physician has conquered that for them, and 
they will find large opportunities from the first. 

The wards of more than one woman s hospital are 
veritable forcing beds, where under the most favorable 
conditions seeds of truth are sown and nurtured, to be 
transplanted later to homes and communities, where they 
propagate and bear their fruit "some thirty, some fifty, 
and some an hundred fold." 

EDUCATIONAL. 

W T hile schools and colleges will be reported else 
where, there is much connected with general work for 
women which can best be considered as of this nature. 
In more than one place there are museums open to 
women on certain days, or certain hours of the day, 
where the missionary, or some one whom she has 
trained, conducts the curious crowds that come about 
the rooms where the exhibits are arranged, tells them of 
the wonders of nature, the curious devices of men s 



WOMAN S WORK IN GKNKRAI,. 2i 

hands and gives them glimpses of the industries of 
various countries. In the main waiting room, before 
these guests are invited to go into the museum, they 
hear the Gospel, and are cordially urged to come to the 
church or chapel services. The largest work of this 
kind of which we know is that in the institute at 
Tsinanfu,* where 14,100 were received last year. As 
evening gatherings for women are not practicable there, 
the rooms have been darkened in the afternoon and 
lantern lectures given, which brought together a large 
company, among them the wives of more than thirty 
officials. Of the two guest rooms of the institute one is 
especially set apart for ladies of rank. 

The use of lectures 0:1 various topics has been 
growing as a means of reaching many who would not 
come to a distinctively Christian service, and of so 
getting into friendly relation with them as to open the 
way for the higher teaching. 

The most systematic and continuous work of this 
kind of which we know has been carried on under the 
direction of Miss N. N. Russell in Peking in a street 
chapel near one of the large fairs of the city. To this 
great numbers of women go on six days, " the nines and 
tens" of each month. On these days the lecture room 
is open. Talks are given on hygiene, care of the sick, 
family relations, and a great variety of topics of especial 
interest to women. Great numbers have strolled in 
carelessly to rest, or from curiosity, among whom not 
a few have become regular attendants. These are from 
all ranks and conditions. Hard working women with 
their baskets for marketing, small pedlers with their 
little stocks, gaily dressed sightseers, and weary patient 
grandmammas with restless children to be entertained, 
make up a good share of the audiences, but there come 
also teachers and school girls and women of education, 
who are really interested to hear what " new thing " will 
be told to-day. One such said : " It is like a yin for 

* See Chap. IV., pp. 68-72. 



282 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

opium or wine, I cannot stay away." Lectures have 
also been given in other places, under the same direction, 
by young nurses and a few by foreigners. The place 
near the fair was first opened as one of those for the 
reading and comment upon the newspapers, but this 
especial line has largely given place to more general 
range of subjects, although the Bible-women who are 
the chief speakers are still eager to find matters of 
interest to present from the daily news items. The 
Woman s Daily News of Peking struggled bravely 
for life under the care of the really public-spirited and 
devoted Mrs. Chang, but it was too early for such a 
venture. It failed to secure sufficient financial support, 
and to enlist such a corps of writers as could make it of 
continued value, and was given up after two or more 
years of strenuous and self-sacrificing effort on the part 
of Mrs. Chang. 

EVANGELISTIC. 

This is the work to which all other is subservient, 
that for which the missionaries are here, and we count 
any other as truly successful only as it more or less 
directly contributes to the spread of the "good tid 
ings." We may differ much in judgment as to how 
these are to be brought to our Chinese sisters, but never 
as to our desire so to bring them, nor our conviction 
that in the knowledge of Jesus Christ alone lies the 
cure for social evils and the way of peace and joy for 
individual souls. So all which is wrought has the 
bringing of such knowledge to those whom we may in 
any way influence as its ultimate aim. This has been 
true from the beginning, and remains as true now that 
the avenues of approach are more varied and the problem 
of the ordering of the daily service more complicated 
than in the earlier lime. Probably there has been many 
fold more direct preaching of the Gospel to women in 
the last three years than in any period of similar length 
since the arrival of the first missionaries. 



WOMAN S WORK IN GENERAL. 283 

In season and out of season the foreign and Chinese 
sisters have been going from home to home and village 
to village, gathering women about them in their homes, 
by the roadside, and in the many chapels, preaching to 
high and low, rich and poor the " unsearchable riches 
of Christ." The most striking new feature of this 
work which has been noted, has been especial evangel 
istic meetings at some centres conducted for women 
by women. Miss Greig, of the C. I. M., has carried on 
such work in Chihli and especially in Shansi. At one 
place in the latter province five hundred women gathered 
at a central station for many days of consecutive meet 
ings. God s power was especially manifest in bringing 
many to confession of sin and to definite consecration to 
service. Such meetings have been held by several of 
the missionaries, and we hear very recently of those 
conducted by a young Chinese woman in the Pangkia- 
chuang and Lintsing fields. No feature of the work is so 
hopeful as the growing sense of responsibility of the Chi 
nese leaders. When this has so increased that they are 
ready to take the initiative, and we become their helpers 
and supporters, the new day will have dawned in the 
Christian church, and we shall no longer need to be its 
"nursing mothers," but the happy watchful sharers of 
their joys and sorrows, giving from our longer and larger 
experience the upholding which they need, but rejoicing 
to recognize them as the chief teachers and evangelists. 
One token that that day is not far distant is that in 
some stations the native church is not only supporting, 
but also establishing training schools for Christian 
workers. In the Tsingtao station, Miss Vaughan 
reports all the station classes for women as held at the 
expense of the Chinese Christians. Support for the 
training class, begun and directed by them, was from 
friends, both foreign and Chinese. A glance at the statis 
tical tables will show that the number of Bible-women 
is steadily increasing, but no table can show the ad 
vance in the character and quality of their work. For 



284 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

the first time we are where we may hope that women of 
education will be prepared to take such places. Already 
the school girls of twenty years ago are middle-aged 
women They have known the Gospel from their youth 
and been trained in -the church in the habits of thought 
and action of its membership. This marks great ad 
vance in the possibilities of their instruction of others. 
In a few instances God has already given, by His Spirit, 
a special call to one or another to this service. In not 
a few of the stations are widows, some of them young, 
who have dedicated their lives to God for the preaching 
of the Word, and here and there an unmarried woman, 
whose serious purpose is to consecrate that which she 
has received, not to the beautiful ministries of the home, 
but to the wider needs of the church. 

The great immediate evangelistic work is still, as 
always and everywhere, to be done, however, in the 
Christian home. Here we see the best and most prom 
ising of all the fruit grown from the long years of 
seed sowing. A generation of children are growing up 
who study comparative religions in college and must 
learn from text-books or from their teachers the tenets 
of the great faiths of their ancestors. They know 
neither the theory nor practice of Buddhism and Taoism. 
They have been trained from their youth in the Script 
ures and are getting now in our mission schools a care 
ful knowledge of these not surpassed and rarely equalled 
in the home lands in the courses of study of the young. 
What may we not hope for as these become the women 
of the church ? The contrast between the home life of 
those who love and honor God and those who have no 
other than the standards of Confucian ethical teachings 
is already attracting the attention of some thoughtful 
minds, and one hears not infrequently tribute paid to 
the personal character of women neither wise nor learned, 
but who having sat at the feet of Jesus have a gentleness, 
forbearance, and devotion which are witness to his grace. 
As such as these are brought more and more in contact 



WOMAN S WORK IN GKNKRAI,. 285 

with the sad of heart and oppressed, their witness will 
lead others to seek Him, and that "kingdom which 
cometh not with observation" will be established in 
receptive hearts. It surely is so already in not a few who 
make no public profession of discipleship. Many have 
learned to carry their sorrows to the Friend who knows 
that which can be told to no human ear, and the love and 
sympathy which has attracted them to the followers of 
the Saviour has led them to believe in His willingness and 
power to aid. One poor old lady said to a Bible-woman, 
who had just read and explained the story of the sufferer 
who touched the garment of Jesus : "I want to touch 
you, for you are so kind and patient with us poor old 
women that I think you must be like Jesus, and my 
aching head might be healed." Her head may have 
continued to ache, but her heart had been comforted, 
perhaps healed. 

SOCIAL. 

As has been said each department is linked with 
every other, and often it is difficult to say how far any 
particular effort belongs to one or the other. But there 
have been so many quite new openings for social inter 
course in recent years that they may well be counted as 
one of the striking features of the new time. As in 
Tsinanfu, so in many of the large cities interchange of 
social courtesies is becoming common among the ladies 
of the upper classes and the missionaries. Some women 
of more daring or greater curiosity than others first 
accept invitations to a lecture or concert, then call to 
acknowledge the pleasure received and invite a return 
visit. Thus pleasant relations are established which 
lead naturally to further intercourse and not infrequently 
to real friendliness. This perhaps is particularly true 
in Peking, where the Legation ladies, who wish to 
cultivate the acquaintance of the Chinese, seek their 
interpreters among their missionary friends and thus 
introduce them in a natural way to that circle. The 



286 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

more intelligent and open-minded, anxious to know- 
more of Western education and social life, are often 
eager to see these ladies in their own homes and express 
an interest which seems most sincere in their work. It 
was a noticeable thing that when a company of such 
ladies desired to form an anti-cigarette society in Peking, 
they came to ladies of the American Board Mission 
for counsel. It was in their home that those from 
different schools met to consider methods, and when the 
organization was to be formally made they asked that 
the gathering might be in that compound. Wives of 
high officials, patronesses and teachers from government 
schools with their pupils, and the wives of Christian 
pastors with members of their churches, came together 
to form a society for the protection of their children 
from the growing evils of the cigarette habit. When 
the officers were elected two missionary ladies were 
among the secretaries. Another effort to reach the 
Chinese sisters has been begun within the last few 
months by the appointment of Mrs. Chauncey Goodrich 
as a representatative of the \V. C. T. U. in this part of 
the country. She has already delivered many addresses 
on its especial lines, both in the Christian and the 
government schools, as well as in churches, and pre 
pared tracts and posters, which are being widely dis 
tributed. The need of this work grows alas ! with the 
increase of Western influence and Western habits, and it 
is much that one of large experience in other lines of 
work seems called of God to this, to which she brings 
peculiar power as a speaker and whole-hearted devotion. 
The reception of her message has already been very 
gratifying. Of the results it is yet too early to write, 
but it is a cause in which we may hope for large sympa 
thy from the earnest-minded Chinese sisters, even those 
who are not drawn as yet to the truth of Christ. The 
Y. W. C. A. has sent its first representative to the north 
within a few months. Miss Saxilby is studying the 
language with the hope of opening work in Peking 



WOMAN S WORK IN GENERAL. 287 

under the International Society. As one sees what has 
been accomplished among the young men, and how wider 
and wider doors open before tbem, it is plain that among 
the young women also there is room for all the forms 
of work which that organization conducts so happily in 
Western cities. These forms of service are already in 
the hearts and plans of the ladies connected with the 
various missions, and the addition of laborers will stimu 
late them also to attempt large things, since they may 
look for the upholding and cooperation of this interde 
nominational organization. All these things point to a 
day near at hand of large expansion in woman s work, 
but it should never be forgotten that the country, as a 
whole, is as yet scarcely touched by the enlarging life, and 
that there lies before us in the future what has engrossed 
us in the past the problem of how to reach, not the 
centres alone, but the countless multitudes in villages 
and small cities, which form the bulk of the people. 

MARY H. PORTER. 



CHAPTER XV. 

WOMAN S WORK-EDUCATIONAL. 
Central China* 



ELIGIOUS Life. In looking into the matter of 
educational work among the young women of this 
section, several very hopeful signs appear. More 
and more missions are coming to realize that educational 
work, because essentially evangelistic in its results, is 
well worth pushing forward. Girls enter the school 
heathen and become ardent Christians after only a year s 
residence ; this is the rule and not the exception. Much 
stress is laid on the teaching of the Scriptures ; some 
schools require also the teaching of the catechism. The 
Young Women s Christian Association, the Christian 
Endeavor Society, the Kpworth League, the Young Wom 
an s Christian Temperance Union, and kindred or 
ganizations are important factors in developing the 
spiritual growth of the pupils. One principal tells of 
two girls in her school who became earnest Christians as 
a direct result of the Y. W. C. A. 

Hundreds of school girls have covenanted to observe 
the "morning watch." In a number of schools in 
which the spiritual tone is high, large voluntary prayer 
groups meet for a quarter of an hour, and, in some 
cases, for a half hour before breakfast. With such 
conditions obtaining, the organization of five branch 
Sabbath schools, by the girls in one of these schools, is 
not a matter for surprise. 

The number ot accessions to the church from the 
ranks of the pupils this year has been most gratifying ; 
the number varying from five (American Baptist Girls 



WOMAN S WORK EDUCATIONAL. 289 

School, Hanyang, established only a year and a half 
ago) to fifty-four in the Rulison-Fish Girls School 
(M.E.), Kiukiang. In the C. I. M. Girls School at 
Yangchow half of the pupils became Christians during 
the year. The majority of the pupils in all the schools 
are Christians. 

Personnel. A second fact to claim our grateful 
attention is the greater diversity in the personnel of the 
student body. Our aim is not fewer girls from the 
poorer classes, but in addition to as many as we can 
care for of these, we want to reach the neglected upper 
class. In McTyeire School, Shanghai, Laura Hay- 
good Memorial Girls School, Soochow (both M. E. S.), 
and the Hopwood Mission Girls School of Ningpo, most 
of the pupils are from the higher classes, though they 
by no means exclude others. In the Baptist Girls 
School of Hangchovv more than a third of the pupils are 
from the upper class. One school in Nanking reports 
that twenty per cent, of its pupils come from official 
homes, another one ten per cent., and that practically all 
of these have become Christians. Similar reports come 
from other schools. A few schools have no girls of 
this class. 

Tuition and Self-Support. JL few schools in this 
section give tuition free. These draw the poorer classes 
and do not attract the higher classes, who put a higher 
value on that for which they must pay. It appears that 
parents in Central China are becoming increasingly will 
ing to pay for educating their daughters ; this means 
that schools are creeping up in the matter of self-sup 
port ; some reporting that their receipts cover one-third, 
others one-half, and some few nearly the entire amount 
of their expenditures (exclusive of missionaries 
salaries). The cost of board and tuition varies. In 
one school it is as low as $18.00 a year. Most of 
the larger schools along the Yangtsze make a charge 
of $40 or $50. In St. Mary s Hall (A. C. M.), 



290 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Shanghai, tuition is $84, while in McTyeire School 
board and tuition is $168. The charge tor music is 
usually extra, varying from $10 to $30 a year. In the 
American Southern Baptist Girls School at Yangcho\v 
pupils must pay iu full for board and tuition ($5.00 a 
month), and even the few who are on scholarships must 
pay one-third of the expense themselves. 

Curriculum. Some of the heads of schools made an 
attempt at unification of the curriculum at Kuling in the 
summer of 1909, outlining tentative courses for element 
ary and middle schools to be used this year by way of 
experiment. This year they hope to make out a course 
for higher schools. In these suggested courses, as yet 
not generally adopted, English is taught after the second 
year ; chief stress is laid on the teaching of Chinese. 
Bible, mathematics, physical culture and singing are 
offered throughout the course, and natural and physical 
sciences receive much attention. Instruction on piano 
or organ is optional ; in elementary schools it is not 
taught except where taken up independently of the cur 
riculum. In some schools the pupils have been so well 
taught in singing that they are able to render classics of 
such composers as Beethoven, Mendelssohn, Mozart, etc., 
while considerable proficiency has also been attained 011 
the piano. 

Courses in domestic science have not been developed 
sufficiently to embrace them in the curriculum. There 
are no schools which do not require practical work 
from the girls, such as laundering their clothes, caring 
for their rooms and the school rooms, etc., while some 
schools also require the cooking to be done by the pupils. 
Girls schools having industrial departments are those of 
the Church of Scotland Mission at Ichang, Christian and 
Missionary Alliance at Nanlinghsien, Christian and 
Presbyterian Missions at Nanking, the C. I. M. and 
Baptist Missions at Yangchow, Baptist Mission at Hang- 
chow, Baptist and Presbyterian Missions at Ningpo, 
Presbyterian Mission at vSoochow, and the Davidson- 



WOMAN S WORK EDUCATIONAL. 291 

Memorial School at Soochow. Doubtless there are others. 
In several of these the girls are paid for their work, and 
are thus able to support themselves in the school. 

School Organizations. Reference has already been 
made to the religious organizations. A number of 
schools also report good literary societies. 

Advanced Work. There is a normal school in the 
Methodist Mission at Nanking, which graduated its first 
class of six girls this year. Their course of study 
includes Chinese classics, higher mathematic, physics, 
chemistry, biology, geology, history, psychology, peda 
gogy, harmony of music, and practical school methods. 
A complete college course is also offered in this boarding- 
school, looking to the degree of Bachelor of Arts; the 
first class is to be graduated two years hence. The 
Laura Hay good Memorial School, Soochow, also does 
college work. 

Some normal training is done in the Presbyterian 
Girls School, Shanghai ; Southern Presbyterian Girls 
School, Hangchow ; Christian Girls School, Nanking ; 
Baptist Girls School, Hangchow, and in the Baptist 
school at Ningpo. Kindergarten training is given in the 
West Soochow Kindergarten (M. E. S.), Soochow, and 
in the Presbyterian Girls School, Nanking. 

Some half a dozen schools have graduates doing 
college work in Japan and America. 

Teaching Staff. Schools old enough to have grad 
uated classes have some of these graduates now on their 
staff, and the number varies from three to nine in one 
school. Bearing in mind that their pedagogical training 
has been chiefly along Western lines, so large a number 
of graduate teachers in a school insures good work and 
is full of promise for the future. In several schools 
these young women, in spite of their youth, are entrusted 
with responsibilities formerly devolving upon the head 
of the school, such as the purchasing of table supplies, 



2Q2 CHINA MISSION YKAR BOOK. 

receiving the fees for board and tuition, paying the 
servants wages, distribution of pupils tasks, etc. In 
schools fortunate enough to have competent Chinese 
matrons these duties are discharged by them. The 
Chinese classics are usually taught by men of the "old 
school," and the sciences are taught in many cases by 
Chinese men graduated from long-established mission 
schools. The foreign missionaries teach most of the 
English work as well as other subjects. 

Kindergarten. Well-developed kindergartens exist 
in the missions of the Presbyterian Church, Nanking ; in 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, Chinkiang and Nan- 
chang, and in the Methodist Episcopal Church, South 
Soochow, while a few other schools offer some kinder 
garten work. 

Special Schools for Girls. St. Mary s Orphanage 
(A. C. M.)i Shanghai, has thirty-four boarding pupils. 
Most of the orphanages are incorporated in the boarding- 
schools, and therefore need no special mention. As yet 
there are no schools for defectives in connection with 
woman s work in this section. Mr. Clayton, of the 
Wesleyan Mission, is in charge of the David Hill School 
for Blind, which includes two women among its thirty-six 
pupils. Mr. Clayton hopes that other women and girls 
may enter the school. 

Results. The age limit for marriage has undergone 
a desirable change. Progressive officials, merchants and. 
even parents of the poorer classes are often unwilling to 
have their daughters marry before they have had an 
education. It is safe to assert that the attitude of 
Christian educators has had much to do with the 
abandoning of foot-binding. Women of vision are in 
charge of schools, and young women under their care 
are catching something of their world-wide vision. 
Visiting tourists are impressed with their bright faces 
and self-possession, and not one would think of applying 



WOMAN S WORK EDUCATIONAL. 293 

to them the term "rice-Christian." These girls form a 
nucleus of a new social system in China. They are 
centres of light, dispelling ignorance and superstition. 
Whether they marry or go out to teach or to study 
medicine, everywhere their influence creates a new 
microcosm. 

Needs. Their name is legion. Buildings are too 
few and too small. One school is erecting a new three- 
storey building 122 by 62 feet, and until that is completed 
the present building will be greatly congested. Students 
in many places clamor for admission and cannot be 
accommodated for lack of room. Libraries are few and 
frugal. In referring to her library one principal writes 
that 100 volumes were added this year, but most schools 
cannot speak of additions since they have not yet a 
rudimentary library. One school has just had a grant 
for a library. As for scientific apparatus, only a very 
small percentage of the schools are at all well equipped. 

The teaching staff is inadequate with reference to 
both foreign and Chinese instructors. One school 
which reports twelve Chinese teachers tells of an arithme 
tic class so congested as to compel the teacher to teach 
three grades of work during one period. 

There is a need of schools for defectives. There 
ought to be more normal schools. There ought to be 
several centrally located kindergarten training-schools 
to make possible a more general establishment of kinder 
gartens, inasmuch as a prolonged infancy and quickened 
perception are fundamental needs of the Chinese charac 
ter. 

DAY-SCHOOLS. 

Ichaug, Hankow, Hanyang, Wuchang, Kiukiang, 
Nanking, Soochow, Suugkiang, Ningpo, Hangchow are 
fairly well equipped with day-schools. In Wuchang the 
Wesleyan Mission has eight day-schools for girls and 
eight mixed schools. 



294 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Course of Study. In many schools the course com 
prises the work of the first five years in the boarding- 
school of that mission, which means that thorough in 
struction in the Bible and other Christian books is offered. 
The general tendency is to give a good course in 
Chinese. It is not deemed wise to give English except 
where pupils insist upon it, and then an extra charge is 
made. 

fo eSf Some schools give tuition free, but many 
charge a nominal fee of twenty or thirty cents a mouth. 
One school asks $1.00 a year for tuition without English 
and $4.00 with English, but expects to increase the 
amount next year. 

Teaching Staff. Only a few schools are able to 
afford a man of the " old school" for teaching the 
classics. Most of the missions employ young women 
graduated from the girls boarding-school or from the 
woman s Bible training school as teachers in the day- 
school, and even where Chinese men teachers are 
employed the school is in charge of one of these young 
women, and missionaries tell of very efficient teaching 
done by them. Some of the well developed day-schools 
with a large enrollment have as many as four teachers 
on their staff. 

Results. In one day-school, with an enrollment of 
eighty, most of the pupils have become Christians as a 
result of the faithfulness of the young woman in 
charge. In all the day-schools the outlook is encourag 
ing, and there have been accessions to the church from 
among the pupils. One large day-school has an en 
thusiastic Y. W. C. T. U. The day-school is often the 
beginning of a boarding-school, as in the case of the 
Hangchow Presbyterian Girls School, which grew out 
of a day-school started in 1899. Central China has not 
that network of day-schools that some parts of the 
Empire is fortunate enough to have, and considering the 



WOMAN S WORK EDUCATIONAL. 295 

tremendous possibilities for influencing a community 
through the agency of the day-school^, it is to be hoped 
that the number may increase. At the day s close the 
pupil is sure to rehearse in her home some fact gleaned 
in school, some Gospel truth, some fact of hygiene, 
geography or history, or she sings over again the beauti 
ful hymn learned that day, and think of the inevitable 
influence this will have upon the home ! 

SCHOOLS FOR WOMEN. 

Bible Women s Training Schools. > There are 
schools in Ichang (Church of Scotland Mission), Han 
kow (A. C. M.), Kitikiang (M. E.)> Nanking (five 
missions), Sungkiang (M. E. So.), Shanghai (S. B. C.) 
and Kinhvva (A. B. M. U.); there are doubtless others. 
The school at Kiukiang has 82 women enrolled, who are 
being trained as Bible-women or day-school teachers. 
The course in this school is unusually comprehensive, 
and very efficient work is done by the women who 
have had their training here. Hayes Wilkins Memo 
rial Bible School (M. E. So.) in Sungkiang has a build 
ing large enough to accommodate 100 pupils. The 
spiritual tone is high, and the school is in a flourishing 
condition. A class of six women was graduated last 
year. 

In some of these schools industrial work also is 
offered, but in all the object is the same : to give women 
thorough instruction in the Bible, sacred history, and 
doctrinal books, training them for Christian work and 
especially preparing them for service as Bible- women. 
Practically all of the women engaged in evangelistic 
work in Central China, as well as a large proportion of 
the day-school teachers, are products of these schools. 

Women s Industrial Schools. One has recently been 
opened by the Advent Christian Mission in Nanking. 
Foremost, perhaps, among the industrial schools of this 
section is the Soochow Industrial School which took in 



296 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

for its work more than $7,000 the past year. Some of 
the pupils are girls in their teens, though most of them 
are women. In all industrial schools daily Bible instruc 
tion is given. 

A HUELSTER. 



Northern China. 

Three years ago, at the Centenary Conference, a new 
enthusiasm for the education of girls was reported, an 
enthusiasm which inspired Christians and non-Christians 
alike. Many private schools which sprang up have 
been closed from lack of funds, or because the motives 
of their founders did not ensure permanence, but the 
mission schools, most of them built on older founda 
tions, have made steady increase both in numbers and 
efficiency. 

GENERAL. 

Increase in Number of Schools. Missions which ten 
years ago gave little attention to the education of girls 
now have many elementary schools, and in the missions 
where girls schools have been started for scores of years 
the aim now, with few exceptions, is to educate every 
girl in every Christian home, though with the greater 
number the grade cannot yet rise above the elementary. 
The time has passed when a church member can allow 
his daughter to remain in dense ignorance and no stigma 
be attached to him. There is a new sense of the capacity 
of woman of her significance to the Empire of China 
and the Kingdom of God which moves alike mission 
aries, parents, and girls. Only the lack of teachers and 
of funds has prevented the rapid extension of this 
work, and soon the first lack will be met by the greater 
number leaving the advanced schools, by their willing 
ness to teach for life, or at least for .several years, while 
the financial difficulty decreases as parents show a wil 
lingness to pay for the education of their daughters. 



WOMAN S WORK EDUCATIONAL. 297 

Raising of Standards, The raising of standards 
means not only that several schools have advanced their 
grade, but that better work is being done in all grades; 
the methods are more modern and better text-books are 
available. This is due partly to the fact that better- 
trained teachers from mission schools are obtainable, 
partly to the competition with non-Christian schools. 
There is one medical college for women located at the 
Methodist Episcopal Mission, Peking, a college, which 
compares favorably with the best colleges for men in China, 
located at the American Board Mission in Peking, and. 
high schools or academies located with each of these 
missions in Peking and with the Presbyterian Mission 
at Weihsieu and Tengchowfu in Shantung. The Pang- 
kiachwang school in Shantung has two years of high 
school work, but few of the other schools do work above 
primary or intermediate grade. 

Contact with non- Christians in Educational Lines. 
This phase of our educationl work is growing in impor 
tance. Well-trained young women from our mission 
schools are sought as teachers in non-Christian schools, 
where they are treated with every courtesy, and no rites 
are required of them which violate conscience. There 
is a second point of contact from the attendance of non- 
Christian girls in mission schools. Sometimes they 
simply attend our elementary day-schools, where our 
opportunities for influence are relatively small ; some 
enter as boarders in higher grades. As a rule these are 
of a higher social stratum than the average Christian 
family ; yet even the daughters of officials show a dem 
ocratic spirit in mingling with other girls. If we can 
make and keep our schools superior to other schools, 
these pupils will come in increasing numbers, and in no 
line of missionary work will our influence count for 
more. Our schools also attract, through their public 
exercises, university extension" lectures, museums, 
and various social functions, the leaders of education in 
the community. By cooperating with public-spirited 



298 CHINA MISSION YKAR BOOK. 

ladies in movements like the Anti-Cigarette 
recently formed in Peking we both get and give help, 
and break down the barriers between east and west, 
Confuciauist and Christian. 

Character and Religious Life. Nowhere has the re 
vival spirit brought forth richer fruit during the last two 
years than in the girls schools. This is especially true of 
the meetings led by Pastor Ting Li-mei in the provinces 
of Chih li and Shantung. The results may not be so 
obvious as in the colleges for young men, for there are 
no theological seminaries for young women to enter, but 
they stand on a much higher plane than a few years 
ago ; their burden for their country and for the kingdom 
of God is much greater and their purposes are more 
definite. The most astonishing development which we 
shall see in China the next few decades will be in the 
work of the young women leaving our more advanced 
schools. They have a patriotism, a religious fervor, a 
sense of a high calling, and withal a poise and dignity 
which will make it possible to break the trammels of the 
past to an extent which we could not have sanctioned in 
former years. 

CHIHU. 

The most important schools in the metropolitan 
province are directly or indirectly affiliated with the 
North China Union Woman s College, located at the 
American Board Mission, Peking. Only two schools 
now fit pupils for this college Bridgman Academy in 
the same buildings and under the same principal as the 
college, and the Mary Porter Gamewell Memorial School 
at the Methodist Episcopal Mission, Peking, under the 
efficient headship of Mrs. Jewell. This latter school, 
the largest for girls in the province, enrolled over 260 
pupils in 1909, of whom 91 were of primary grade, 149 
intermediate, and 18 high school. This mission has a 
number of small day-schools in the province, and is about 



WOMAN S WORK EDUCATIONAL. 299 

to start a boarding-school at Ch angli, thus relieving 
the school at Peking of the presence of so many of 
elementary grade. The Keen School, opened in Tientsin 
by Miss Cushman in 1909, has 31 pupils, of whom 12 
are boarders. This is an Anglo-Chinese school, and the 
aim is to make it self-supporting. Tuition and board 
are $35 for a term of five months, music extra. 

The Anglican Mission has a boarding-school for 
girls in Peking, which it hopes soon to greatly enlarge. 

The following are the principal schools which pre 
pare pupils to enter Bridgman Academy : 

The Union Memorial School is located at the Amer 
ican Presbyterian Mission, Paotingfu, with Miss New 
ton as principal. It averages between fifty and sixty 
pupils ; more than half of whom are from the Presbyterian 
Mission, about twenty from the American Board Mission. 
It is the only girls school in this locality doing work 
above primary grade, and in the last four years has sent 
nineteen of its graduates to Bridgman Academy. 

The London Mission Girls Boarding-school, Peking, 
established in 1865, has now about 30 pupils, and is 
under the care of Miss Livins. It has former pupils 
as students both in the Union College and Bridgman 
Academy. 

The American Board has boarding-schools for girls 
preparing for Bridgman Academy at Tungchow, with 
Miss Browne at the head, where there are over fifty 
pupils of intermediate grade, and at Hsiku, Tientsin, 
the Stanley Memorial School, under Miss MacGowan. 
There are boarding-schools of lower grade at Paotingfu, 
Kalgan, and the North Church, Peking, and day-schools 
in Peking and Tungchow, numbering over 200 pupils. 

The North China Union Woman s College. This 
institution is under the Board of Managers of the North 
China Educational Union, and in 1909 gave to four 
graduates the first diplomas granted to women in China, 
completing a full college course. The aim is to make 
the instruction as advanced and as thorough as in the 



300 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

best colleges for women in the West, and though this 
has not yet been attained, it compares favorably with 
the colleges for men like St. John s, the Peking Univer 
sity (Methodist), and the North China Union College at 
Tnngchow. The college classes at present number only 
eight students, but Bridgman Academy, with its enroll 
ment of 90 of high school grade, and other affiliated 
schools, promise to furnish more college students in the 
near future. Some graduates of the academy enter the 
Kindergarten Training School, under the same manage 
ment, and one graduate took the two years normal 
course. A third course, open to academy graduates, is 
the two years science course preparatory to the med 
ical college, but until the conditions for entrance to the 
Woman s Medical College are raised, this special prep 
aration is not required. In this Union Woman s Med 
ical College (also reported under medical work), another 
branch of the North China Educational Union, located 
at the Methodist Episcopal Mission, there are now eight 
students, in two classes, and the six years course of 
study covers practically the same ground as that of the 
Union Medical College for men. Students take part of 
their science work in connection with the regular classes 
at the Union Woman s College, and though the two in 
stitutions are a mile apart, they are closely linked together. 
They offer to young women from all parts of China 
special training in all lines now most urgently needed, 
and since the study of Mandarin is now considered so 
desirable, increasing numbers are applying for admission 
from Central and Southern China. In the American 
Board compound in Peking there are now girls repre 
senting eight different missions coming from the prov 
inces of Chilili, Shantung, Shansi, Honan, Hupeh, Fti- 
kien, and Kwangtung. Those from the latter province 
are from a high official family and do not board in the 
school. The regular charges are $25.00 for a term of 
four or five months, with extra charges for music and 
a dollar a month for English in grades lower than the 



WOMAN S WORK EDUCATIONAL. 301 

third year of the academy. There is a six years course 
of study in the English language and literature, but all 
of the other instruction is given in Mandarin. A spe 
cialty is made of vocal music. Miss Miner is principal, 
and in addition there are five American and six Chinese 
teachers. It is expected that the London and Presby 
terian Missions will soon add members to the faculty. 

Kindergartens. There arfc now two kindergartens 
at the Presbyterian Mission, Peking, and one at the 
American Board Mission. There is great demand for 
kindergarten teachers, and it is hoped that a large class 
will soon enter the Kindergarten Training School. 

SHANTUNG. 

The earliest and the most extensive educational 
work for girls in Shantung has been done by the Amer 
ican Presbyterian Mission, beginning in Chefoo and 
Tengchowfu. In 1889 graduates from these schools 
began to teach in country stations, especially in the Wei- 
hsien field. Miss Snodgrass has charge of the high 
school at Tengchowfu, and Mrs. Chalfant of that at 
Weihsien. This latter school supplies teachers for twelve 
country boarding-schools with 200 pupils, and was 
opened in 1895. It has now over 60 pupils, coining not 
only from the Weihsien field but from more distant 
stations. The girls, who have received an elementary 
education elsewhere, come to this school for a four years 
course of study, and are under contract to teach at least 
two years after graduating before marriage. They 
furnish their ow r n books, bedding, travelling expenses, 
etc., and pay from seven to eighteen Mexican dollars a 
year according to their ability. In the country schools 
the mission gives seventy-five cents a month per pupil 
for food and half of the teacher s salary and travelling 
money, the other expenses being met by the Chinese. 
This system of country schools is extending as graduates 
from the high school increase. 



302 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

The school at Taianfu, which the Methodist Epis 
copal Mission started twenty-nine years ago with one 
Chinese teacher, has been growing rapidly since 1902, 
being crowded with over 80 pupils. Its new build 
ing will accommodate 120. This school is of inter 
mediate and primary grade, and sends its graduates 
to the girls high school in Peking. Miss Young is 
principal. 

At Tsingtao the German Mission takes the lead iu 
the education of girls. The English Baptist Mission 
have three schools in Chowtsuu and vicinity ; the largest 
with 20 pupils, while at Tsingchowfu there is a board 
ing-school of intermediate grade with 40 or 50 pupils, 
and the standard of the school is rising as the efficiency 
of the village schools increases. The American Baptists 
have girls schools at Pingtu, Laichow, and Hwang- 
hsien. In Western Shantung the American Board Mis 
sion school at Pangkiachwang, in charge of Miss 
Lyons, is the largest and most advanced, with between 
50 and 60 pupils ; the highest grade being the third 
year of the high school. The most promising graduates 
are sent to finish their course in Bridgman Academy 
and enter college. This mission has another boarding- 
school at Linching. The London Mission has a good 
elementary school for girls at Hsiaochang, which it 
hopes to develop. 

HONAN. 

The largest boarding-school for girls in Honan 
province is that recently started by Miss Pyke, of the 
Canadian Presbyterian Mission in Changtefu. It is 
of intermediate grade, and has made rapid advance. 
Mrs. Mitchell, of the same mission, has another boarding- 
school at Weihuifu. Mrs. Joyce, of the China Inland 
Mission at Hsiangch eng, has a boarding-school with 20 
pupils, and Miss Janzon is in charge of the school under 
the Swedish Mission in Honanfu. 



WOMAN S WORK EDUCATIONAL. 303 

SHANSI. 

The first boarding-schools for girls in this interior 
province were those at the English Baptist Mission in 
Taiyuanfu and the American Board Mission near Tai- 
ku, both taught by graduates of Bridgman Academy. 
Since the tragedy of 1900 both schools have been re 
opened, and the American Board has added a school at 
Fenchoufu. One of these schools will be raised to the 
grade of a high school ; the Taiku school sends many 
girls to Bridgman Academy. The English Baptist school 
is much hampered for lack of room, so that its pupils 
have been attracted to the free public school, but it is 
planned soon to erect new buildings for at least a hundred 
pupils and develop the educational work in this most 
important centre. In the southern part of the province 
Miss Forssberg has had a school at Yuucheug, and in 
other Swedish missions in North Shansi there are the 
beginnings of educational work ; the most important being 
an orphanage for about 200 girls beyond the Great Wall 
at Salatsi. Several girls from the missions in this north 
ern region have been sent to the American Board schools 
in Peking and Tungchow to be trained as teachers. 

The China Inland Mission has four girls schools in 
southern Shansi ; that at Hwochow, under Miss Cable and 
Miss French, being the largest in the province and the 
most fruitful in results. The pupils number 105 ; the 
growth recently has been rapid, and buildings have been 
erected to accommodate 150. All of the pupils, except 
two, are daughters of church-members, and they supply 
enough grain and money to feed the teachers and serv 
ants as well as themselves. The native church supplies 
the amount necessary for heating and lighting. An 
elementary normal department has just been added with 
14 pupils. A conference held once in two years brings 
old pupils together and keeps the missionaries in touch 
with them and their work. The other three schools 
are at Chiiwu, Tailing, and Chiaihsin. 



304 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

SHENSI. 

The school at Siaufti, in charge of Miss Becking- 
sale, of the English Baptist Mission, has been a pioneer 
in the education of girls in Shensi, and has a course of 
study covering six years, but owing to new requirements 
in the way of self-help, and the withdrawing of the 
daughters of Shantung emigrants to form an independent 
school, the numbers now are reduced to 30. It is only 
recently that there has been a demand for education 
among the native Shensi girls. This same mission 
has a village boarding-school with 32 pupils ; the most 
promising pupils, after three years here, continue their 
studies in Sian. The Baptist Zenana Mission School 
in the east suburb of Sian, which opened in 1904 with 
8 pupils, now has 60. The Scandinavian Alliance Mis 
sion has a school with 15 pupils in the west suburb and 
another at Hsingpinghsien. No information has been 
obtained from the part of the province south of the great 
mountain range. 

KANSU. 

In Kansu there is a school started by the Scandi 
navian Alliance Mission in 1904 at Tsinchow with only 
four girls, and the numbers are still very small. Miss 
Wallenburg writes that as there was not one to come 
from a Christian home, and there was great difficulty 
about unbinding the feet, it was only the eagerness of 
the girls themselves to study which made it possible to 
begin this work. There is another school at Chenyuan, 
started about the same time. 

SUMMARY. 

In the field covered by this report we see work in 
its first beginnings in the far interior, as well as that in 
Peking, started nearly half a century ago; now entering 
upon a new phase of evolution. The next half century 
will see an expansion which cannot be paralleled in any 
land or age. T y rKr,T<A MINER, 



WOMAN S WORK EDUCATION AI,. 305 



Southern China. 

To those who can recall from their own observation 
the attitude of China a few decades ago with regard to 
the education of her daughters, the unexpected and 
unprecedented interest and enthusiasm in this line 
manifested by the people to-day seems little short of 
miraculous. Perhaps nowhere is the change that has 
taken place in public sentiment more marked than in 
Canton. 

At one time it seemed that the adverse criticism of 
a new viceroy might call a halt, but it proved to be only 
a ripple on the surface of a flood tide. The people in 
the interior towns and country villages have not kept 
pace with the progressive spirit of those living in the 
city, but will doubtless in time follow in their wake. 
In the province of Kwangsi much of the educational 
work is in connection with the Christian and Mission 
ary Alliance Mission. Several years since a boarding- 
school was opened for training Bible-women and teachers. 
The Chinese teacher of this school is one who had had 
training and experience in Canton, and of her a member 
of the mission writes: "We needed a capable teacher, 
and the Lord sent us one of China s choice women. 
Under her supervision the school has steadily prospered 
and grown from three students seven years ago to 
46 in the present year." 

During these seven years 50 women have been in 
training, 20 of whom are now active workers here 
and in Kwangtung province. There have been 86 
girls, 10 of whom are now employed as teachers. 
Educational work is also being carried on in Kwangsi 
by the English Wesleyan and Southern Baptist Missions. 
There are in Hongkong several boarding-schools which 
have been doing good work for many years ; among 
these the London Mission School for girls with 70 
students, the Bible School for women, the C. M. S. 
Schools at Fairlea and St. Stephen s College, and in 



306 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

connection with the different German missions board 
ing-schools, the school for the blind, and the home for 
foundlings. 

From Amoy we learn that " the work is advancing 
all along the lines. The largest boarding-school for girls 
has no pupils, and there are ten others in the Amoy 
district. In some of these women are received. The 
kindergarten work is popular with the Chinese, and there 
is a large school in connection with the E. P. Mission." 

In Limchow, 300 miles northwest from Canton, 
there is a flourishing boarding-school of the A. P. M. 
with 70 students, and 250 miles southwest at Yeuug- 
kong, another. In Canton there are many day-schools 
for girls connected with the different missions, which are 
visited regularly by the missionary in charge, who gives 
instruction in different lines and examines the pupils on 
the work they have done. In some of these schools 
women and small boys are received. 

Through the work in the day-schools the seeds of 
truth are widely scattered and carried into many homes 
which would be difficult to reach otherwise. Nearly 
every mission has a boarding-school, thus furnishing 
opportunities for higher grades of work and more 
careful and systematic instruction than can be given in 
the day-schools. The girls boarding-school of the 
Southern Baptist Mission has 115 pupils, and a school 
for women has 35. In the kindergarten are 30 pupils, 
and four are taking the normal course, thus being 
prepared to teach. This mission, realizing the impor 
tance of educating the wives of their native helpers, has 
established a school to which they can come and receive 
instruction, bringing with them their little children 
whom they cannot leave. Last year in this school 100 
women and children were enrolled. 

The English Wesleyan School, which has been 
established many years, has 61 girls and 14 women, and 
those in charge have been obliged to refuse admission to 
many applicants for want of room. 



WOMAN S WORK EDUCATIONAL. 307 

In the school connected with the American Con 
gregational Mission there are 44 pupils, and in that 
of the United Brethren Mission 60 girls and several 
women. 

The largest and oldest of these schools is the True 
Light Seminary of the American Presbyterian Mission. 
During the past year 312 students have been enrolled 
94 women and 218 girls. The number of professing 
Christians now attending is 186. 

At it has always been the aim in this school to 
make it primarily an evangelistic agency, many students 
are received who can only study for a limited time, but 
a good number remain and go on from year to year 
through the nine years course. 

Two years since the need for a normal school 
seemed so imperative that, with the cordial sympathy of 
the other missions, such a department was opened, and a 
course of study arranged to cover three years work was 
arranged, including Scripture exegesis, ethics, Chinese 
literature, history, geography, mathematics, science, 
pedagogy, psychology, domestic economy, physiology 
and hygiene, astronomy, Romanization of Chinese, 
English drawing, vocal and instrumental music, and 
calisthenics. Although during past years the seminary 
has sent out more than four hundred mission workers as 
teachers, Bible- women, and, after additional instruction 
elsewhere, doctors and trained nurses, no diplomas have 
been given until the present year. 

The first graduates numbered 19 eleven who had 
finished the normal course and eight from the wom 
en s department who had taken the course arranged 
for Bible-women. Of these graduates 14 are now teach 
ing, two are Bible-women, two are studying medicine 
and one is taking the normal course. In addition 
to these 10 others, who have taken only a partial 
course, have commenced work this year seven as Bible- 
women and three as teachers ; four are studying medi 
cine and one is in a training school for nurses making 



308 CHINA MISSION YKAR HOOK. 

34 in all. Of the students now in attendance many are 
professing Christians. At a recent communion service 
28 of the students were admitted to the church, the 
largest number that has ever been received from the 
seminary at one time. 

The government has recently opened many schools 
in the city, called Halls of Learning normal schools 
and colleges the attendance in which varies from fifty 
to one or two hundred. These have a good number of 
studies in their curriculum, but it is to be feared that 
oftentimes the instruction given is very superficial. 

One of these, which perhaps takes highest rank and 
is called by the Chinese a college, a few weeks since 
graduated its first class four young women. These 
schools are more or less decidedly anti-Christian. In 
the one just referred to, among the students was one 
Christian girl. She stood at the head of a class of 
forty-five in scholarship and deportment, and yet was 
frequently made to feel that her presence was un 
welcome, and as the time for graduation drew near 
it became so evident to her that it was not consid 
ered desirable to have a Christian in the graduating 
class that she withdrew and entered a medical college. 
On the other hand another large school has as its 
superintendent and her assistant two young Christian 
women, who received their education in the True Light 
Seminary. 

Three other students from the seminary have 
studied for a time in the Christian College, and one of 
the number had the honor of receiving the highest grade 
given in the institution one year. 

Four other young women have studied in the 
college and many others have applied for admittance, 
but could not be received. 

Two young students have recently gone to America 
to continue their studies there. An institution which 
will furnish to the young women of South China the 
opportunity, which many of them so much desire, of 



WOMAN S WORK EDUCATIONAL. 309 

obtaining a thorough education is greatly needed, and it 
is hoped will soon be established. 

Among the educational influences at work for 
several years past has been the Bible Institute or School 
for Bible-women, which has been held annually for 
several years. The representatives of all the missions 
unite in teaching the Bible-women of the different 
missions, who gather together to attend the meetings, 
which are continued for ten days. At the institute this 
year more than seventy women were in attendance, and 
it was inspiring to see such a goodly company of trained 
and experienced workers, earnest consecrated Chinese 
women. The evening meetings were addressed by 
ministers, either foreign or native. Each one of the 
Chinese preachers expressed in his own way the pleasure 
he felt in meeting with so many Christian sisters helpers 
in the work for the Master, his regret for the past years, 
during which the Chinese men have not given to women 
the place to which they are entitled, and joy that those 
days have passed, and the daughters of China are now 
entering into the inheritance which is justly theirs. A 
few days since, in Canton, a large mixed audience listened 
intently to an excellent address given by a Chinese 
scholar on the duties of Chinese men to their wives and 
daughters, and at the close the speaker was heartily 
applauded by the men. More and more in South China 
the value of the Roman izatiou of the Chinese colloquial 
is becoming appreciated. In the large mission fields 
which find their centres in Amoy and Swatow it has 
long been considered an invaluable aid, but the colloquial 
printed in Chinese character in Canton has- been so 
satisfactory that many have considered any other method 
unnecessary. 

It remains an undisputed fact, however, that the 
great majority of the women who are Christians can 
never have the time and opportunity to learn to read 
the Bible in Chinese character. The necessity of this 
for the development of Christian life and character is 



310 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

apparent to all, and if it can be accomplished through 
the use of the Romanized Scriptures their introduction 
seems most desirable. In Hainan the Christian women 
learn to read the Bible, and a missionary of the C. M. S. 
in Pakhoi writes: "After several years, in which the 
natives who know characters have not helped us greatly, 
I have come to the conclusion that the Romanized has a 
very useful future before it, and I shall do all in my 
power to increase its sphere of influence." 

All the women are expected to learn to read before 
baptism, so our Sabbath congregation is quite interesting. 
Recently it has been introduced in several of the schools 
in Canton and other places in the province with good 
success. Some of those who read the character seem to 
feel that there is no need to learn the Romanized, and 
others regard it as something foreign which they can 
not and do not care to learn. But it is making its way, 
and many feel convinced that it will in time become a 
valuable aid in mission work. The South China Edu 
cational Association has been recently formed. Four 
meetings are held annually, and plans are being made 
for collecting statistics, holding institutes and examina 
tions, and as far as practicable and desirable unifying 
the work that is being done by the different missions. 

It is felt by many that the most pressing need at 
present is for a model and extensive system of elementary 
schools and high schools, and as a means to this end 
normal schools for the training of the needed teachers. 
Perhaps no more remarkable object lesson illustrating 
the emancipation of China s daughters has been witnessed 
anywhere than that seen in the large mass meetings of 
women that have been held in Canton in connection 
with political events. At one of these it was estimated 
that more than ten thousand women were present, who 
during four hours listened with rapt attention to eloquent 
patriotic addresses from Chinese women. In the streets 
of Canton, where a few years since young girls were 
rarely seen and never unattended, they now walk about 



WOMAN S WORK EDUCATIONAL. 311 

freely ; many of them wearing the badges of the re 
spective schools which they attend, and the police are 
given instructions to have special care for them and see 
that they are in no way molested. 

So iu many ways the educational work for women 
in China is going forward. And if as has been said : 
4 The elevation of woman is at once the measure and 
the means of the advancement of mankind," the outlook 
for China to-day is certainly very different from what 
it has been during the centuries that have passed. 

HARRIKT N. NOYKS. 



In Hongkong. , 

BOARDING-SCHOOL, FOR GIRLS, LONDON MISSION. 

This school was begun ten years ago by Miss 
Davies, and is carried on by her at present. It is built 
to hold 36 boarders, and there are always that number in 
it ; the school being obliged to refuse applicants every 
year. There are also day scholars to the number that 
the class rooms will accommodate. 

The fees are $45 to $65 a year for board and edu 
cation. Non-Christian girls are taken at higher fees 
than Christians, and there are generally two or three of 
them as boarders. 

There are three teachers and four pupil teachers 
living in the school and four visiting teachers for special 
subjects. All instruction is given through the medium 
of the Chinese language. English being taught only as 
ail extra subject. 

The subjects are those of an English secondary 
school, viz., Scripture, arithmetic, geography, history, 
physical geography, Chinese reading, writing and com 
position, English, needlework, drawing and painting, 
singing and drill. 

The school is under British government inspection 
and receives government grants. It is classed by 



312 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

government as an upper grade school. The reports for 
the last three years are as follows : 

1907. "The school is again thoroughly efficient. 
The supervision is all that could be desired and all the 
teachers are thoroughly competent." 

1908. "The headmistress and staff are to be 
congratulated on the high state of efficiency of the 
school, which is, in all respects, a model establishment." 

1909. "An excellent school. It continues to be 
thoroughly efficient." 

One interesting point to note is that the demand for 
English, which was so eager and insistent a few years 
ago, has weakened, and the demand for a really first 
class education in Chinese has taken its place. Six 
years ago 50 per cent, of the girls desired to learii 
English ; now only 15 per cent. 

The scholars are chiefly drawn from the middle 
class and upper middle class Chinese, and a few, owing to 
poverty or death of parents, are admitted into school 
without payment of any kind. The work of the house 
is chiefly done by these non-paying boarders, though all 
the girls do a little. All that would unfit the girls to 
return to Chinese middle-class homes is avoided as far 
as possible. The food is plain and the life simple and 
free from any kind of luxury. There has been a steady 
growth in efficiency of the school during the last three 
years, but no especially striking developments. 



CHAPTER XVI. 



REVIVALS. 

(TTHE remarkable manifestations of religious fervor 
Vli known as l< revivals" that have been experienced 
of recent years in Wales and various parts of the 
United Kingdom, in America, also in India, and most 
notably in Korea, have not been absent in the mission 
work of China. It is no part of the writer s task to 
defend "revivals," nor to philosophize as to tlieir 
psychological causes, as well as spiritual origins. The 
Christian era began with what is known as * Pentecost," 
and in all ages of the Christian church, when there has 
been real moral and spiritual power, there have been 
more or less frequent manifestations that correspond in 
essentials, while differing in minor details, to the events 
described in the second chapter of the Acts of the 
Apostles. It has been generally believed by missionaries 
that the Chinese are an unemotional, materialistic race, 
peculiarly impervious to religious feeling, and that the 
process of Christianizing them must be one of instruction 
and gradual growth, without such epoch-making moral 
and spiritual upheavals. "Learning the doctrine" is 
the usual Chinese term for becoming a Christian rather 
than "believing the doctrine." Both mental processes 
are essential, but the Chinese attitude of mind has been 
to emphasize the intellectual acquirement of Christian 
truth by instruction rather than a recognition of the 
fundamental truth that "with the heart man believeth 
unto righteousness." The experiences of the past three 
years indicate that it will be necessary for the open- 
minded student of missionary work in China, who held 
the above theory, to readjust his position to accord with 
new and startling facts. 



314 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

There have been local revivals in various stations 
for man}- years. These have been fruitful and of value 
as a preparation for more recent developments, but they 
have seldom been widespread or deep. Questions sent 
to more than four-score representative missionaries in 
widely distributed parts of the Empire brought forty-five 
replies. Twenty-seven of these were from men who 
had experienced in their stations in comparatively recent 
years what the} regarded as " marked revivals in the 
Chinese church." These represent sixty per cent, of all 
the replies and thirty per cent, of all the inquiries made. 
This is a most encouraging showing, and would have 
been impossible half a decade ago. 

Manchuria was the scene of the beginning of what 
might be called the Modern Pentecost in China. The 
story has been so well told by Rev. James Webster and 
others and so widely read that it need not be repeated 
in detail here. It began in the winter of 1907-8 in 
Moukden, under the ministry of the Rev. J. Goforth 
and two Chinese leaders who had visited Korea and 
caught the vision and carried back the fire. Corre 
spondence with missionaries in several of the leading 
mission centres of Manchuria exhibits a remarkable 
unanimity of sentiment towards the movement and 
reports as to details. Evidently the missionaries of 
Manchuria, mostly hard-headed Scotchmen, than whom 
no abler nor less sentimental group can be found in 
China, are of one mind as to the genuineness and the 
value of the revival. 

Replies from representative missionaries in various 
parts of China indicate that the Manchurian revival 
experiences have been repeated in South China, in 
Fukien, earlier in Amoy sections, and lately in the Foo- 
chow and Hinghwa regions, and most recently in the 
Swatow section ot Kwangtung. 

In Central China Nanking has been the chief scene 
of revivals, but Kiukiang and Wtthu and other places 
have been visited. There have been union meetings 



REVIVALS. 315 

Iielcl in a large tent at Nanking. Mr. Goforth led one 
series in 1909, and later the Chinese evangelist, Doctor 
Lee, was greatly used. 

West China has also enjoyed similar blessing. Re 
markable movements among the aborigines of Kvveichow 
in recent years have attracted very wide attention. 

The inquiries sent out covered three heads: (i), 
Natural Causes ; (2), Striking Features ; (3), Results. In 
general the causes were traceable to some human agent 
or group of agents. Mr. Goforth is the name mentioned 
most frequently among foreign agents, though by no 
means the only one ; while the work of Dr. L,ee in Central 
China and of Mr. Ting IJ-mei, of Shantung, in North 
China, is commended in the highest terms by every one 
who mentions them. Yet local agents, both foreign and 
Chinese, seem to have been raised up in nearly all places, 
who have been essential aids, and in not a fe\v cases the 
workers seemed to be entirely of that character. 

The " striking features" have also shown a marked 
similarity. The most commonly mentioned characteristic 
is " deep conviction for, and confession of, sin." This is 
seldom omitted by any correspondent who speaks of any 
revival experience at all of recent years. Other features 
mentioned frequently are the spirit of prayer, audible 
and universal from the whole congregation, and the 
reconciliation of enemies in the church or the settling of 
old quarrels. "Quietness" has characterized some of 
the most fruitful of the later movements. 

"Results" are naturally of a more varying character. 
The material is different, and the environment. Above 
all there is wide variety in the manner of conserving the 
results of such experiences. In general the replies 
indicate a decided quickening in Bible study. The new 
life calls for food. Where this is not taken the vital 
forces soon exhaust themselves. The writer recently 
noticed on the monthly report of a colporteur that he 
had sold three hundred and thirty-two copies of the 
entire Bible or of the New Testament. These were, in 



316 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

addition to the "Scripture portions," sold chiefly to non- 
Christians, and they were bought by Christians on a half 
price proposition, provided they would pledge themselves 
to read in the book daily, unless prevented by necessity. 
Such avidity for the Word would have been wholly 
impossible but for the revivals of the spring of 1909 
and 1910. 

Probably the deepest and most essential result of 
these seasons of spiritual awakening is an abiding sense 
of the exceeding sinfulness of sin. All missionaries in 
China have had perhaps their keenest disappointments 
right here. Even well behaved and well instructed 
Christians seemed to have little sense of the sinfulness of 
sin. The pagan ancestry and atmosphere accounted for 
it, but did not excuse it. Until this root difficulty is 
overcome there can be little progress in establishing 
Christian ideals of life and conduct. The emotion of the 
revival days may, indeed must, pass away. The new 
vision of Gethsemane and of Calvary, burned into the 
heart by pentecostal fires of penitence, abides in many 
lives, and the whole moral standard of the Christian 
community is elevated, never to go back, even though 
individuals may lapse. 

The revivals of the past three years have developed 
in three distinct stages, though the lines cannot be 
sharply drawn between them : 

i. At first it was largely an awakening among the 
Christians themselves. Strange as it may seem, the 
reports indicate that the best instructed and most earnest 
members were first seized with deepest conviction for sin, 
and in these the results seem most abiding. This does 
not mean that these good people were hypocrites before ; 
it simply shows that the great law of evolution applies 
to things spiritual as well as to things material: To 
him that hath shall be given and he shall have more 
abundantly." The intense new spiritual light revealed 
the blackness of sins hitherto unrealized and hence con- 



REVIVALS. 317 

doned. The normal course was evidently first to cleanse 
the church from within. 

2. A later and natural development has been seen 
in successful special evangelistic efforts to reach the non- 
Christian population. There have been several such 
meetings in Shantung ; Soochow has been the scene of 
a remarkable union tent campaign. In some of these 
meetings more than one thousand have enrolled them 
selves as "inquirers" or desiring to be taught the Bible. 
How permanent these results will prove it is too early to 
decide, but the direction of this development is normal, 
and as time passes and the leaders gain in experience, 
these results will be more fully conserved. 

3. Probably the most significant of all the features 
of these spiritual quickeuings is in the remarkable change 
of attitude of the young men in several of our leading 
Christian colleges toward the work of the Christian 
ministry. Dr. Arthur H. Smith, writing from Tung- 
chow, near Peking, says: " Mr. Ting lyi-mei has just been 

here In February only one of a graduating class 

of fourteen was willing to go to the Union Seminary to 
study theology. Now we have a roll of seventy-nine, 

who have pledged themselves to preach This is 

the outcome of Pastor Ting s week here." In the Shan 
tung Christian University at Weihsien there was an 
extraordinary movement early in April, 1909. Again 
the human agent most conspicuously used of God was 
Rev. Ting Li-mei, who is a graduate of the college. 
Here over eighty students voluntarily pledged themselves 
to enter the Christian ministry. A year later Prof. H. 
W. Luce reports that from this student volunteer band 
" ten have already entered the theological seminary and 
the rest seem to be standing firm to their purpose." 

In the Peking University (Methodist Episcopal) 
there has been a similar development. Here the Student 
Volunteer Band has been large and enthusiastic for several 
years, but during the winter and spring of the current 



318 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

year (1910) President Lowry writes that as the result of 
revival meetings, in addition to the already large number 
of volunteers for the ministry, forty or more of their 
brightest students, who had been tempted by the glitter 
ing offer of the Chinese government to send students to 
America on the returned indemnity fund, had given up 
these ambitions, surrendering to the higher call of God 
to become ambassadors to their nation, commissioned by 
the King of kings and Lord of lords." Without 
burdening the reader of these brief pages with exces 
sive details, the results of the writer s investigation of 
this important theme indicate: 

1. In all sections of China, from extreme north to 
tropical south, from eastern seaboard to west of the 
Yangtze gorges, during the past three years there have 
been marked manifestations of the power of the Holy 
Spirit, deeply convicting nominal Christians of sin, lead 
ing to confession and restitution and every indication of 
genuine repentance/ The standard of Christian morality 
has been raised thereby and deep foundations laid for 
future spiritual and moral victories. 

2. There has been a quickening of evangelistic zeal 
in various places, which may be taken us a prophecy of 
a more general awakening of the Christian community to 
its obligations and opportunity in this important regard. 

3. The best trained of the Christian young men of 
the colleges are hearing and heeding the call to the 
ministry in a manner altogether unprecedented. The 
first rushing torrent of spiritual emotion might be com 
pared with the spring freshet floods in the mountains ; 
these soon settle into the smaller streams that spread 
quietly through the valleys, giving life to the multitudes ; 
while the ultimate gathering of the many into one forms 
a great artery, which bears upon its deep bosom the 
commerce of a nation. Let not the mighty tide with its 
quiet power despise the irrigation streams from whence 
it came and which make possible the great cargoes it 



REVIVALS. 319 

carries so easily. Still less may these steady life-produc 
ing rivulets and canals disregard the noisy torrents from 
the hills, the source of all. It is the divine trinity of 
nature in torrent, stream, and river that makes what 
otherwise would be desert blossom as the rose and gives 
a nation s home. So in the kingdom of heaven, which 
the missionary body has been commissioned to set up in 
China. The spiritual mountain peaks here and there 
precipitate the torrents that come with what .seem to be 
needless noise and rush. The roar subsides, but the 
water of life quietly spreads over fields far and wide 
from streamlet to canal and back again to stream, ever 
giving life and food for the multitudes. Finally they 
gather into the resistless power of the mighty river, 
where throb the heart centres of the nation in the Chris 
tian universities, where the master workmen are in 
preparation for future leadership. The revivals of the 
recent past are but the " earnest of the Spirit," a proph 
ecy of what is to come. The accompanying signs will 
change from time to time, but it will be "the same 
Spirit." "There are diversities of operations, but it is 
the same God which worketh all in all." 

WILLIAM N. BREWSTER. 



CHAPTER XVII, 



FEDERATION AND UNION. 

fact that in China Protestant mission work was 
begun by an interdenominational society and that the 
first missionaries to the Empire were commissioned 
by a union movement on the part of the evangelical 
churches of Britain and that their instructions were to 
form Christian churches without ecclesiastical distinction, 
has had a greater influence on the promotion of a spirit of 
Christian unity in this land than is generally recognized. 
The historic words of Morrison in this regard : We are 
of no party. Grace be with all who love the Lord Jesus 
in sincerity and truth, and the practical measures of 
unity which marked the first steps of the work gave a 
fine lead to a movement which has always been a marked 
feature of the China missions. 

As is the case in most mission lands there is 
effective union in the work of the translation and the 
distribution of the Scriptures, and also in the tract agencies. 
The work of literature has always been a field for com 
plete union effort. Very little denominational literature 
has been prepared and published in China, a fact which 
is significant of the spirit of the workers as well as of 
the temperament of the Chinese, and which promises 
much for the coming days. A step towards the more 
effective union of the various tract committees throughout 
China has been taken during 1909 by the appointment 
here of a central agent for the work of the R. T. S. of 
London, whose business it is to correlate the activities of 
these bodies. A kindred union work of much promise has 
made much progress during the year, namely that 
represented by the recently formed China Sunday School 
Committee. This committee is interdenominational and 
international, and its work is on behalf of all the mis 
sions existing in China. 



FEDERATION AND UNION. 321 

Turning to movements expressing union between 
missions at work in a common field, one of the oldest, as 
well as most effective, is that provided by the three 
missions at work in the Amoy region. This union 
movement covers the whole range of the work done in 
the field medical, educational, and theological training 
and is supplemented by an agreement in regard to the 
division of territory. The missions concerned are the 
London Mission, the English Presbyterian Mission, and 
the American Reformed Church Mission. 

A similar scheme of union work has come into 
effective existence in North China since the Boxer out 
break of 1900. The situation thus created gave the 
needed opportunity for a review and a mutual consider 
ation of the problem of re-organization. As a result of 
this the North China Educational Union was formed, 
having as full partners the American Presbyterian 
Mission, the American Board (Congregational), and the 
London Mission (Congregational). The two other partic 
ipating missions are the Methodist Episcopal (North) 
and the S. P. G. This union is working very steadily 
to its complete fulfillment, and its operations are seen 
to-day in the Tungchow College (liberal arts), in the 
Union Theological College (Peking), in the Union Girls 
School (Peking), in the Women s College (Peking), and 
in the Union Medical College. This latter institution 
unites the whole of the five missions concerned. Under 
this scheme there has also been a uniform grading of 
primary and intermediate schools through the districts 
covered by the missions. 

A similar scheme of educational union is proceeding 
with success among the missions in Shantung. Here 
there is an educational cooperation between the English 
Baptists and the American Presbyterians, and the S. P. G. 
is also a part contributor to the union. This union is 
expressed in the Shantung Christian University, having 
its arts college at Weihsien, its medical college at 
Tsinan, and its theological institute at Tsingchowfu. 



322 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Union in West China has been carried a step further 
than elsewhere. The West China Conference of 1906 
planned the establishment of an educational union which 
provided for the regulation and supervision of primary 
and secondary work in the schools and the adoption of 
uniform courses of study and a common system of 
examination. This union has since developed its plans 
and is preparing for the building and equipment of the 
West China university in Chengtu. Four missions are 
contributory to this work, namely the American Baptist 
Union, the Friends Foreign Mission (British), the Meth 
odist Episcopal Church of America, and the Methodist 
Church of Canada. Each of these missions will provide 
hostels for its own students in the new university. 
Work is already begun. But the West China Conference 
of 1908 emphasized the union nature of its missionary 
enterprise by its announcement of the ideal of "one 
Christian church for West China." In 1899 this 
conference had dealt with the problem of comity by the 
institution of an Advisory Board ; in 1908 it proceeded to 
recommend a common recognition of church members 
on an equal basis by all the missions concerned. A free 
interchange of members .was the ideal aimed at. This 
proposal is awaiting the sanction of the Boards con 
cerned. 

Another phase of the union movement to be noted 
is the formation of union conferences of missions of the 
same church order. A council, representative of the 
whole of the work of the Presbyterian churches in 
China, has been formed and has begun its work. 
Similarly at a conference of the representatives of all the 
Anglican missions in China, held in 1907, it was decided 
that at the conference of 1909 representation of the 
whole church should be provided, Chinese as well .as 
foreign clergy being present. This conference was duly 
held in Shanghai. It is believed by some of those who 
are taking a deep interest in the work of union that this 
drawing together of churches of the same or of similar 



FEDERATION AND UNION. 323 

church order will facilitate the progress of all union 
schemes. 

A movement on a larger scale, looking to union as 
its ultimate aim, is that of federation. This provides 
for the coming together in definite organization of all 
those churches and missions which are working in a 
single area. The area unit is general!) the province. 
In most of the centres where the federation movement 
has been adopted, meetings of representatives of the 
missions at work in the district have been arranged for, 
and committees appointed to deal with questions affecting 
the work of each and all and to plan for the common good. 
Such questions as the division of the field and the 
effective occupation of territory, the coordination of 
work, common rules for the admission of converts, 
and the promotion of union efforts along special lines of 
work are being dealt with by the Federation Councils at 
their annual meetings or through their committees. The 
result in all cases where the proposals have been worked 
has been a closer drawing together of the missions, and 
it has been found that the Chinese workers have taken 
up the idea of federation with great enthusiasm. The 
final scope of the federation proposals include the elec 
tion on a representative basis, by the Provincial Councils, 
of a federation council for the Empire. The following 
are the rules which were adopted by the Shanghai 
Conference of 1907 for the work of federation : - 

That the work of the Federation shall be 

(a) To encourage everything that will demonstrate the 
existing essential unity of Christians. To watch for opportunities 
of united prayer and mutual conference between representatives 
of different bodies of Christians in China ; and, as opportunity 
offers, to initiate and arrange for representative meetings for the 
furtherance of Christian unity. 

(b) To devise and recommend plans whereby the whole field 
can be worked most efficiently and with the greatest economy in 
men, and time, and money. 

(c) To promote union in educational work. 

(d) The encouragement of the consideration of all questions 
as to how the various phases of Christian work can be carried on 



324 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

most efficiently, e.g ., translation and literary work, social work, 
medical work, evangelistic work, etc. 

(c ) And in general to endeavour to secure harmonious co 
operation and more effective work throughout the whole Empire. 

Federal councils have been formed and are now at 
work in the following provinces : Chihli, Shantung, 
Honan, Sliansi, Anhuei, Hupeh, Hunan, Kiangsu, Che- 
kiang, and in addition there are the three provinces repre 
sented in the West China Conference, namely Szechuan, 
Kweichow and Yunnan. Full representation has been 
provided on these councils for the Chinese Christians, 
and they have proven themselves very effective members. 
Especially in North China it has been found that federa 
tion has been the occasion of forwarding many union 
schemes. The very largely accepted movement for the 
use of a union terminology had its beginning with the 
council meetings of Chihli. It will be seen that for the 
present the Southern provinces, Fukien, Kwangtung and 
Kwangsi have not adopted the federation movement, 
but still stand much where they did before the adoption 
of the federation resolutions of the Shanghai Conference. 

Reference should also be made in this article to the 
union nature of some other work which is being done 
for all the missions in China, such as the management 
of the missionary journal The Chinese Recorder which 
has a representative board of management, and also to 
such organizations as the Educational Association of 
China, the Christian Literature Society, and the Medical 
Missionary Association. The work of these bodies is 
for the benefit of all missions in the Empire, and their 
constitution is international and interdenominational. 

With the solid ground work for the development 
of practical unity so evident in existing work in China, 
together with the growing desire of the Chinese Christians 
for a comprehensive understanding between the various 
churches at work in the Empire, considerable progress 
ought to be manifested in all union movements in the 
near future. w . N. BITTON. 



CHAPTER XVIIL 



THE CHRISTIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY. 

(T7THE Christian Literature Society, which was founded 
NJ" in 1887 under the name of the Society for the 
Diffusion of Christian and General Knowledge 
among the Chinese, adopted its present name in 1906, 
without, however, in the least changing its object and 
programme. Our motto is the famous dictum of our 
general secretary at the Ecumenical Conference in New 
York in 1900, namely: "Christian literature should be 
co-extensive with the work of God and commensurate 
with the needs of man." Accordingly, the C. L- S. 
publishes and circulates all classes of literature based on 
Christian principles or expounding Christian faith. In 
fact, there is nothing in sound and clean reading which 
it may not put before Chinese readers. Hence all mis 
sionaries and laymen in sympathy with these principles 
may become members on being duly elected by the Board 
of Directors. A sister society at home supplies the major 
part of the financial backing. 

In the chapter which follows the present one Dr. 
Darroch describes the operations of numerous tract 
societies. It may have seemed to some that with so 
many excellent societies in existence already still another 
was uncalled for, but Dr. Williamson and his supporters 
perceived that these societies were limited in their re 
sources, and hence of necessity, narrow in their pro 
gramme, inasmuch as they were compelled to confine 
themselves to the circulation of the primary tract essen 
tials of the missionary work. Hence it occurred to him, 
to Dr. Wm. Muirhead, and to Dr. John Murdoch, of 
India, and others that a society ought to be formed with 
constitution and resources broad enough to embrace the 
publication of all good literature, such as issues from the 



326 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

numerous Christian publishing houses of England and 
America. At this time the society began the issue of 
general literature written from a Christian standpoint, 
with perhaps only one man, namely, Dr. Williamson, 
devoting his whole time to the production of it. Other 
books were supplied by voluntary workers already heav 
ily laden with other duties. 

When Dr. Richard succeeded to the place of Dr. 
Williamson, he saw the great need of enlisting the whole 
time of literary workers, and when, in 1899, he invited 
the Rev. D. MacGillivray to join him, this was the 
beginning of the present free federation of missionaries, 
composing what for want of a better name is called the 
editorial staff. Mr. MacGillivray is supported by the 
Canadian Presbyterian Church. The Church Mission- 
ary Society for a time gave Rev. Gilbert Walslie, M.A., 
who joined in 1900. The Wesleyan Missionary Society 
gave Rev. W. A. Cornaby in 1904, and the Baptist Mis 
sionary Society gave Rev. Evan Morgan in 1906; this 
being in addition to Dr. Richard. Here with the utmost 
individual freedom to follow one s leadings, all are loyally 
working together for one end. The society therefore is 
the best example, as far as we know, in the missionary 
world, of a union effort to solve the problem of Christian 
literature for a mighty Empire just awaking from sleep. 

The Conference of 1907 passed a resolution calling 
for further efforts to unite the Christian Literature 
Society and the Tract Societies, but, as a representative 
speaker has said, that was a counsel of perfection which 
may be realized some day but not yet. As the C. L. S. 
is on the point of being incorporated under the Hong 
kong Ordinances, it is perhaps better for each society to 
work out its own destiny, especially as this can be done 
without overlapping. So broad is the field, and so 
insistent the need, that it is the duty of all to stand 
shoulder to shoulder in providing for it. 

Our programme then is ambitious enough for hun 
dreds of workers where we now count ones. In common 



TIIK CHRISTIAN LITKRATURK vSOCIETY. 327 

with all missionary work, ours may be classified as 
preparatory, penetrative, and constructive. Many of 
our books are meant to remove barriers of pride, igno 
rance, superstition and prejudice. When these are re 
moved, there is still much to be done, but all good 
people rejoice when they are removed, for it means that 
we have carried some of the outworks of the town of 
Mansoul. Even Robert Morrison and William Milne 
found time to prepare geographies, almanacs, and tours 
of the world, and to come down to the present day, Dr. 
Griffith John has also prepared some books of general 
knowledge, which are meant to be forerunners of the 
Gospel. This literature of ours has been compared by 
Dr. A. H. Smith, in his book " Rex Christus," to 
aqueous vapor pervading the atmosphere, which, though 
it makes no external display, is preparing the way for 
future precipitation. 

But we have books which take the next step and 
are penetrative, or directly evangelistic. Our staff, 
because it has the necessary leisure, has produced some 
of the most excellent books of this description. But we 
remember that many a book, which is often only in 
directly evangelistic, is much more effective with a 
certain class of readers than the openly evangelistic. 
Hence we prepare many books showing what the 
Heavenly Father, through His Son Jesus Christ, has 
worked in the history of man and of nations, and we have 
repeated proof that such books lead on to conversion. 

The third division of our books is the constructive 
or educational. Besides works for schools and station 
classes, for special and general readers, we have a long 
and growing list of books which are intended to comfort 
and edify the church. For this class of books there is 
demand which grows with the growing of the church. 
Andrew Murray, S. D. Gordon, Storrs, Krummacher, 
Dr. Glover, A. B. Bruce, George Matheson, William 
Arthur, and many others, have a vast audience in China 
by means of the Christian Literature Society. 



328 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

The public whom we address is composed of the 
reading and thinking people of all classes in the church 
and out. This means many millions of souls, the number 
of whom is rapidly increasing with the spread of the new 
system of education. It is sometimes said that our 
society is a mission to the higher classes. If you mean 
by that the aristocracy of thought and influence, we 
accept the definition, but such aristocracy may be found 
clad in homespun as well as in silks and satins, and we 
are after them all. We want to win them for Christ, 
not for Christian civilization. We do not flatter our 
selves that if we win them in any numbers, that will 
mean the millennium in China. The history of the 
Nestorian Church warns us that high patronage is no 
safeguard against decay and final extinction, but we do 
believe that the Gospel should be preached to every 
creature, high as well as low, and if the street chapels 
and ordinary tracts fail to reach the high, then we 
must try literature, which is the master key among the 
educated. We make our appeal to the mind of China, 
as well as to her heart and conscience. The leaven 
must leaven the whole lump. Its process is not only 
from below upwards, but from above downwards. 

Besides the production of books, we put considerable 
time on our periodical literature. For the church we 
publish the Chinese Christian Review, which was founded 
in 1891. It aims to be the organ of unity and interdenom 
inational cooperation. It is specifically a magazine for 
preachers, though space is also given to church and 
general news. Since it began, the denominations have, 
one after the other, started denominational papers, but 
these can only supplement ; they cannot replace our 
paper. The growth of a denomination gives birth to its 
special paper, but beyond and above that there is the 
high unity which lifts all denominations together, and in 
this atmosphere our readers are invited to abide. A 
feature which is being now developed is the securing of 
the best thought of our Christian Chinese. Our weekly 



THE CHRISTIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY. 329 

paper, the Ta Titng Pao, which was begun in 1904, is 
ably edited by Mr. Cornaby, whose child it is. Mr. 
Cornaby thus outlines his policy which is to meet some 
of the prominent needs of China. 

1. A right-minded view of the universe and its phenomena. 

2. A right-minded view of current events in other lauds. 

3. An insight into the teachings of history. 

4. A recognition of the benefits of peace and of the best 
methods for securing it. 

5. An enhancement of good feeling toward the rest of the 
world, through a knowledge of the good qualities, good customs, 
and good deeds in various lands. 

6. A comparative estimate of various forms of government, 
with information concerning the constitutional systems of the 
world. 

7. Information concerning the development of China s natural 
resources, agriculture, forestry, etc. 

8. A recognition of the value and some idea of the principles 
of Western medical practice, some knowledge of the bacterial 
foes of humanity, the avoidance of epidemics and general 
hygiene. 

9. Guidance for teachers in China s schools and colleges. 

10. A conviction as to the barren emptiness of materialistic 
views of the universe, or merely materialistic national ideas. A 
constructive spiritual view of man s outlook and destiny. 

11. The enforcement of all that is timelessly good in 
China s own literature, together with the presentation of those 
higher facts and principles which lift moral systeuis on to a 
religious basis ; such facts and principles being gathered from all 
the nobler religious writings of the world, but especially from 
the Scriptures, as the following : (a) The being of God, His 
righteousness and benevolence ; (b) the fact that earnest prayer 
to God brings an accretion of moral energy to act rightly and 
wiselv ; (c) the slavery of sin and the rescue of the moral 
character through Christ the redeemer. 

12. Information concerning true Christianity in practice: 
its achievements among communities and nations. 

One of the best assets of the society, as it was the 
best known also, was the Wan Kwo Kung Poo. After the 
lamented decease of Dr. Allen r the society carried on the 
paper for a time, but alas ! our society had at last reluc 
tantly to lay down the burden, but it is possible to revive 
the paper if someone could be found to take it up again. 



33 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

The following is a list of our more important books 
published during the last three years : 

Personal Religion, translated by the Ven. Archdeacon Moule. 

War inconsistent with Christianity , trans, by D. Mac- 
Gillivray. 

Abide in Christ, trans, by D. MacGillivray. 

England in Egypt, trans, by Yin Pao Lo, edited by T. 
Richard. 

Beautiful Joe, trans, by Mrs. D. MacGillivray. 

Life of a Century 1800 to 1900, trans, by D. MacGillivray 
and W. G. Walshe. 

Scripture Idea of vSin and Salvation, trans, by Evan Morgan. 

Christian Theology, by A. G. Jones and Timothy Richard. 

Confucianism and Christianity, by Wang Ping-kun. 

Commentary on the Chinese Classics, by Dr. Woods. 

Twelve Years Programme, by Timothy Richard. 

Gordon s Quiet Talks on Prayer, by D. MacGillivray. 
,, ,, ,, ,, Power, by D. MacGillivray. 

,, ,, ,, Service, by D. MacGillivray. 

Peace for the World and Prosperity for China, by T. Richard. 

New Life of Christ, by D. MacGillivray. 

Imago Christi, Stalker s, Wen-li and Mandarin, by D. Mac 
Gillivray. 

Programme of Christianity, Drunimond s, by D. MacGillivray. 

Civilization in Europe Guizot s, by W. A, Cornaby. 

Ancient Principles for Modern Guidance, by W. A. Cornaby. 

Eruce s Training of the Twelve, by D. MacGillivray. 

Gulick s Growth of the Kingdom, by D. MacGillivray. 

Special importance is attached to various tracts 
prepared by Dr. Richard on the needs of the time. The 
views of such an experienced friend of China are always 
welcomed by the officials to whom these tracts are 
regularly sent. 

The story of the society s comet tract, which will 
be found in the appendix to this Year Book, reveals one 
of the most useful and far reaching pieces of work done 
by the society in recent years. 

The year 1910 will be memorable from the pro 
duction of the first number of THIS YEAR BOOK, and 
it may be remarked that just as "The Century of 
Missions", the Centenary Conference volume, was 
made possible by the Christian literature Society, so 



THE CHRISTIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY. 331 

has the Christian Literature Society made possible the 
beginning of another great service to the mission cause 
of China. 

The society rejoices in steady progress since the 
last Conference in 1907, when their work was described 
in "A Century of Missions in China," pages 629-634. 
Since that time a foreign manager, with experience in the 
book trade, has come out from London, and one evident 
result is the doubling of our sales. Up to the present 
our book depot at No. C444 Honan Road is a rented 
building; in many respects unsatisfactory, but we have 
just completed the purchase of a very fine site for a new 
depot on the northwest corner of Foochow and Shan 
tung Roads. Since the Conference, the society pur 
chased land on the North Szechuen Road Extension 
with a view to erecting offices at some future date, but 
within a short time a legacy of 20,000 Taels was left the 
society by its life-long friend, Sir Thomas Hanbury. 
With this money handsome and commodious offices for 
the translating staff were erected and occupied on June 
i, 1909. Our English consulting library was adequately 
accommodated in the new building, and Dr. Richard, to 
whom the books, with few exceptions, really belonged, 
took occasion at the last annual meeting to present the 
whole, consisting of some 8,000 volumes in English and 
Chinese, as a free gift to the society. The whole is 
now catalogued according to Dewey s system with card 
indexes to authors and subjects. All missionaries, when 
in town, are made welcome to come to 143 North Sze 
chuen Road and make free use of the library. 

It is scarcely possible to speak about the results of 
our work without seeming to claim too much. Perhaps 
there are some who think we exaggerate its importance, 
but there are seers among us to whom is granted the 
glowing vision of golden harvests from all this sowing. 
In itself a book is dead, but fructified and used by the 
Spirit of God, it may contain potential dvuamite enough 
to shake the world. We magnify our office. Let every- 



332 CHINA MISSION YKAR BOOK. 

one do the same, provided they are sure they are called 
to the office. The Christian Literature Society came to 
China in the divine thought for the purpose of supply 
ing the one thing more that was needed for the perilous 
times through which China is passing. When you hear 
of " conversion by the million/ do not err in supposing 
that our workers are satisfied with social and political 
conversion. No, the ancient ideal of China s classics, 
"A renewed people/ is impossible except the people 
individually be born again. We long to see conversions 
on the largest scale, as does the whole church in the 
world, and we remember the words of the Lord : "All 
things are possible to him who believeth/ 

In our annual report for years we have appealed for 
more literary workers. Since 1906 our staff has had 
two losses and one gain. Mr. Walshe and Dr. Allen 
have gone from us and Mr. Morgan has come. Surely 
it is wrong for the church to neglect the claim of this 
unique method of work which has already proved itself 
so successful. We want other Boards to loan us men. 
We propose not to overstock the market, but to increase 
the efficiency and quality of our work. Dr. Garritt, of 
Nanking, read a paper on "Problems of Literature in 
China before the Missionary Association, but it is 
impossible for the present force of workers to solve these 
problems, and yet they ought to be solved if we are to 
do right by China. 

We are glad to see by the list of publications in 
preparation, which is published monthly in the Chinese 
Recorder (a list by the way, the idea of which was 
initiated and carried on by the C. L- S.), that our 
appeals for more literature have resulted in a large 
increase of work undertaken by men and women who 
still carry on the work of their stations. Another 
curious result of our propaganda was seen at the West 
China Missionary Conference (January 26-February 2, 
1908), when the conference appealed on its own account 
for fifty or sixty men to be set apart for literary work 



THK CHRISTIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY. 333 

for the three western provinces alone. According to 
this estimate, the 18 provinces should have 300 literary 
men. Verily our missionary colleagues in their demand 
for literary workers have outheroded Herod. So it 
appears the appeals of our reports were by no means 
exaggerated as they appeared in the eyes of some 
Boards, and when the laymen get along this far in 
their study of the needs of China, we shall expect great 
things. But the young men of our universities, who are 
looking for a sphere for life investment, must also wake 
up, and instead of looking forward to the even tenor of 
the professor s chair, let them come out here and take a 
hand in what Joseph Co ok long ago said to be the 
biggest job before the Christian church. Our society 
on its part is preparing for a great forward movement. 

D. 



CHAPTER XIX. 



THE TRACT SOCIETIES IN CHINA. 

the early days of Protestant missions in China 
the Religious Tract Society of London and the 
American Tract Society of New York have been 
in the habit of making grants for the purpose of tract 
distribution ; first to individual missionaries and then to 
certain centres, such as the first five ports opened in 
China. 

About the year 1844 the members of the London 
Mission and the Church Missionary Society working in 
Shanghai established the East China Religious Tract 
Society, which did good work in the preparation and 
distribution of tracts. It united with the Chinese Tract 
Society in 1894. In 1878 the Chinese Religious Tract 
Society was founded by Dr. Farnham and others in 
Shanghai. In 1881 Dr. Murdoch, the honoran^ agent of 
the Religious Tract Society of London for India, visited 
China at the request of the R. T. S., and in the following 
year published his report of Christian literature in 
China, a book of 68 pages. In this report Dr. Murdoch* 
suggested the formation of four tract societies, viz., 
North China (Peking), East China (Shanghai), Mid- 
China (Hankow), and South China (Canton). 

This report gave a stimulus to the work of the 
Chinese tract societies, the impetus of which is not yet 
entirely lost. 

There are to-day no fewer that nine tract societies 
at work in China. They are : 



* It was during this visit he met Dr. Alex. Williamson and 
urged him to found the predecessor of the present Christian 
Literature Society on the model of Dr. M. s own Christian Vernac 
ular Society for India (now C. L. S. for India). EDITOR. 



THE TRACT SOCIETIES IN CHINA. 335 

The Chinese Tract Society in Shanghai. 
The West China Tract Society in Chungking. 
The North China Tract Society in Peking. 
The Manchurian Tract Society in Mukden. 
The Hongkong Tract Society in Hongkong. 
The Canton Tract Society in Canton. 
The South Fukien Tract Society in Amoy. 
The North Fukien Tract Society in Foochow. 

In addition to these there is the Korean Tract Society 
in Seoul, which was reorganised last year. 

These societies are all affiliated with the Religious 
Tract Society of L,ondou, and each receives a yearly 
grant from the parent society. A scheme for the 
amalgamation of these societies into an associated union 
is now being sympathetically discussed, and it is hoped 
will ultimately be adopted by the societies concerned. 

A little more than a year ago the writer was appoint 
ed general agent of the Religious Tract Society in China, 
and this appointment may be taken as an indication 
that the R. T. S. is striving to take advantage of the 
present crisis in Chinese thought to extend its work in 
this land and to help the associated societes to sow 
broadcast the seeds of truth during the spring-time of 
China s renaissance. 

Besides what may be termed its usual annual grant 
to these associated societies, the R. T. S. gave through 
them last year very valuable grants of books to many 
Chinese pastors in different parts of the Empire. 

The Chinese Tract Society of Shanghai was author 
ised to distribute 420 libraries of helpful books , valued 
at ten dollars each, to pastors labouring within the area 
of its field of operation. 

The Central and West China Tract Societies were 
each authorised to distribute 200 of these libraries. 
Each of the other societies had the privilege of donating 
100 such libraries to the pastors working within their 
several districts. Each of the nine societies was also 
allowed to place six libraries, worth twenty dollars each, 
in certain churches chosen as being centres of interest 



336 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

within their spheres of operation. Each society also 
received a grant of 2,000 beautiful coloured pictures of 
scriptural subjects. These were sold at five cents each 
and were much appreciated by those who were fortunate 
enough to purchase before the stock was cleared out. 

The preacher s libraries were eagerly taken up by 
the Chinese pastors, and some of the letters of thanks 
received were pathetic proofs that only the meagreness 
of their salaries prevents many good men from being 
better equipped for their work than they are. 

So much impressed was the home committee by the 
appreciative letters written by men who need the help of 
good books and who will use these books to the best 
advantage that each society has been granted this year 
the privilege of making 100 additional grants to some 
of the preachers who failed to get the libraries they 
applied for last year. 

The R. T. S. has also, through the media of the 
tract societies in their districts, made valuable donations 
of coloured cartoons and texts to many hospitals in 
China, thus bringing a gleam of colour into the drab 
lives of the patients who are under treatment and 
awakening in their minds curiosity to hear the Gospel 
story represented by the picture on the wall. 

The Chinese Tract Society (61 Range Road, Shang 
hai) reports the }^ear 1909 as being perhaps the most 
prosperous in its existence "Our prosperity has been 
beyond our fondest hopes." (Report.) 

During the year, nineteen new works were published, 
making 132,650 copies and 2,379,800 pages. Seventy-two 
of the standard works of the society have been reprinted, 
making 430,000 copies of more than 10,000,000 pages. 
There was distributed from the depository 473,907 copies 
of books and tracts, equal to 12,141,410 pages. 

The Society expended during the year some $15,609, 
and closes the financial year with a working balance 



THE TRACT SOCIETIES IN CHINA. 337 

ill hand, but with heavy liabilities for printers bills to 
be met in the near future. 

77/6 Central China Trad Society, Hankow, founded 
in 1875 has, during the thirty-four years of its existence, 
issued nearly 35,000,000 books and other publications. 
The committee report last year as being the best in the 
history of the society. Eighteen new publications were 
added to the society s list during the year, and there 
were 2,976,777 issues from the depot. The expenditure 
for the year has been, for col portage and general work, 
in round figures $21,000. This takes no account of the 
building scheme, which is dealt with in a separate 
account under the heading The Griffith John Memorial 
Building Fund. The society is making vigorous efforts 
to extend its usefulness. The R. T. S. gives an annual 
grant for the salary of the general agent, the Rev. C. \V. 
Kastler, who devotes his whole time to literary work, 
thus making possible the realisation of plans otherwise 
impossible to attempt. New and commodious buildings 
to serve as the society s depot and headquarters are in 
process of erection. A scheme to establish a printing 
press is also being elaborated, and if brought to a 
successful issue, will greatly increase the productivity of 
the society. 

The Central China Tract Society is worthily occupy 
ing the important centre it holds right in the heart of 
China, and is taking full advantage of the present 
opportunity for presenting the Gospel to the Chinese. 

The West China Tract Society was organised in 
1889. It has its headquarters in Chungking and Chentu. 
Its first year s receipts amounted to less than Taels 38. 
Last year the society put into circulation 1,509,528 
Christian books and tracts. 

Two enticing fields are open to this society which 
can be worked by no other. I refer to the openings 
for evangelistic tract work in Thibet and among the 



33 8 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Miao tribes. The West China Tract Society has 
secured types for printing in the languages of both 
these peoples, and the artillery of the printing press is 
now at the disposal of the soldier of the cross, who 
penetrates into the hitherto inaccessible regions which 
are the homes of the Thibetans and the Miao. 

So greatly has the society s work grown and pros 
pered that the committee were last year forced to the 
conclusion that a man must be found who would devote 
his whole time to the business side of the work. The 
R. T. S. of London has been appealed to for help and 
has provided the funds needed for the agent s salary. 
Mr. G. M. Franke, for eight }-ears a missionary in con 
nection with the China Inland Mission, has taken up 
this most important work. 

Last year the society added eighty-five new books 
and tracts to its list of publications. It may be seen 
from this that while the new enterprise of providing 
literature in the Thibetan and Miao language is being 
vigorously pushed the older branch of Chinese work is 
far from being neglected. The West China Tract 
Society is a living force in evangelistic work in the 
Empire. The service it is rendering to the cause of 
Christ in West China is incalculable. 

The income for last year was roundly $10,500. 
This was all expended in the work, and the society 
shows liabilities in excess of this to the amount of nearly 
$3,000. Promised grants and subscriptions offset this 
debit balance, but its existence shows that the West 
China Tract Society is exerting itself up to the full 
limit of its resources, and that its usefulness is bounded 
only by its financial limitations. 

Peking is the headquarters of the North China Tract 
Society. Last year the output of this body was 25,386 
copies of books and tracts with an aggregate of more 
than 5,000,000 pages. To accomplish this the society 
expended $7,431 .68. The North China Tract Society has 



THE TRACT SOCIETIES IN CHINA. 339 

also secured a special grant from the R. T. S. for the 
salary of a general agent, and Mr. A. C. Grimes is now 
in charge of the business side of the society s work. A 
steady improvement in the sales of literature is already 
apparent since Mr. Grimes took charge, and the society 
hopes in the coming year to quite double its previous 
output of literature. 

The South Fukien Tract Society has its headquarters 
in Amoy. It only came into existence in 1908, yet 
85,068 publications were circulated by the society last 
year. More than 10,000 of these are in Romanised. 
The society expended $4,674.22 in prosecuting its work. 

The North Fukien Tract Society operates from 
Foochow. It put into circulation last year a total of 
119,676 issues, of which all but 1,134 were in the 
Foochow dialect. The expenditure for the year was 
$2,613.63. 

Hongkong being an English colony, it is not 
surprising that the Tract Society there pushes the sale 
of English Bibles and tracts more zealously than of 
Chinese literature. Nevertheless fully $500 worth of 
Chinese books and tracts were sold in the depot during 
1909, and the committee is alive to the wisdom of 
securing larger sales of Chinese books. There is no 
hinterland behind Hongkong for colporteurs to operate 
in, but there is a large field for work among the Chinese 
visitors to the colony. The number of issues circulated 
was 34,430 and the expenditure on this branch of the 
work $1,038. 

The Canton Tract Society has a call to work among 
the mass of intelligent people who use the Canton 
dialect. Its field of operations stretches through the 
two provinces of Kwantung and Kwangsi. Canton was 
the gateway by which Europeans entered China, and 
the city is to-day the most nearly westernised of all 
China s sea-ports. Cantonese merchants are the wealth 
iest in China ; Cantonese statesmen fill a large place in 



340 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

the councils of the Empire, and an agency, like the 
Tract Society, which leavens with Christian ideas the 
thought of the youth of this progressive part of China, 
is doing a work, the magnitude of which cannot be over 
estimated. The Canton Society expended last year 
$1,600 in its work for the Cantonese. 

The Manchurian Tract Society, with its headquarters 
in Mukden, lias one of the most promising and interesting 
fields in the whole of China. Manchuria, recently 
swept by the great revival, is open from end to end to 
the colporteur and preacher as few provinces are open. 
Mongolia, with two to three million inhabitants, is 
within the radius of this society s field of operations, 
but scarcely a line of Christian teaching lias been 
published in the language of the Mongols. It would 
seem to be a comparatively easy task to secure a man 
who could translate some of the best tracts we have in 
Chinese into Mongolian and send them out on their 
mission of usefulness to the tribes which now sit in 
darkness in the land of Genghis Khan and Tamerlane. 
The Manchurian Tract Society expended last year 
$1,350 in the work of the tract distribution, for it 
confines itself to this branch and draws its supplies of 
literature from the other and larger societies. 

The circulation and expenditure of the various tract 
societies at work in China may be tabulated as follows : 

Chinese Tract Society, Shanghai. Circulation, 478,000 copies, 
12,141,400 pages ; expenditure, $15,609. 

Central China Tract Society, Hankow. Circulation, 2,976,777 
issues ; expenditure, $21,000. 

West China Tract Society, Chungking. Circulation, 1,509,528 
issues; expenditure, $10,500. 

North China Tract Society, Peking. Circulation, 25, 386 books, 
5,000,000 pages ; expenditure, $7,431.68. 

South China Tract Society, Atnoy. Circulation, 85,068 issues ; 
expenditure, $4,674. 

North Fukien Tract Society, Foochow. Circulation, 110,676 
issues ; expenditure, $2,613. 

Hongkong Tract Society. Circulation 34,430 issues ; expendi 
ture, $1,038. 



THE TRACT SOCIETIES IN CHINA. 341 

Canton Tract Society. Circulation (estimated), 40,000 issues ; 
expenditure, $1,600. 

Manchurian Tract Society, Mukden. Circulation (estimated), 
40,000; expenditure, $1,350. 

It is not possible to reduce all the "issues" to a 
common denominator. One "issue" may be a leaflet 
and another a book of hundreds of pages. The important 
fact to be noticed is that these nine societies occupy 
positions of strategic importance in China. They have 
expended some $70,000 during the year and have 
circulated millions of tracts. They provide literature 
for the colporteur and text-books for the theological 
student. 

If these societies did not exist it would be the first 
duty of the church in China to call them into existence. 
As it is they are fortunate in having on their board men 
of experience and erudition, but the very success of the 
evangelistic work, resulting in the accelerated growth ot 
the churches, makes it even more difficult for these men 
to give the time to the direction of the tract societies 
which is needed and which they could well afford to 
give in the earlier days. 

The record of progress, as given in the various 
reports of the tract societies, is not only encouraging, but 
is, in a measure, alarming. The West China Tract 
Society placed eighty- five new books and tracts on its 
catalogue last year. The Central and the Chinese Tract 
Society also added a considerable number of new books. 
There is a forward movement all along the line. As a 
result of this movement new needs insistently claim 
attention. Man} 7 of the societies need enlarged office 
and depot accommodation. A depot manager is needed in 
Hankow. A Christian business man who knew the 
Chinese language would find here a splendid opportunity 
for the exercise of consecrated business talent. The 
aged secretary of the Chinese Tract Society in Shanghai 
has tendered his resignation. The Board of Directors 
are naturally loth to lose the services of one who has 



342 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

done so much for China and who knows the needs of 
tract work so well as Dr. Farnham, but when a man has 
passed his eightieth birthday he has earned the right to 
a rest from continual and exacting strain. The post of 
editorial secretary to the Chinese Tract Society is one 
demanding the highest literary skill combined with the 
most acute commercial ability. 

There is no missionary post of greater importance 
than this in China. Will not some of the great mission 
ary societies honour themselves by setting aside one of 
their best men to undertake the work ? 

The West China Tract Society and the North China 
Tract Society are ably served by the men now devoting 
part of their time to editorial work. But these men 
have pastoral duties which must be attended to. These 
societies would greatly increase their usefulness if two 
home Boards would each set aside a qualified man to be 
the editorial secretary of one of these societies. 

The time has quite come when each of the great 
Tract Societies needs two men who shall devote their 
whole time and thought to the work of the society ; one 
man to care for the literary and the other for the 
business side of the work. How much longer must we 
wait before the Boards at home will realize and meet the 
need? 

J. DARROCH. 



CHAPTER XX. 



CHRISTIAN PERIODICALS. 

1900 especially, the Chinese, as far as their 
general education will permit, have begun to be a 
nation of newspaper-readers, and it is part of our 
mission in China to supply them with reading matter in 
journalistic and magazine form. Indeed journalism in 
China, apart from the Peking Gazette* was started by 
missionaries, as we shall see. Since the founding of the 
Shen Pao in 1872, the Sin Wan Pao in 1892, the Chung 
Wai Jih Pao in 1898, and the fifty and more prominent 
native papers in various parts of the land, although 
Christian journalism has been so vastly exceeded in bulk 
by native non-Christian journals, it still plays an impor 
tant part in the education of China (i) by diffusing 
Christian thought and useful knowledge among the 
ruling and literary classes, and (2) by nourishing the 
minds of native preachers and confirming the faith of 
church members. 

Christian journalism and magazine-work having 
these two objects in view, has naturally had to be 
adapted, in language and literary material, to the par 
ticular class of readers a given periodical is intended 
to reach. For scholarly non-Christians, its language has 
to be that of the literature of China (wen-li), a lan 
guage that never was spoken, but made merely for the 
eye ; anciently quite telegraphic in its terseness, but 
gradually expanding into a literary vehicle of great 
delicacy of expression and rhythmic refinement. Those 
who are versed in this difficult language will hardly 

* The Peking Gazette first appeared 91 1 A.D., coming out at 
irregular intervals until the year 1351, siu.ce when it has been 
issued four times each Chinese moon. 



344 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

read anything more " vulgar ; " and, moreover, it is the 
one language common to educated Chinese wherever 
found, as well as being the classical language of Japan 
and Korea. Thus it affords many facilities to the mis 
sionary journalist. 

On the other hand, it is not understood by the bulk 
of our intelligent church members, even those who can 
readily read what is written more closely to the actual 
language they speak. Their spoken language, except 
in the southwestern and southern provinces, is the 
" mandarin dialect." In the southwestern and southern 
provinces several more ancient dialects are spoken ; the 
most widespread of which is Cantonese. Were "man 
darin" the language of the whole Empire, all church 
periodicals would be in "mandarin" (with perhaps a 
little "easy wen-li" here and there), but as there are 
these differing dialects, the periodicals for mission 
members are, as a fact, variously in easy wen-li, in 
mandarin, or (as one of them) in romanised colloquial. 
Up till 1890, however, all the Christian periodicals of 
China were in literary or else easy wen-li. 

The first Christian newspaper in the Chinese lan 
guage was started by Drs. Morrison and Milne at Malacca 
in 1815. The next essay of Christian journalism was 
that of Dr. Y. J. Allen, who published the Church 
News and Globe Magazine at Shanghai in 1868. Then, 
from this distinctively religious paper, he branched 
forth into a more general style, changing his paper 
into the Wan Kuo Kung Pao, or " Review of the Times," 
which became the chief literary link between mission 
aries and mandarins and the scholarly Chinese in gen 
eral until Dr. Allen s death at the end of 1907. 

During that year this "Review" was 112 pages in 
bulk, 20 cents in price, with a circulation of 1,850 copies 
monthly, but many more readers than that number, as 
most of the copies were lent around a little reading 
circle. The one item in its contents, which was by that 
time virtually superseded, was its monthly summary of 



CHRISTIAN PERIODICALS. 345 

telegraphic news. This had once been the sole source 
of information for the scholars of China concerning 
world-happenings, but had for some years been an 
ticipated by the translated telegrams in the Chinese 
dailies. The Review of the Times," was coloured uy 
Dr. Allen s own strong personality, and among his 
contributors were such (deceased) worthies as Dr. 
Edkins, Dr. Ernst Faber, Drs. Williamson and Muir- 
head, besides scholars of prominence in the China field 
to-day. Dr. Timothy Richard and Dr. D. MacGillivray 
have each been deputy editors of this " Review" during 
the furloughs of Dr. Allen. 

The one magazine to follow on the lines of the " Re 
view of the Times," as a general and Christian journal 
for officials aud literati (rather than a religious paper 
for church-members), has been the C. L- S. weekly, 
the Ta Tung Pao ("magazine of broad principles"). 
This was started by W. A. Cornaby at the Chinese 
New Year of 1904, enlarged during a year s deputy 
editorship by Kv 7 an Morgan in 1907, and has since been a 
booklet of 38 pa^es, illustrated ; price, $3 per annum, in 
cluding inland postage ; number of words, about 20,000 ; 
proportion of native contributions (except, news), about 
one-tenth ; circulation, about 3,500, of which over 2,000 
are snbscribed-for by various high officials. It is read 
by several of the imperial princes, the grand councillors, 
provincial viceroys and governors, officials and scholars 
in all the provinces, and by educated Chinese in Aus 
tralia, Borneo, Brazil, British Guiana, Burma, Canada, 
Formosa, Japan, Java, Korea, Malaya, New Zealand, 
Penang, Sandwich Islands, vSingapore, Transvaal and 
several cities of the United States. 

Then, as a link between journals intended for out 
siders, and those intended for church-members, there 
come two illustrated magazines which have been popular 
both within and without the church. These are the 
Yueh Pao (" monthly magazine ") and the Pin a T u Sin 
Pao (" pictorial news magazine"), called in English re- 



346 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

spectively the " Child s Paper " and the " Chinese Illus 
trated News." The former of these was started in 1875 
(May ist) by Dr. J. M. W. Farnham. It contains about 
12,000 words; its price is 37 cents annually, with 
reductions on ordering in bulk. It is partly in easy 
wen-li and partly in mandarin, and its matter is mostly 
contributed by. natives. Issue 2,800 copies. Regions 
touched : China in its various provinces, Australia, New 
Zealand, United States, Canada, Honolulu, Japan, 
Korea, Singapore, Malacca, Borneo, Formosa. 

The " Chinese Illustrated News " was started by Dr. 
Farnham May ist, 1880. It consists of 36 pages and 
about 26,000 words, besides advertisements. Price 47 
cents per annum ; reduction for twenty copies. Partly 
in easy wen-li and partly in mandarin. Its contributors 
are nearly all Chinese. Issue 1,800. Regions touched, 
similar to the above. It is moral and religious in 
tone, scientific and entertaining. Both the above are 
published by the Chinese Tract Society. 

A recent journal, for Christians and non-Christians 
alike, but all of them in ihe service, is the Postal and 
Telegraph Mail, in easy wen-li and a little mandarin ; 
3,000 words, and English about 2,000 words. It was 
started by James A. Heal, February, 1908; is an eight- 
page sheet and published quarterly. No stated price 
is charged, but some of the recipients contribute 10 
cents or 15 cents annually. Circulation 3,400, to be 
increased as the post and telegraph offices increase 
throughout the land. It contains some native articles, 
extracts from letters received, but the bulk is prepared 
by the editor and the P. T. C. A., which he represents 
(International Postal Telegraph Christian Association). 
The matter is entirely religious. It is a Gospel sheet 
for definite evangelistic purposes. 

Of interdenominational monthlies the most consider 
able is the Chung Si Chiao Hui Pao or " Chinese Chris 
tian Review" of the C. Lf. S. It was founded in 1890 
by Dr. Y. J. Allen, succeeded by E. T. Williams and 



CHRISTIAN PERIODICALS. 347 

Dr. Wm. Muirhead till the end of 1897, by W. A. 
Cornaby till end of 1908, and Dr. MacGillivray since 
(with W. G. Walshe and E. Morgan as editors during 
two furloughs of a previous editor). It is a monthly 
booklet of 70 pages ; in all about 39,000 words ; price 
$1.24, including inland postage. The greater part of the 
material is from the west, or the mind of the editor ; 
about a tenth is contributed by natives. It is distinct 
ively a preachers magazine and organ of unity. Its 
contents include editorials, expositions, topics for prayer- 
meetings and Sunday schools, illustrations for preachers 
and teachers, biographies, stories, news. The circula 
tion is under a thousand ; the regions touched are China 
and the places where its emigrants are to be found, a 
list similar to that given under the Ta Tiuig Pao. 

The Central China Monthly was started by the 
C. C. R. T. S., Hankow, in 1905, and ran for a year; 
the editors being Dr. Griffith John, C. W. Allan, and 
John Archibald. It was re-started in 1909 ; the editor 
being C. \V. Kastler. It is a booklet of twenty pages ; 
partly in mandarin and partly in easy wen-li ; about 
15,000 words ; price 20 cents per annum, postage extra. 
A little more than half the matter is contributed by 
natives. Its circulation is 2,000, touching fifteen prov 
inces and some places beyond the seas. It is an evangel 
istic paper, but contains something for varied classes 
of readers. Each number opens with a leader in wen-li 
and one in mandarin, followed by papers on devotional, 
scientific subjects, stories for the household, miscella 
neous items, missionary news, and news of the day. 

The West China Christian jl/agazine was started 
in 1905 by the West China Tract Society. Editors, 
J. Vale and J. Endicott. It is a booklet of 20 pages 
and about 11,000 words, published at i cent per copy. 
Circulation about 2,000, chiefly in the west of China. A 
fair proportion of the material is contributed by natives. 
It is evangelistic, pastoral and educational, and chiefly 
for church members. 



348 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Also of an interdenominational order is The Re 
vivalist, of which there are two editions: one in easy 
wen-li, the other in Hinghua roraanised colloquial ; the 
latter started in 1907 by Mrs. Brewster, and since carried 
on by William N. Brewster; the former in 1908 edited 
by a native pastor, Sang Hoh-leng (Sung Hsio-lien). 

The Revivalist in Chinese character is a semi 
monthly booklet ; price 40 cents ; issue 600 copies ; 200 
sold locally, the rest in other provinces. It is nearly self- 
supporting. Practically all the material is from native 
writers. It is intensely evangelistic, but gives attention 
to all phases of Christian citizenship. The Revivalist, 
in romanised colloquial, is also semi-monthly, following 
the Chinese moons ; a booklet ; price 25 cents per annum ; 
issue about 600. More than half the material is native. 
It is both religious and general, containing news of 
the day. Its special object is to urge on the various 
enterprises of the church towards self-support and 
evangelistic aggression . 

Five denominational magazines remain. Each gives 
special emphasis to the interests of the mission it rep 
resents, but each is popular among members of other 
missions, for the spirit of denominational separatism is 
exceedingly little in evidence in China. 

The Chinese Christian Advocate was started many 
years back by the Methodist Episcopal Mission in Foo- 
chow, but of recent years transferred to Shanghai. Its 
editors have been Dr. M. C. Wilcox, Dr. Y. J. Allen, 
Dr. A. P. Parker and Dr. Franklin Ohlinger. Its pres 
ent editors are Dr. G. A. Stuart and Rev. Yuan Hsti- 
an. It was formerly monthly, but now weekly ; former 
ly a booklet, now a folder with about 12,500 words ; 50 
cents per annum, exclusive of postage. Circulation 
800. Region touched : Chihli, Shantung, Kiangsu, An- 
hui, Kiangsi, and Fukien. Its general contents are 
church news and reading for the home. 

The Chinese Christian Intelligencer was founded 
in June, 1902, by the Presbyterian Missions of China. 



CHRISTIAN PKKIODICALS. 349 

Dr. S. Isett Woodbridge is editor. It is a weekly, of 
folder form, hut easily turned into book-pages for bind 
ing iu native style. It contains 24,000 words ; part in 
easy wen-li and part in mandarin ; $1.20 per annum, 
including postage. Almost the entire contents are from 
native contributors, of which this popular paper has 
something like two hundred. Its circulation varies from 
3,500 to 4,100. It has readers in every part of China 
and Manchuria, as well as Japan, Korea, Formosa, 
Sumatra, Burma, Australia, S. Africa, Canada, England, 
United States and Honolulu. Its scope is evangelistic 
and pastoral. 

The True Light Monthly was started for the Amer 
ican Baptist Mission, Canton, by R. E. Chambers in 
March, 1902. It has had three Chinese editors in 
succession (under foreign collaboration), Revs. Chan 
lu-ting, Liu Cheuk-om, and Cheung Kaam-ue. John 
Lake was editor for a year, and now it has reverted to 
R. E. Chambers again. It is a Go-page booklet of about 
26,000 words. Its circulation is about 1,800. It is not 
denominational in a polemic sense, but aims at being 
the medium of intercommunication between Baptist 
Christians throughout the empire. It is read in other 
missions also. 

The Chinese Churchman was started as the organ 
of the Anglican Communion in China in August, 1904, 
by J. W. Nichols and P. N. Tsu, whose place has 
been taken by T. H. Tai. It is published monthly ; a 
booklet of about 29,000 words, easy wen-li, price 25 
cents annually ; circulation 2,000. About three-quar 
ters of the contents are from native pens. Its contents 
are : essays, sermons, church news and miscellaneous 
items. 

The Chinese Christian Fortnightly is the organ of 
the German missions in South China. It was started by 
I. Gena.hr January ist, 1908 ; a booklet of about 12,800 
words ; easy wen-li ; price $i per annum. About half 
of the literary contents are contributed by native writers. 



350 CHINA MISSION VKAR BOOK. 

Its circulation is about 725 copies, chiefly among the 
Basel, Berlin, Rhenish, and Kieler Missions of South 
China, but is read by others. Besides circulating in 
China, it touches Borneo, Australia, Honolulu and 
California. Its stated object has been to cement the 
union between the various German mission members 
and to instruct and upbuild them in knowledge and 
Christian character. 

China s Young Men. Y. M. C. A. (also English 
edition). Aggressive efforts were made throughout the 
year to widen the influence of the Chinese edition of 
China s Young Men, the paid circulation of which grew 
from 3,700 in January to 5,279 in December. A larger 
measure of self-support was also secured through an 
increase in advertising, and on the purely mechanical 
side of its production and distribution the magazine has 
ceased to be a financial burden to the committee. 

The Morning Star, fortnightly, mandarin, issued 
by the Industrial Mission, Chefoo, $0.60 a year, has 
recently entered the field. 

The various universities and colleges now have their 
own organs. 

W. A. CORNABY. 



CHAPTER XXL 

MISSION PRESSES. 
AMERICAN PRESBYTERIAN MISSION PRESS, SHANGHAI. 

/ESTABLISHED in 1844 in Macao, removed to Ning- 
VJL po in 1845, and to Shanghai in 1860. Present 
superintendent, Rev. G. F. Fitch, D.D. The Chi 
nese workmen number fully two hundred, and the 
foreign staff amount to twelve. 

The premises in Peking Road are used for offices, 
bookroom, and godown. The printing works, erected in 
1902-3 on North Szechuen Road extension, are devoted 
to all phases of publishing effort, including book-binding, 
type-casting, and photo-engraving. The average annual 
output during the last five years has been fully ninety- 
four millions of pages. 

The Chinese publications of the Press are mainly 
along the lines of hymn-books, catechisms, commen 
taries and devotional works for the Chinese Christians, 
and tracts, booklets, etc., for evangelistic effort. The 
aim has been, however, not to do so much publication 
work for itself as to be an efficient aid in printing the 
works of the Bible, tract, medical, and other publishing 
societies engaged in the preparation and dissemination 
of Christian literature. 

In the bi-lingual department a special feature has 
been the printing of dictionaries and other helps to lan 
guage study. 

THE METHODIST PUBLISHING HOUSE, SHANGHAI. 

This institution represents the union in 1902 for 
publishing purposes of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
and the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Revs. W. 



352 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

H. Lacy and R. P. Wilson were the first managers. 
In 1906, Rev. R. P. Wilson resigned, and Rev. W. H. 
Lacy was elected sole manager. Since July, 1909, ME. 
J. L- Coweu has been associated with him as assistant 
manager. 

During the past year the building has been some 
what enlarged to provide for a steadily increasing volume 
of business. New machinery has been added and the 
stock of English and Chinese books enlarged. 

Besides the literature demanded by the Methodist 
missions in China other books of general interest are 
being published, and the presses have been kept busy 
with contract work for the Bible and Tract Societies, 
the Y. M. C. A. and the various missions and educational 
institutions in China. About one hundred Chinese 
workmen are employed, besides those engaged in the 
native bookbinding. 

An interesting phase of this union work was the 
amalgamation of the two Chinese monthlies issued by the 
two churches the Hwa Mei Pao and the Kiao Pao 
into the Hwa Mei Kiao Pao, "The Chinese Christian 
Advocate," under the joint editorship of Rev. F. 
Ohlinger and Dr. Y. J. Allen. On the death of Dr. 
Allen in 1907, Dr. A. P. Parker was appointed editor 
in his place, and Dr. G. A. Stuart succeeded Rev. F. 
Ohlinger. 

METHODIST MISSION PRESS, POOCHOW. 

Established in 1862. Present superintendent, ap 
pointed in 1910, is Walter N. Lacy, who succeeds Rev. 
\V. S. Bissonnette, who was superintendent from the 
date of Dr. Lacy s departure for Shanghai (1903), when 
the Foochow Press was made a branch of the Methodist 
Publishing House in China. This Press has been closely 
identified with the growth of the literature in the collo 
quial dialect. The output varies from twenty to thirty- 
two millions of pages annually. 



MISSION PRESSES. 353 

NATIONAL BIBLE SOCIETY OF SCOTLAND MISSION 
PRESS, HANKOW. 

This Press was established in July, 1885, by Mr. 
John Archibald, the Society s agent in Central China, 
to whose enterprise and energy its success is mainly due. 
It was first situated in the native town adjoining the 
foreign settlement, but on January 9th, 1892, it was 
largely destroyed by fire. The result of the fire was the 
acquisition of a site on the foreign settlement and the 
erection of the present large and extensive buildings. 
These buildings also were visited by fire in the summer 
of 1907. This fire allowed of the redistribution of the 
plant, giving better facility for the execution of business. 

The Press is well equipped in the typesetting, 
printing, typecasting, and book-binding departments. 
There are about one hundred and fifty workmen. Mr. 
T. F. Buchanan has acted as superintendent for the past 
six years. Although principally employed in printing the 
Scriptures for the National Bible Society of Scotland, 
this Press also prints the tracts of the Central China 
Religious Tract Society. The 2,000,000 Scriptures and 
tracts of 1908, and the 2,515,000 Scriptures and tracts 
which represented the output of the Press for the year 
1909 show a remarkable advance from the modest total 
of 262,200 books representing the issue at the end of its 
first year. Since its inception the Press has issued a 
grand total of about 4,000,000 Testaments and Scripture 
portions, and 22, ooo,ooa Christian books and tracts. 

FOOCHOW COLLEGE PRESS OF THE A. B. C. F. M. 

This Press was established in 1889, and has con 
stituted the industrial department of Foochow College, 
furnishing work for a limited number of poor but worthy 
students during their course in the college. Having no 
purpose of building up a large business, it has done a 
limited amount of work and employed but a few hands. 
No record of the output for the first two or three years 



354 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

is obtainable, but the number of pages printed for twelve 
years (from 1892-1903 inclusive), exclusive of programs, 
sheet tracts, etc., was 9,074,047 pp., and for the last 
six years (from 1904-1909 inclusive) was 9,041,675 pp. ; 
the average for the first twelve years thus being 756,176 
pp., and for the last six years 1,506,946 pp. During 
1909 the output was 1,240,492 pp. and 48,322 tracts, 
sheets, programs, etc. Most prominent and important 
among the publications are an edition of the Romanized 
Colloquial Old Testament with references, two editions 
of the New Testament with references, several editions 
of the C. M. S. Book of Common Prayer, both in charac 
ter and Romanized, also a number of editions of the 
Colloquial Character Hymn Book, both of the C. M. S. 
Mission and the American Board Mission. 

The Press has been practically independent, finan 
cially, of the A. B. C. F. M., but some kind friends have 
helped from time to time in such a way as to ensure the 
enlarged equipment of the Press. Rev. 1^. P. Peet, with 
the efficient aid of Mrs. Peet, has been the superintend 
ent from the start. 

THE CHINA BAPTIST PUBLICATION SOCIETY PRESS, 
CANTON. 

This Society was organized eleven years ago by 
missionaries of the two American Baptist Boards. It 
has been conducted as a "stock company," so called, 
for convenience, although no dividends have been paid 
to stockholders. Chinese have contributed about $2,000 
to the work. This year the Society is being taken over 
by the American Baptist Foreign Mission Society and 
the Foreign Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Con 
vention, and they will be responsible for the support of 
the work. The Society in China will be managed by a 
board of directors elected by delegates from all the 
missions of the two American Baptist Boards and from 
native Baptist associations ; all actions of the directors 
being subject to the approval of the two home Boards. 



MTSvSION PRESSES. 355 

General book and tract printing in both Chinese and 
English, as well as job work for local firms, is done. 
Two. periodicals are published one in English especially 
for circulation among Baptist missionaries, and one in 
Chinese ; also Sunday school literature and Scriptures. 
Much general literature is sent abroad whither Chinese 
have gone, as almost all Chinese abroad are from Canton 
province. 

Sixty workmen are employed. The wages of work 
men and the salary of the trained foreign printer, who is 
superintendent of works, are paid from local income. All 
money contributed has been applied either towards pay 
ing for land and buildings, or for direct missionary 
work. The present assets are much more than all con 
tributions received. Last year approximately 15,000,000 
pages of Christian literature in Chinese were issued. 
The issue since the beginning of the Society has been 
about 70,000,000. 

Plans for a new publishing house are being perfected, 
which will have a capacity for about 200 workmen. 
Nearly $30,000 United States currency has been pledged 
towards new equipment. The Society owns valuable 
land on the river front in the 1 eastern suburbs of Canton, 
where the new plant will be erected. 

An important part of the Society s aim from the 
beginning has been colportage work. Over twenty 
colporteurs have been employed, each working under a 
Baptist missionary. New men are being employed as 
rapidly as suitable ones can be found and money is 
secured for their support. 

The present superintendent of the printing workj 
Mr. R. T. Cowles. Rev. R. E. Chambers, D.D.. is 
general secretary of the Society. 

CANADIAN METHODIST MISSION PRESS, SZECHWAN. 

Rev. V. C. Hart, D.D., laid the foundations for 
this press in 1897, in Kiating. In 1903, new buildings 
and ground in Chentu enabled Rev. J. E. Eudicott 



35 6 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

to proceed with the development of the press. The 
work is supervised by a committee, Rev. James Neave 
being treasurer. The buildings and initial plant having 
been furnished by the Canadian Methodist Church, 
the work is now self-supporting-, in that all running 
expenses are met and new stock and machinery are 
purchased. 

There are now over sixty workmen, and the work 
done comprehends all sorts of printing, including the 
West China Missionary News, in English ; also a Chinese 
monthly magazine, tracts, books, and booklets, school 
rules and prospectuses in the same language ; primers, 
catechism, hymn books and various tracts in Hwa Miao ; 
and booklets, tractates, and tracts, and presently a 
catechism and hymn book in Tibetan. 

The total output for 1909 was : Books and tracts, 
2,400,267; pages, 19,785,344. 

Output from date of organisation up to and including 
1908: Copies, 15,625,000; pages, 62,500,000. 

NORTH CHINA UNION COLLEGE PRESS, TUNGCHOW. 

The American Board Mission Press was re-established 
after the destruction in 1900 as the North China Union 
College Press at Tungchow, Chihli, and work was 
begun in December, 1905, with a member of the college 
faculty, Rev. H. S. Gait, as superintendent. The 
equipment then cost about $1,500.00 gold. In January, 
1908, Mr. Wm. H. Carl Ebeling was called by the 
mission to take charge of the press and teach in the 
college. During that year the equipment was increased, 
bringing the total up to about $3,400.00 gold. The 
regular employees at present number only four, but 
the average would be about six, not including the 
student help employed. The work done is general book 
and job printing (tracts, medical and educational books, 
reports in English and Chinese, hymn books, etc.), 
including native (which is mostly by outside contract) 



MISSION PRESSES. 357 

and foreign style binding, stereotyping, etc. The output 
from December, 1905, to January, 1910, was 8,166,600 
pages; during 1909 it was 3,523,452 pages. Outside 
of original equipment and salary of superintendent the 
press is self-supporting (including provision for repairs 
and replacing of worn out equipment). 

THE HINGHWA MISSION PRESS. 

This Press (in Hinghwa city, Fukien province) 
is identified with the Board of Foreign Missions of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and was started in a 
small way in 1896. It has so grown that nine workmen 
give their entire time and twenty student workmen 
give part time ; the latter thus being enabled to earn 
a portion or all of the cost of their education. The 
output last year was nearly two million pages. 

The chief work done is printing a semi-monthly 
newspaper in Romanized ; also one in Chinese character ; 
the Bible, tracts, and text-books in Romanized ; also 
Sunday school literature. 

The Press is practically self-supporting, although 
grants have been received for printing tracts and 
newspapers ; whilst the American Bible Society has 
published the Romanized Bible. The superintendent 
is Rev. W. N. Brevvster, D.D. 

ENGLISH PRESBYTERIAN MISSION PRESS, SWATOW. 

Work was commenced in 1880 with a hand press 
and a font of type sent out as a gift from friends in 
England. It was set up in the boarding-school and 
the school boys taught to use it. In 1885 a fresh 
font of Roman type was added, and in 1893 another 
font was purchased. The plant of the Press includes 
stereotyping apparatus, book-binding outfit and two 
printing machines. The number of printers employed 



358 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

The work done is mainly in Romanized vernacular ; 
any work in Chinese character is done from stereotypes. 

In addition to the New Testament and other 
portions of Scripture printed for the British and Foreign 
Bible Society, such books are published as Pilgrim s 
Progress, Earth s Bible Stories, hymn book, catechisms 
and other Christian tracts. A monthly church news 
is also published. 

Revenue is partly acquired by the sale of such 
works as the Swatow Vocabulary and a Swatow Index 
to Williams Dictionary, etc. But the income does not 
meet expenditure and has to be increased by donations 
or by grants from the mission funds. 

ENGLISH PRESBYTERIAN MISSION PRESS, TAINAN, 
FORMOSA. 

This Press was set up in the year 1884; the first 
publication (The National Anthem) being published 
on 24th May of that year. The Press is used for the 
printing of books in Romanized vernacular ; the output 
for last year being 280,000 pages. 

The chief work of the Press during these years 
has been the printing each month of the church paper, 
the Tainan Church News (in June the 3OOth number 
being printed). The first number was published in 
July, 1885, and it has been published monthly since. 
It has also printed a Commentary on the Three 
Character Classic, translation of the Sacred Edict, 
Commentary on Romans i.-viii., Christie s Old Organ, 
etc., hymnbook, and a number of books of the N. T. 
for the use of translators in a tentative revision of 
our vernacular N. T. , and innumerable sheets for use 
in the hospitals, schools, examinations, notices to the 
churches, circulars, and a very little English printing. 

The superintendent is one of the missionaries 
appointed annually by the Mission Council ; this year 
Rev. T. Barclay being in charge. 



MISSION PRESSES. 359 

UNION UNIVERSITY PRESS, WEIHSIEN. 

This Press was originally founded at Tengchow 
in 1906 by Rev. W. M. Hayes, D.D. The Shantung 
Times, S. S. lessons, moral science lectures, and small 
jobs were printed in Chinese. It is run now in connec 
tion with the Arts College of Shantung Christian Univer 
sity ; the superintendent being Rev. H. G. Whitcher. It 
is self-supporting, employs four workmen, and prints 
translations made for the college, the college Bulletin , 
the college job work, and tracts and pamphlets for 
Shantung missions. Enlargement in the near future is 
anticipated. 

AMERICAN PRESBYTERIAN MISSION PRESS, 
NODOA, HAINAN. 

This small establishment has been used as an in 
dustrial department of the boys high school, and 
originally was confined to printing in the Hainanese 
Romanized (Gospels, hymn book, catechism, primer, and 
phrase book), but for the last four years most of the 
work done has been printing from colloquial character 
stereos made by the Shanghai Press. 

THE UNIVERSITY OF NANKING PRESS. 

This Press was formerly the property of the Foreign 
Christian Mission, but was turned over, with other 
school property, to the Union University. It was started 
seventeen years ago under the care of Rev. F. E. 
Meigs, who superintended it for fourteen years. For 
the last three years it has been in charge of Rev. C. S. 
Settlemyer. It employs four men, and is self-supporting. 

According to last annual report 29,100 tracts were 
printed, 25,450 monthly periodicals in English and 
Chinese, and 234,970 reports, books, and miscellaneous 
job printing. 



360 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

TRINITY COLLEGE PRESS, NINGPO. 

This work is in connection with the C. M. S. Mid- 
China Mission, and, excepting an annual grant of $120 
from the C. M. S., is self-supporting. Three apprentice 
lads are employed, and the work done consists of theolog 
ical books, general mission printing in Chinese character 
and romanized, and the printing for the college. The 
superintendent is the principal of the C. M. S. Train 
ing College. 

"BROADCAST" TRACT PRESS, CHANGSHA, HUNAN. 

This Press began in 1897, an d prints exclusively 
Gospel leaflets of small size for widespread and free 
distribution all tracts being sold to workers for bare 
cost of paper, ink, and pressman. The plant and support 
of foreigner are supplied by free-will offerings of interest 
ed parties in the United States. About 3,000,000 tracts 
were issued to January i, 1910, of which 390,000 were 
printed in 1909. The work is carried on in connection 
with the China Mission of the "Galilee" (Baptist) 
Church of Denver, Colorado, U. S. A. Allen N. Cameron 
is missionary printer and superintendent. 

SOUTH CHIHLI MISSION PRESS. 

This work was started is connection with the indus 
trial feature of the schools of the South Chihli Mission. 
It is practically self-supporting ; the eaucatioual, evangel 
istic, colportage or other departments paying cost. The 
output reported from 1904 to the last World Missionary 
Conference was 5,000,000 pages ; a half million more 
pages for last year would indicate total output. Deacon 
Wang Liu-tsun is the superintendent ; the secretary of 
the mission is Rev. H. W. Moulding. 

ENGLISH BAPTIST MISSION PRESS, SIANFU. 

Although small, this establishment has been of the 
greatest use in supplying the needs of the part of Shensi 



MISSION PRKSSKS. 361 

in which it is situated. It priiits all kinds of booklets 
and tracts ; nothing being undertaken, however, larger 
than fifty-page books. About 300,000 pages are printed 
annually. The work, which is superintended by Rev. 
A. G. Shorrock, is dependent on grants from the Religious 
Tract Society and English Baptist Mission. 

THE C. I. M. PRESS, TAICHOW. 

Mr. W. D. Rudland has worked hard and con 
tinually for many years in the preparation and print 
ing of Romanised literature in the Taichow dialect. 
The work is practically self-supporting (the British and 
Foreign Bible Society having helped in the Scripture 
printing). There are six workmen ; we understand that 
some good evangelistic workers have graduated from the 
practical side of the work. In addition to Scripture 
printing, Romanised primers, catechisms, hymn books, 
tracts, and Christian booklets have been issued. 

WEIHAIWEI MISSION PRESS. 

This Press is unconnected with any mission, but is 
now under the trusteeship of missionaries who are either 
labouring in East Shantung or have been there since 
1903. Apart from foreign superintendence it is self- 
supporting. Eight Chinese workmen are employed, and 
the work done includes Gospel sheet calendars (over 
1,000,000 having been printed and circulated since the 
commencement of the press), roll-text almanac, and sixty 
miscellaneous Chinese publications. Printing in English 
is undertaken to give financial buoyancy to the work. 

SEVENTH DAY ADVENTIST MISSION PRESS, 
SHANGHAI. 

Publishing work was first started in Honan, but 
was removed to Shanghai in the spring of 1908. Ten 
workmen are employed, and the output (which consists 
of Chinese literature for missionary work only) amount- 



362 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

ed in 1909 to 66,000 tracts aud pamphlets, 85,000 sheet 
tracts and a monthly issue (5,500 copies) of the Shi 
Djao Yueh Bao. The superintendent is Mr. B. A. 
Roberts, and the work is carried on in connection with 
the Seventh Day Adventist Mission. 



NOTE. 

The Church of England Press, Peking, referred to 
in the "Century of Missions" was destroyed by the 
Boxers in 1900. The Wenchow (C. I. M.) Press was 
sold several years ago to Chinese workmen, who still do 
local work for the mission. 

GILBERT MC!NTOSH. 



CHAPTER XXII, 



THE BIBLE SOCIETIES. 
British and Foreign Bible Society. 

HE statistics for the past year may be dealt with 
under the heads of Publication and Circulation. 



THE PUBLICATION OF THE SCRIPTURES. 

The versions printed were much the same as in 
1908, and the only notable development was in the 
number of the Union Version Mandarin Gospels, of 
which 259,000 were printed, or four times the number 
for the preceding year. 

There were received from the press editions in 
eight of the Chinese vernaculars, also Gospels in 
Tibetan and Hwa Miao. Of the vernacular editions 
3,000 Testaments and 2,500 Portions were printed 
in Roman letters. Altogether there were printed and 
received into stock 1,862,926 volumes, classified as fol 
lows : 



ftiblcs. 


Testa 




ments. 


Wen-li (Delegates Version) .. 2,000 


7,000 


Weu-li (Union Version) 






Kasy Wn-li (Union Version) 






Mandarin 


11,000 


22,000 


Mandarin (Union Version) 




9,000 


Ningpo 






Taichow Romanized 






1,000 


Foochow 




2 OOO 




Amoy Romanized 








2,000 


Swatow Romanized 










Canton 


.. 


2 


5<X> 


5,000 


Canton Romanized 








Hakki 








Hwa Miao 






Tibetan 





Portions, 

145-000 

50,000 

50,000 

1,274,000 

250,000 

506 

1,000 



520 

12,000 
I, OOO 

600 

4,800 
10,000 



Totals. 

154,000 

50,000 

50,000 

,307,000 

259,000 

506 

2,000 

2,000 

2,000 

520 

19.500 

1,000 

600 
4,800 

10,000 



17,500 46,000 1,799,426 1,862,926 



364 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

THE CIRCULATION OF THE SCRIPTURES. 

The figures which follow, it should be noted, are 
those which come to us from the sub-agents, depots, 
and correspondents when the actual sales are reported, 
and to these are added the Scriptures given to schools, 
hospitals, and other charitable institutions. It is, there 
fore, with no little satisfaction that an increase in the 
circulation over that of 1908 is reported of 139,710 
copies, i.e., the number of Bibles, Testaments, and Por 
tions that have actually gone forth among the Chinese. 
That the circulation has now reached a total of over 
one million and a half, and that nearly 99 per cent, of 
these Scriptures were sold, is surely a matter for sincere 
thanksgiving. 

As an introduction to a brief account of the 
circulation of the Scriptures in the Chinese Empire 
by the B. F. B. S. during 1909, the figures for the 
preceding eight years may be of interest, and it may 
be further noted that the average annual circulation for 
the ten years 1890-1899 was 392,057 copies. 



1900 


Bibles. 
6,844 
7 1985 


Testaments. 1 
20,961 
22,282 
36,254 
36,250 
40,523 
4 .525 
38,572 
41,119 
50,726 


J ortions. 
576,657 
401,179 
820,590 
882,816 
,032,836 
,018,167 
,028,031 
.155,25 
,295,373 


Totals. 
604,462 
43L446 
872,304 
933,965 
,088,333 
,075,180 
,084,311 
,212,409 
.365,223 




15,460 




...14 899 


1904 


14,974 




. ..16,488 




17.708 
16,040 
19,124 


IQOS 



Total 129,522 327,212 8,210,899 8,667,633 

The total number of copies put into circulation 
prior to 1890 was 4,320,000. The Scriptures circulated 
in 1909 were 1,504,933 copies, viz., 18,656 Bibles, 
52,739 Testaments, 1,476,506 Portions. This total is in 
advance of the previous highest figures by over 139,000. 

Channels of Circulation. (<?) Colportage. The 
distribution of the Scriptures is carried on by a widely 
organized system of colportage in which missionaries, 



THK BIBLE SOCIETIES. 365 

Chinese colporteurs, Bible-women and Chinese pastors, 
preachers and evangelists and church-members take 
part. All the Scriptures thus distributed are sold, 
though the prices are usually one-third or even one-fourth 
of cost. The colportage sales in 1909 were 1,390,156, 
an increase of 157,647 on the preceding year. The 
number of paid colporteurs was 410 working full time 
and 139 giving only a portion of their time. Reckoned 
on the basis of one colporteur for each twelve months 
full work the number of colporteurs would be 396. 
About eight-tenths of the colporteurs are under mission 
ary supervision, and do their work as members of the 
mission staff. 

(b} Depot Sales. A Bible depot has become an 
established institution in all the principal mission centres, 
but with the rapid spread of new literature, Chinese 
book-sellers may in time consider it worth while to add 
the Scriptures to their stock of \foreign" literature. 
At the present time only one Chinese book-seller, so far 
as is known, has the courage or the wisdom to put our 
bright-covered and cheap Gospels on his counter. 

The depot sales vary little in number from year to 
year, but it is worth noting that whilst in the three 
years prior to 1900 the average sales were 3,400 Bibles, 
14,700 Testaments, and 58,000 Portions, in the last three 
years the average has risen to 14,500 Bibles, 31,000 
Testaments, and 76,700 Portions. In 1909 the sales 
were 15,494 Bibles, 38,808 Testaments, and 86,980 
Portions. 

(c} Free Gifts. The books given away were 793 
Bibles, i, 606 Testaments, and 14,064 Portions. The 
variety of needs which these gifts have met appeals to 
the imagination. The full list is too long to publish, 
but a few illustrative cases may be cited. 

In response to the following appeal from a member 
of the English Baptist Mission in Shantung 400 Gospels 
were at once sent : " We would be glad to have a grant 



366 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

of TOO each large type Gospels for distribution amongst 
our poor women who are very neglected, and at present 
we have practically a famine in the land of the bread 
that perisheth as well as the bread which cometh down 
from heaven." 

A strongly bound Mandarin Testament was put in 
each of the 450 cells and in the hospital wards of the 
Shanghai Municipal Gaol, whilst 600 Gospels were placed 
at a missionary s disposal so that a copy could be given 
to any prisoner who desired to take a book with him 
when he left the prison. To the Victoria Gaol, Hong 
kong, 500 Wen-li Bibles and 500 Canton Colloquial New 
Testaments were presented. Amongst the prisoners in 
Yunnanfu 185 Gospels were distributed. 

To mission-schools in Canton, Wuchang and other 
places grants of Bibles or Testaments were also made, or 
were supplied at specially reduced rates. To patients in 
hospitals, to visitors to the Shanghai Industrial Exhibi 
tion, and to missionaries to meet various special needs 
about 5,000 Bibles, Testaments and Portions were given. 

Methods and Results. The following descriptions 
and testimonies which come straight from superintend 
ents give an insight into the methods by which the books 
are sold, and the results of the colporteurs labours. 

Colporteurs at Work. 

Some time ago I watched one of the colporteurs at a big 
market as he was selling books, and it was a very interesting 
sight. He had chosen a roomy place, where he spread out a lot 
of Gospels and other Portions and displayed a beautiful picture 
of the Prodigal Son at Home and Abroad. Crowds of people 
gathered here from early morning to late at night, and the 
colporteur was kept so busy preaching and answering questions, 
explaining passages from the Bible and selling books that he had, 
as he afterwards remarked, not so much time as to take a drink 
of water. We have found this kind of work to be a capital 
evangelistic agency. Rev. J. A. RlNEU v , Kiachow. 

Some of the subsidized colporteurs have been doing house to 
house visitation this year and have found it very interesting. 
Others have gone from village to village preaching on the streets, 



THK BIBI.K SOCIKTIKS. 367 

while the remainder have visited markets and fairs. Rev. 
T. N. THOMPSON, Tsining. 

Tsiu has fully justified our expectations. His love for his 
Master, which made him witness so faithfully to his customers 
when he had a barber shop has, I am glad to say, increased with 
his knowledge. He is a good walker and has visited hundreds of 
isolated villages up amongst the hills. Besides this he has sys 
tematically visited the larger towns in the plains on market days. 
Some time ago a preacher from one of the neighbouring towns 
told me that he had several coming to his church as a result of 
Mr. Tsiu s work. He mentioned one man in particular, who was 
coming over twenty miles to the services to learn more of the 
Gospel. I question if any three colporteurs in all China have 
done more talking in the way of explaining the blessed Gospel. 
Dr. ]. S. GRANT, Ningpo. 

How Colporteurs Help the .Missionary. 

We praise God for the invaluable work rendered by the 
colporteur. Through his earnestness and zeal we have recently 
opened a new out-station on an island where the inhabitants are 
mainly fisher-folk, dreadfully superstitious and rank idolators. 
Undoubtedly the little chapel will be a light in a dark place. 
We are using the colporteur a month at a time at each of our 
six out-stations, and the other mouths he goes farther afield. In 
this way each market-town, village ;md hamlet gets an opportu 
nity of purchasing the Scriptures, and as the colporteur is not 
only a salesman, but also tells the contents of the books he has 
for sale, the Gospel is proclaimed far and wide. Rev. W. RICH 
ARDSON, Taiping. 

The Bible Society is rendering us very valuable and highly 
appreciated help. I do not think any of our new work gives us 
more satisfaction Hum does the colportage. We can not fully 
gauge the good results, but it takes very little faith to believe 
they are already considerable, and that the work will bring in 
better and better results as the days go by. This whole district 
has probably fully one thousand villages. We have our station 
and seven well-scattered sub-stations, but vou see how impossible 
it is with only these that we should get into close touch with 
more than a tithe of the villages. Our colporteur is a villager of 
no education, but he is a most devoted and earnest Christian, a 
constant reader of his New Testament and most eager to press 
everybody he meets to taste and see for themselves. This worthy 
brother, during the winter, is going to spend a mouth at a time in 
the neighbourhood of each of our sub-stations, but distant from 
them. He has sold between five and six thousand casli worth of 
Portions already, and all in places too far away for our preachers 
to visit. Rev. H. T. STONHLAKK, Sinchow. 



368 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Hoiv they Bring Men into the Church. 

Chang is doing good work, as quite a number are coming out 
to our Sunday services as a result of his labours. Among our 
first five converts, baptized some weeks ago, was a man who was 
won through Chang s preaching at a fair. Rev. W. N. NoWACK, 
Piyanghsien. 

In the Hunyuan district I learned that there is now a little 
group of Christians and enquirers as the result of Colporteur 
Chang s work. Later I heard that a place of worship has been 
opened for these new converts, and that the old colporteur has 
become their pastor. Rev. C. G. SODKRBOM, Suanhwafu. 

As a result of the colporteurs work numbers of people from 
the adjacent towns and villages find their way to our street 
chapels. During the past year two men joined the church as the 
direct result of their efforts, and another is diligently enquiring. 
Rev. J. JOHNSON, Nantungchovv. 

A Mr. Kiang last March was at a market, where he met Mr. 
Dwang, one of our colporteurs. They got into conversation, and 
Mr. Kiang invited the colporteur to his home. Now Mr. Kiang 
and four members of his family are Christians. Seven in all from 
that village and a few others from neighbouring villages have 
been baptized. There are so many near there interested in the 
Gospel that we have opened an out-station in Mr. Kiang s home, 
where we have regular preaching. Thank the Lord for His 
great goodness in thus opening the door of faith to the Gen 
tiles." Thanks also to the Bible Society for so materially help 
ing in this great work. Rev. W. H. SEARS, Pingtu. 

Hoiv the Word gives Light. 

My heart was rejoiced while out on a trip a few days ago to 
meet a very zealous Christian by the name of Wu, 64 years of age, 
who became interested in the Gospel several years ago through 
buying some Portions from a colporteur. Mr. Wu is a member of 
a literary family, and was a teacher for a number of years until 
the death of his aged father five years ago. Being of a religious 
turn of mind he tried in many ways to obtain merit. After his 
father s death he gave up his "school and spent a whole year by 
the side of his father s coffin, not leaving the place, but eating 
and sleeping by its side on the bare dirt floor. After his father 
was buried he spent month after month at the grave side. He 
says he read over and over the Gospels he had bought while thus 
"gaining merit." He kept this up for several years; in fact 
until he became interested in the Gospel ; then gave up all his 
man-made merit and became a very zealous follower of our I/ord 
and Saviour. He was baptized last year, and there are now two 



THK BIBUi vSOClKTlKS. 369 

other Christians in that village that have been led to Christ by 
Mr. Wu. He says he can never forget the influence of the 
Gospel that he bought years ago. Rev. W. H. SKARS, Pingtu. 

I hope soon to baptize three men, one of whom was led to 
Christ through reading the Gospels and Acts which he bought 
about four years ago. Until last year he had no opportunity of 
see.ng a missionary and getting confirmed in his faith. Rev. 
S. H. TOWNSHKND, Kweitehfu. 

I gave a few copies to an old man eighty years of age, and he 
read and read again and, as he says, his dim eves got clear and 
his heart found peace. He is now a member of our church. He 
spoke in the testimony meeting the other day and could not say 
enough in praise of this precious book which had brought him so 
much peace and joy. Rev. J. A. BKUTEr,, Yunho. 

Teaching; the Hwa Miao. 

To many readers of the Year Book the wonderful 
work that has been done amongst the aborigines of 
Yunnan and Kweichow during the past seven or eight 
years is a familiar story, and need not be repeated here. 
Two Gospels (Mark and John), translated into Hwa 
Miao, have been published by the society, but just as 
the language had to be reduced to writing, so the 
people who had never seen their speech in written 
symbols, had to be taught to read. Recognizing that 
the printed Scriptures would be useless without readers 
it has been our privileoe to provide some of the men set 
apart to instruct the thousands of Christians who want 
to be taught to read. No part of the year s work has 
given us greater joy. The subjoined report is from the 
missionary in charge : 

It is a pleasure to acknowledge our indebtedness to the Bible 
Society for the work which the colporteur-readers have performed 
(and are daily performing) and which has only been rendered 
possible by the generous support of your society. They spend a 
week in a village and then pass on to another hamlet, and by 
carefully planning the men s work we confidently expect that 
practically all the villages will have been visited by the colport 
eurs at least once, and in a number of cases twice, during the 
present year. Some four to five hundred visits will have been 
paid by the end of December, and nearly three hundred hamlets 
will have been given the opportunity of learning something more 



370 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

of the Word of Life from the printed pages of Mark and John. 
The work these Bible-readers do in preparing a highway for the 
feet of these children of the hills to the beauties and treasures of 
the Scriptures cannot be estimated ; only the Great Day shall 
declare it.- Rev. PI. PARSONS, Chaotnng. 

The distribution described above is under the special 
supervision of the society s sub-agents, of whom there 
are seven on the field. The work is carefully watched, 
and by means of colporteurs Bible-classes and better 
rates of pa}*, it is hoped that men of superior ability may 
in time be obtained for this service. The average col 
porteur, in spite of failures here and there, is a workman 
who needs not to be ashamed, and whose work, properly 
directed, is an important adjunct to the Christian work 
that is carried on throughout the provinces. 

G. H. BONDFIKLD. 



The National Bible Society of Scotland. 

Of all the various methods of mission work that 
of the Bible Society offers the least attraction to the 
Athenian mind ; there is so little of " something new" 
either to tell or to hear. The best methods for carry 
ing out the society s three-fold purpose the transla 
tion, reproduction, and distribution of the Word of 
God were discovered long ago, and it only remains for 
the present-day workers to keep steadily on doing the 
same things as were done by those who went before 
them. Hence, the history of the three years under 
review is but a repetition of what has already been put 
on record with this difference, the work has been car 
ried on on a much grander scale. 

Translation. The various committees engaged in 
the translation of the Scriptures have, as heretofore, 
been dependent on the Bible Societies for the means 
necessary to carry it on. As this work has a section for 
itself, it only remains to note here that the N. B. S. S., 
in common with the others, pays its share. 



THE B1BLK SOCIETIES. 371 

Reproduction. All the society s printing is done at 
Hankow, where it lias its own Press a large establish 
ment devoted entirely to the output of Christian litera 
ture. A quarter of a century ago, when this press was 
started, there were no facilities at Hankow for printing 
on any large scale, and although it is different now the 
society still finds it advisable to maintain its own press. 
The same editions of the Scriptures are printed there as 
are in use by the other Bible Societies with, in addition, 
a special item, namely, the illustrated, annotated four 
Gospels and Acts, for which there is a great demand in 
all parts of the Chinese Empire. 

Distribution. For this purpose the society has 
divided the field into four agencies the northern, east 
ern, central, western, and southern. Kach is under the 
charge of a foreign agent, and there is one extra to 
fill furlough vacancies, etc., making six foreign agents 
in all. Each agent operates chiefly through the mission 
aries located in his district, who are encouraged to 
engage and superintend native colporteurs, the society 
meeting all charges. The agents themselves do not 
largely engage natives, but they travel extensively, cir 
culating the Scriptures and preaching the Gospel. The 
average number of native colporteurs employed in con 
nection with the society, during the three years ending 
1909, was 280 per annum. 

Circulation. During those three years this amount 
ed to 2,928,593, consisting of 49,324 Bibles and Testa 
ments and 2,879,269 Portions, chiefly annotated Gos 
pels and Acts. The N. B. S. S., representing, as it does, 
a small country, and not over wealthy, could hardly be 
expected to match the great Bible Societies of England 
and America. Yet in China it forms a remarkably good 
third, as may be seen from the following figures, which 
give the total issues of the Word of God made by the 
three Bible Societies throughout the whole of China, 
from the beginning up to, and including, 1908 : 



372 CHINA MISSION YKAR BOOK. 



Bibles. ts 1 ortions. Total. 

British and Foreign Bible Society, 306,080 1,681,546 15.945.370 17,932.996 
American Bible Society ......... 101,735 579.716 10764,740 11,446,191 

National Bible Society of Scotland, 21,595 276,467 10,432,104 10,730,166 

429,410 2,537,729 37,142,214 40,109,353 

The chief lesson to be drawn from these figures, 
however, is not how much has been accomplished, but 
how very little compared with the size of the field. 
Were every Bible, Testament, and Portion of Scripture, 
including the very smallest, which has been issued in 
China by the Bible Societies since the days of Morrison, 
still in existence, the total would amount to no more 
than provide one cop}- for every ten of the population. 
But, since the great bulk of this literature has entirely 
disappeared, it may safely be said that Bible work in 
China is still in its infancy. 

JOHN ARCHIBALD. 



American Bible Society. 
[From 93rd Annual Report, 1909. John R. Hykes, D.D., Agent.] 

The notable feature of this year s manufacture is 
the increase in the number of complete Bibles and New 
Testaments published. The Bibles were 12,000 and the 
Testaments 40,000 in excess of 1907. The increased 
demand for Bibles and Testaments came largely from 
the Chinese Christians, and shows that our work has 
entered upon a new phase. With the rapid growth of 
the native Church we shall have to be prepared to 
supply more copies of the complete Scriptures ; and, as 
they have to be sold at a loss, because of the poverty 
of many of the members, we must have correspondingly 
larger funds at our disposal if we are to do anything 
like our share in giving the Bible to the Christian 
Church in China. 

The Mandarin Reference Bible the first Bible ever 
published in the Chinese language with references was 
issued from the press near the end of the year, and the 



THE BIBLE SOCIETIES. 373 

demand was so great that the first edition was speedily 
exhausted. We printed 2,000 copies for the British and 
Foreign Bible Society. The text of this Bible is the 
latest revision made by Bishop Schereschewsky, and it 
received its final touches just before his death. It is a 
matter for regret that he did not live to see it. 

The " Union " revision of the Mandarin New Testa 
ment has been most enthusiastically received. We 
printed 19,000 copies during the year and had 8,000 
more in press and about ready to be issued on the 3ist 
of December. The compromise "terms" have been 
very generally accepted, and this will undoubtedly be 
the settlement of the vexed "Term Question." The 
"Union" revision of the Mandarin New Testament has 
been published with these terms, namely, Shang-ti for 
God and Sheng-ling for Holy Spirit. 

The manufacture of Scripture portions was barely 
sufficient to meet the requirements of our colporteurs 
and the demands of our patrons. The number fell 
37,500 below what was printed last year and was only 
6,351 less than what was issued; while the sale of 
portions was more than 90,000 in excess of what was 
manufactured. 

The following is a comparison of the manufactures 
for the past two years : 

Bibles. Test s. Portions. Total. 

For the year 1908 13.000 57,ooo 453, 000 523. oo 

For the year 1907 1,000 17,000 490,500 508,500 

Increase over 1907 12,000 40,000 5 2 , 000 

Decrease from 1907 37,5 

Total increase over 1907 14. 5 

Publications for 1908, classified according to Dialects 
and Terms. 

Dialect. Shangti. Shen. Total. 

Mandarin 299,000 80,000 379 .000 

Classical 3,000 3,000 

Canton Colloquial 48,000 48,000 

Easy We"n-li 2,000 75,000 77.000 

Foochow Colloquial 2,000 2,000 

Shanghai Colloquial 5,500 5,500 

Soochow Colloquial 8,500 8,500 



374 



CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 



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oc~nior^av to 10 

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r^ ^vo o -< 



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be 



THE BIBLR SOCIETIES. 375 

Total Direct Issues from the China Agency. 

Bibles. Test s. Portions. Total. 

Prior to 1908 95,586 542,294 10,325.479 10,963,359 

For the year 1908 6,149 37,422 439261 482,^32 



Total direct issues .. .. 101,735 579,716 10,764,740 11,446,191 
CIRCULATION. 

This is the record year of the agency for the num 
ber of books put into circulation. The sales amounted 
to 591,246 copies and the donations to 3,706, making a 
total of 594,952 volumes. The highest previous circula 
tion was reached in 1905, when the sales were 526,925 
and the donations 10,379 copies. The increase over last 
year is 103,672. 

Rev. P. F. Price, D.D.. S. P. M., Tunghiang, Che., 
writes about a new plan of using the mails : 

"The reason, as you may remember I proposed in the con 
ference with j ou, is that there are a large number of reading 
people, both of the scholar and merchant class, who never get a 
Bible or portion from a colporteur, but who are accessible through 
the mails. The plan adopted is to get a list of these in this city 
and adjacent towns and cities and to distribute copies of a 
Gospel or other portion to them through the native post. I had 
accumulated a list of nearly 2,000, which was also destroyed. I 
had a block cut for printing on the inside of each cover. It 
stated that this book was a part of a divine revelation a few 
sentences along that line and in regard to the influence of the 
Bible and then said that this book was given with the best 
wishes of the American Bible Society and with the hope that it 
would be read and thought upon and prove a blessing. This 
was the gist of it. I wish I could send you a copy of the block, 
but that was burned also. 

" I heard many echoes of these donations. Gentlemen 
would step up to me on the street and thank me for them. One 
man to whom a Gospel was sent, sent me a large order for books 
of various sorts, all of a Christian nature, and not a few have 
come into the book-room and bought other books. Some New 
Testaments were given in this way to officials. I met one 
striking instance of the value of this kind of work. I was 
calling on a new district magistrate and opened the subject of 
the Gospel. Whereupon he told me he had a Christian book 
given him by a Wen chow missionary. He sent a servant to 
bring it, and it proved to be a small New Testament. He told 



376 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

me that on account of a bodily trouble be often could not rest 
well at night, and lie would light his candle and, lying on his 
elbow in bed, read this book. The leaven is at work, and the 
wider we can get it to work the better. This particular official, 
it may be well to add, is known for his gentleness among the 
people. 

Dr. W. S. Ament (since dead) .writes : 

" I am back from my country trip and had a most pleasant 
time. The sad thing is the sight of the grain drying up for want 
of rain and the discouraged manner of the farmers. I found all 
the colporteurs doing good work, and was much pleased with 
some of them. One old man, Chang I*in-sheng, has been the 
means of opening a new out-station at Machuang, a large 
market town in the district of Pachou, He discovered there a 
fine man of some property, who secured a copy of Genesis some 
years ago. After the war between China and the allies in 1860, a 
foreign missionary on horseback went through this region dis 
tributing books free to all who would receive them. This man 
Liang, then a young man of twenty, took the copy of Genesis 
and had studied it carefully and been much impressed with the 
story of Joseph. But it was nearly two score of years before he 
met Mr. Chang, the colporteur, who explained the meaning to 
him. His son is a reading man, and father and son are both 
candidates for church membership. It is this sowing and reaping 
after many days that furnish a cause for great encouragement. 

" What I write for now is concerning a summer station-class 
for colporteurs, chapel keepers, and others in church employ (or 
any who wish to study) who have had deficient training. It will 
be a union class, composed of men from the four missions in 
Peking, and will be taught by Dr. Pyke, Dr. Fenn, Mr. Dawson 
(I*. M. S.) and myself. It will continue for about a month, or 
till the middle of July. This will carry through the wheat 
harvest, when the farmers are most busy and when work of the 
church is almost at a standstill. If you have no objection I 
think it would be a good thing for our men to attend this class as 
far as possible. In fact, I have always been in favor of more 
instruction for the colporteurs, and also decidedly in favor of 
trying to give them a little inspiration for their work, which is 
really one of the hardest (if well done) in the service of the 
church." 

In previous yearly reports I have written of the 
great work among the Miao tribesmen and the wonder 
ful revival taking place among them. This still con 
tinues aud spreads, and is reaching other tribes also. 



THE BIBLE SOCIETIES. 377 

Mr. Page, of Anshuen, who is engaged in aboriginal 
work, writes under date of November i4th : " Please 
find enclosed a letter from our members and inquirers 
here in Anping. We have just had a three days 
gathering and so thought we would make a collection 
for your Society. The amount, .3 taels, was all in cash, 
and nine-tenths of it was contributed by our Miao 
inquirers, who, although, they are so poor, gave man 
for man live times as much as the Chinese. * And again, 
on January 6th : " Our Miao have, at a little conference I 
have just had with them, subscribed 1.20 taels to the 
American Bible Society ; and another small village at 
which I had meetings have had a collection amounting 
to .67 taels, the total being 1.87 taels. The amount 
itself is not very large, but it comes from good hearts, 
and the collection taken in cash was an index to the 
willingness of these poor people to help you in your 
work." We know these offerings, made out of deep 
poverty and from those who were lately among the most 
degraded heathen in China, must be very precious in 
the sight of the Lord of the Harvest. 

There are 5 foreign colporteurs, 86 Chinese colport 
eurs, and 49 men superintended by missionaries. 



CHAPTER XXIIL 



BIBLE TRANSLATION AND REVISION. 

Scriptures have been translated in whole or in 
v part into Wen-li, Easy Wen-li, Mandarin, and the 
following vernaculars or colloqnials : 

Amoy, Kienning, Shantung Mandarin, 

Canton, Kienyang, Shaowu, 

Foochow, Kinhwa, Soochow, 

Hainan, Ningpo, Swatow, 

Hakka, Shanghai, Taichow, 

Hangchow, Saukiang, Wenchow. 

and for the aborigines in West China, in Chungchia, and 
Hwa Miao. 

Several of these versions are only tentative trans 
lations, and most of them undergo revision from time 
to time. Thus the Bible Societies are not only engaged 
in publishing and distributing the Scriptures, but in 
promoting new translations and securing the improve 
ment of versions already in use. 

The following versions were in the hands of trans 
lators or revisers during 1909, and notes of the prog 
ress that is being made may be of interest to the 
readers of the Year Book : 

The Wen-li Union Version, Old Testament* Trans 
lators : Rev. D. Z. Sheffield, D.D., chairman, Rev. J. 
Wherry, D.D., Rev. LI. Lloyd, Rev. P. J. Maclagan, 
Ph.D., Rev. T. W. Pearce. This company held their 
first session at Tuugchow in the spring, when all but 
Dr. Maclagan were present. The draft translations of 
Job and I. Samuel i-xiv were considered and passed. 

*The translation of these versions is being promoted jointly by the three 
Bible Societies, The British and Foreign Bible Society, the American Bible 
Society and the National Bible Society of Scotland. 



BIBLE TRANSLATION AND REVISION. 379 

The Mandarin Union I ersion, Old Testament* 
Translators: Rev. Channcey Goodrich, D.D. , chairman, 
Rev. F. W. Bailer, Rev. Spencer Lewis, D.D., Rev. C. W. 
Allan, Rev. A. Sy den Strieker. The chairman s report, 
which covers the work of the year, is as follows : 

This company met at Chefoo for five full months (June to 
October). Work commenced at tlie 35th Psalm, and we finished 
the whole Psaltery. The first 34 Psalms, the first draft of which 
was gone over at a previous meeting, were reviewed and har 
monized. 

The last two months were given to the final revision of the 
New Testament, and the revised Testament, together with the 
manuscript of the Psalms, was handed to the Bible Societies hi 
November. 

Taichow Colloquial, Old Testament, Rev. W. D. 
Rudland, who has already translated Genesis to II. 
Chronicles, has prepared and seen through the press 
three more books Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Lamentations. 

Kienning Colloquial, New Testament. The New 
Testament, in preparation for a second edition which 
will shortly be needed, is being revised under the direc 
tion of Rev. Hugh Stowell Phillips. Seven books were 
taken in hand last year, and the revision of some of them 
is already finished. 

Swatow Colloquial. Rev. J. Steele has nearly com 
pleted the final revision of his translation of Exod us. 

Hakka Colloquial, Old Testament. Rev. G. Guss- 
mann has finished his drafts of Leviticus and Judges ; 
II. Samuel and Ruth were done in 1908. These trans 
lations have been gone over very carefully by Rev. D. 
Schaible, who is also engaged in translating I. Samuel. 

G. H. BONDFIELD. 



* Versions whose translation is promoted by the National Bible Society of 
Scotland. 

The versions without a mark are being translated or revised for the 
British and Foreign Bible Society. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 



SPECIAL PHILANTHROPY. 
The Blind. 

SJ /jiYORK among the blind in China can still only be 
vA^v described as in its initial stages, for though one or 
two of the existing institutions can show a record 
of more than twenty years work, the total number of 
such institutions is so small in relation to the vast areas 
in which they are situated, and the number of blind 
persons who have thus far been reached and taught is 
as nothing compared with the thousands who during 
the last twenty years have endured in misery the evils 
of spiritual and physical darkness. 

The systems in use may be classified under two 
heads. 

A. 7 he system invented by W. PI. Murray, of Peking, 
which, reckoning the Chinese sounds as numbering four 
hundred and eight, has provided a number for each of 
those sounds. In this system the books are therefore 
written in embossed dots which represent the numbers 
of the sounds which follow each other in the lines of 
whatever book is being transcribed. Thus 127, 34, 
58, 113, 253, 290 represents in Chinese " ren dj chu, 
hsing ben shan." On this system it is not necessary 
to dwell at length, as probably every reader of the Year 
Book has seen Miss Gordon Cumming s book, "The 
Inventor of the Numeral Type for China." In that book 
everything that can be said in favor of this system is 
said by a practised writer, its one defect being that it 
gives no credit to anyone else for any work for the 
blind and leaves the impression that all the Mandarin- 
speaking blind are dependent on this one system for 
instruction. 



SPKCIAI, PHILANTHROPY. 381 

B. The systems which have been prepared in various 
places and which agree in dividing each Chinese sound 
into an initial and a final and giving to each of these 
initials and finals a separate Braille sign, so that sh ang 
is shang, sh eng is sheng, sh wai is shwai, and so on. 
Systems based on this principle are in use for the man 
darin as well as for the Cantonese and other smaller 
dialects. As yet there is no uniform system in use in 
the Mandarin regions. Mr. Murray s numeral system 
holds the field in North China, while the Crosette system 
of initials and finals is used in the David Hill School 
for the Blind at Hankow, and Miss Garland s system of 
initials and finals in Kansuh and at Changsha. That 
a standard system will be evolved is not beyond the 
region of practical politics, though it is doubtful whether, 
if evolved, it will ever be used with accuracy by the 
blind, for a standard system must inevitably provide 
more sounds than are needed in any one region, and the 
blind will certainly write phonetically even though they 
may read the standard system without trouble. 

The difficulty that was experienced in earlier years 
in securing pupils seems now, in the case of boys, to 
have entirely passed away. But in the case of girls 
there is still great trouble in securing pupils, partly 
because girls who go blind in infancy do not always 
live, and partly because in the case of the poorer classes 
the money that can be earned by a girl beggar is con 
sidered by her family as of more importance than is her 
own personal welfare* 

Little progress has been made in China in the 
matter of providing manual employment for the blind. 
Those familiar with similar work in England and America 
are aware that workshops for the blind rarely succeed 
in paying their way, but are almost always dependent 
on the aid of the charitable for their development ; 
they are also limited to a very few lines of trade. In 
China, despite many efforts made, no satisfactory solu 
tion of this problem has been found, for though various 



382 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

trades have been carefully and thoroughly taught, it has 
been found that unless the institutions provide the 
capital and find customers for the pupils, these pupils 
are soon in financial difficulties. It is a painful fact 
that no boy trained for manual work in the David 
Hill School for the Blind has ever succeeded. In Pe 
king, as in other places, those who have been taught 
trades, such as stereotyping, which are of use to the 
institution, rather than to the public, have proved 
good, reliable workmen, but of course these are under 
constant supervision and have no financial burdens to 
carry. 

On the other hand, it has been the common expe 
rience of all the institutions where the scholars have 
been trained as musicians, teachers or Scripture readers, 
that the demand for their services has been as great as 
the number trained could meet, and that they have 
done excellent work for Christ and His church. 

This brief survey would be incomplete if it did not 
include a reference to the need that exists for an exten 
sion of this work. The present schools are doing an 
invaluable work in the regions where they are situated. 
But there is no doubt that if there were an institution 
for the blind (not in each mission, for surely such work 
need know no denominational limitations, but) in each 
province in this Empire, each would ingather a number 
of pupils from its own immediate neighbourhood and 
would supply blind workers to the churches in its own 
region. 

It is probably w^ell known that an extensive and 
effective campaign is now on foot in the United States 
for the prevention of blindness. It is now recognized 
in the medical profession that Ophthalmia Neonatorum 
is a definite infectious disease of the eyes of the new 
born, and that more than one-fourth of all blindness 
among children is the result of this disease. It is 
also known that there is now a practically infallible 
remedy for this disease, which is so cheap that its use 



SPECIAL PHILANTHROPY. 



383 



would not involve an expenditure of more than five 
cents a head. The question presents itself as to whether 
some method could not be devised by which this 
treatment should be made available for at least every 
child that is born in a Chinese Christian home, and 
thus the risks of blindness reduced. This subject 
might well be conjointly faced by the medical workers 
and the workers among the blind, for it is clear that 
we have a duty not merely to help those who are 
already blind, but also, if possible, to prevent blindness. 
The call to action is the more imperative when one 
realises that two minutes time given to using this 
treatment may prevent seventy or more years of 
blindness. 

Another matter that calls for attention in the future 
is the question whether there are in any part of China 
blind children of Christian parents growing up in 
ignorance. It is to be hoped that missionaries every 
where will .see to it that no child whose future they 
can influence is allowed to pass through life unhappy 
and neglected. A determined effort should be made 
by all workers to place every blind Christian child in 
one or other of the institutions for the blind. The lot 
of one who is both blind and ignorant is too dreadful 
to contemplate. Let us see to it that these specially 
needy ones are all cared for by the church in whose 
care the Master has placed them, 

GEORGE A. CLAYTON. 



Places where there is work for the blind : 



Peking 
Moukden 

Canton 

Hankow 

Kucheng 

Shanghai 

Cliaiigsha 

Kowloon 



W. H. Murray. 

Mrs. Turley, for girls. 

Dr. Mary Niles, for girls. 

David Hill School, for boys. 

C. M. S., for blind men. 

C. M. S., no home, but daily help. 

For men. 

Hildesheiui Mission, for girls. 



384 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

School for the Deaf and Dumb, Chefoo. 

During the year 1909 we had an attendance of 
twenty-six pupils ten girls, one of whom is blind as 
well as deaf, and eighteen boys. Several of the older 
boys secured positions where they are earning their 
own living. One of them is teaching four deaf boys 
at his home in Hangchovv. Another has two little deaf 
pupils in Ichowfu. Both these boys are anxious to 
become teachers of the deaf, and hope to come back to 
continue their studies as soon as we can increase our staff 
of teachers. They will bring their pupils with them. 

In May, Mr. Sen Dzong-shi, who had been in the 
Chefoo school for ten years, was placed in charge of 
the new school for the blind and deaf opened by offi 
cials and gentry at Paotingfu. 

A hearing Korean man and his wife received instruc 
tions in methods of teaching the deaf during the year, 
and they now report a school at Pyengyang with several 
pupils in attendance. Two hearing Chinese women have 
also learned something about teaching the deaf. One 
for the purpose of teaching her deaf daughter at home 
and the other, who is a widow, will remain as a teacher 
in our girls school this coining school year. 

During the last six months seven applications for 
admission to the school have been received through people 
interested in deaf children : A girl from Niugpo, one 
from Suchow, t\vo children from Tengchowfu a boy 
and a girl a girl from Chihli province, and a boy 
from Manchuria and one from Ichowfu. 

Last week we received a visit from H.E. the 
Governor of Shantung. He was much interested in 
what he saw, and he expressed a wish that similar 
schools might be opened soon in other parts of China. 

Mrs. Mills has been in America for the past year 
making an effort to secure a legal standing for the 
school, and an endowment if possible. 

ANITA E. CARTKR. 



SPECIAL PHILANTHROPY. 385 

The "Christian Herald" Orphanage Committee of China. 

Officers (resident at Chinkiang) : Rev. W. C. Longden, chair 
man ; M. J. Walker, Esq., vice-chairman ; Rev. James B. Webster, 
treasurer; Lilburn Merrill, M.D., secretary. 

During 1908 tbe late Dr. Louis Klopsch, of New 
York, requested the Chinkiang Famine Relief Committee 
to .serve as a committee on orphan relief work in China 
under the auspices of the Christian Herald of New York. 
In compliance with the request the committee was re 
organized under the name of the Christian Herald Or 
phanage Committee of China, and at once began to grant 
to mission societies support for destitute children of the 
following classes : a. Children, one or both of whose 
parents are dead and left destitute ; b. Children, one or 
both of whose parents may be living, but who are in a 
really destitute condition. 

On behalf of the Christian Herald the committee is 
now administering the support of more than two thou 
sand destitute children that are being cared for and 
educated in twenty-six orphanages and schools scattered 
over a large area of China. Tliese institutions are con 
ducted by fourteen different missionary societies. Three 
of the orphanages are interdenominational. 

This orphanage population of two thousand children 
represents all degrees of destitution. Some of the or 
phanages have received children who were on the verge 
of dependency, but not in a critical condition. These 
are mostly bright, promising little folk, who are doing 
well in the schools. They were received because they 
presented good educational material. This class, how 
ever, is not in the majority. Several of the orphanages 
have received many of the foulest beggar boys, covered 
with all kinds of loathsome skin diseases. Not all of 
these have proven satisfactory. A few have run away. 
Soine who were too old when received have not adjusted 
themselves to the new environment and were discharged. 
But most of these desperately destitute cases have been 



3 86 



CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 



the source of greatest blessing to the missionaries, who 
have devoted long hours to the application of heart and 
assorted ointments. 

A varying amount of industrial work is being done 
in all of the orphanages. The industries include weav 
ing, tailoring, cooking, rattan-work, shoemaking, brass- 
work, carving, and several forms of thread-work. Sev 
eral of the superintendents have stated that they hope to 
extend the industrial work as rapidly as possible. 

At this time it is too early to formulate any con 
clusions from the work being done. Most of the chil 
dren have been received during the past year, and the 
majority are scarcely assimilated. One fact has been 
clearly apparent from the beginning, namely, that work 
for dependent children in China can, under present con 
ditions, only approximate the modern methods possible 
in other lands. A limited amount of orphanage work 
has been done in China during past years. Some of it 
has been much criticised. A maintenance fund of less 
than fifty Mexican dollars a year, per capita, ought not 
to be expected to provide an equipment and support that 
will compare favorably with the orphanages of Europe 
and America. 

The Christian Herald Orphanage Committee of 
China have granted an initial expense fund of Mex. 
$50.00 per capita and support at U. S. Gold $20.00 per 
capita each year for a period of seven years as fol 
lows:. 



Antung ... 

Changsha 

Chinkiang 

Chinkiang 

Foochow 

Foochow 

Foochow 

Hankow... 

Hinghua 

Hsuchoufu 

Ichang ... 

Kiukiang 



C. I. M., boys and girls 
Baptist, girls and boys... 
Methodist Epis., boys ... 
So. Presbyterian, boys... 
American Board, boys ... 
Industrial Homes, boys and girls 
Methodist Epis., boys ... 
Wesleyan Methodist, boys 
Methodist Epis., boys and girls 
So. Presbyterian, boys ... 
American Episcopal, boys 
Methodist Episcopal, boys 



100 
50 
84 

2 

22 

200 

60 

21 

100 

1 80 

100 

10 



SPECIAL PHILANTHROPY. 



387 



Nanking 

Nanking 

Nanking 

Nanking 

Ngncheng 

Saratsi ... 

Shanghai 

Shanghai 

Sianfu 

Sinchanghsien ... 

Tsaohsien 

Tsingkiangpu ... 

Tsingkiangpu ... 

Yuyao 



Advent, boys 

Methodist Epis., girls ... 

No. Presbyterian, boys and girls 

Friends, girls 

Methodist Epis., boys and girls 

Boys and girls ... 

Door of Hope, girls 

Industrial Orphanage, girls ... 

C. I. M., boys and girls 

C. I. M., girls 

Mennonite, boys and girls 
Free Methodist, boys and girls 
So. Presbyterian, boys... 
No. Presbyterian, boys 



150 
ii 

20 

20 

60 

100 

100 

60 

IOO 

31 

IOO 

60 

60 

75 



Total i ,976 



LILBURN MERRILL, M.D. 



Other Orphanages. 



Mary R. Crook Orphanage for Girls. 
Victoria Home and Orphanage.. 
Orphan Home, 132 orphans 
Rebecca McCatoe orphanage 
Jennie Ford Orphanage. 17 

Orphanage for Girls 

Orphanage for Girls Ranges 

Orphanage for Boys Hauges 

Orphanage for Girls Am. Advent 



M.H.M. (Women s B.) 

C. M. S 

Scand. M. All 

M. K. M 

C. M. M 

A. C. M 



Foochow. 
Kowloon. 
Saratsi, Shansi. 
Ilinghua. 
Chengtu, Sze. 
Shanghai. 
Tszho, Hupeh. 
Faucheng,Hup. 
Nanking. 



Besides these, many ordinary 
enroll orphans as pupils. 



mission schools also 



388 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Leprosy in China* 

Of all diseases that afflict humanity leprosy is un 
doubtedly the most loathsome and hideous as well as 
the most ancieut and persistent. 

There are evidences that the east gave birth to this 
disease. Certainly for very many hundreds of years 
China has had it within and around her borders. During 
all this time so called specifics have in turn been intro 
duced in many places, tried and discarded. All attempts 
to treat the disease successfully have, even up to this 
time, proved entirely futile. 

Sir Patrick Manson, our highest authority in trop 
ical medicine, himself for years a resident in China, has 
stated that there are probably more lepers in this country 
than in any other. This statement has recently been 
disputed, but on what authority it is difficult to as 
certain. Before another edition of this Year Book is 
published it is hoped by a series of pertinent ques 
tions, addressed to foreign residents in all parts of this 
Empire, to ascertain reliable facts on this interesting 
point. 

China s attitude to the question of leprosy has, for 
the most part, been that of indifference. That " pity for 
others" so often enjoined by her sages seems sadly 
a wanting in her treatment of the sick and diseased who 
abound throughout the land. There would seem to be 
special "foci" for this disease. Thus in the north it 
is rarely met with. In the west it is also said to be 
seldom seen. The streets of any of the cities in Central 
China testify to its prevalence there. It is on the 
southern coast line, however, that the disease abounds. 
Here and there may be found instances where the 
officials have been doling out a pitiful allowance to the 
poor sufferers residing in the leper villages. Not till 
the constraining love of Christ moved the Christian 
churches of the homelands to succour the leper was any 
really effective work done among this needy class of 



SPECIAL PHILANTHROPY. 389 

sufferers. Now quite a number of missionary societies 
have leper homes or asylums, or encourage their staff 
to minister to the spiritual welfare of the lepers in the 
villages. In the homes and asylums the leper is cared 
for, fed and clothed. When death comes to ease him of 
his distress he is decently buried. 

At Pakhoi, Foochow, Hangchow, Hokchiang and 
elsewhere, the C. M. S. is successfully engaged in this 
merciful work. At Tungkun the Rhenish Mission has 
recently established a leper asylum. At Wuchow there 
is also a small leper home under Christian supervision. 
Lepers are particularly numerous around Canton, where 
a good work has been going on for many years by the 
Christian church. The only leper home in the interior 
of China is at Siaokan, near Hankow. Here the L. M. S. 
has been doing effective work for fifteen years. The 
aim of those in charge is to have such a model asylum 
as shall ultimately lead to imitation by the Chinese 
themselves. 

So far only the fringe of the leper crowd has been 
touched. There is need for many another asylum and 
many more workers. It will be a glad day when the 
Chinese government is persuaded to take in hand the 
question of the prevention of leprosy. She might well 
follow the example of the Japanese government in this 
matter. There are many signs of humanitarian progress 
in that country. By a special law the whole country 
has been divided into six districts, in each of which the 
local government is to establish an asylum for the 
shelter and relief of the wandering leper. Doctors are 
to intimate all cases brought to their notice to the 
authorities, while houses in which leprosy has occurred 
are to be thoroughly disinfected. The cost is to be met 
jointly by the national treasury and the district govern 
ments. A large and difficult problem confronts the 
executive, for the government of Japan has official 
records of some 30,000 families in which the disease is 
known to exist. 



39 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

It will greatly simplify any enquiry and any sub 
sequent legislation in China, or any otlier country on 
this question to know that the summing up of the recent 
international conference on leprosy at Bergen, and later 
by the British and Colonial delegates at that conference, 
shows that leprosy is undoubtedly spread by direct and 
indirect contagion from persons suffering from the 
disease. Indirect contagion may be carried by fleas, 
bugs, lice, the itch parasite, etc. Leprosy has been 
proved to be most prevalent under conditions of personal 
and domestic uncleanliness and overcrowding, especially 
where there is close and protracted association between 
the leprous and non-leprous. Moreover, the danger 
from infection from leprous persons is greater when 
there is discharge from mucous membranes or from 
ulcerated surfaces. The most important administrative 
measure is to separate the leprous from the non-leprous 
by vSegregation in settlements or asylums under capable 
management. This was the method adopted during the 
middle ages in England, and the freedom from leprosy in 
that and other lands to-day is testimony to its efficiency. 
Certainly segregation offers the most satisfactory means 
of mitigating the sufferings of the leper and of assisting 
in his partial recovery. At the same time it should 
produce a reduction and ultimate extinction of the 
disease from even such a pestilence-stricken district as 
southern China. 

Perhaps the most satisfactory conclusion of recent 
years is the fact that "the clinical study of leprosy 
induces the belief that it is not incurable." The 
researches being made by the scientific world should 
surely encourage every worker for the good of China 
and should lead to renewed endeavour for the many 
lepers in this land, who may truly be described as 
" dwelling outside the camp." 

HENRY FOWUER. 



SPECIAL PHILANTHROPY. 3QI 

The John G. Kerr Refuge for Insane. 

Many who read this article will remember with 
great respect the name of Dr. J. G. Kerr, who spent the 
best of his life in Canton as a medical missionary. 

Toward the end it was given to him to carry out his 
long cherished plan of opening a hospital for Chinese in 
sane. He died in 1901, but before his death he gave his 
beloved hospital, the child of his old age, into the hands 
of the present superintendent, the writer of this article. 

History, In 1892 Dr. Kerr procured with his own 
money a piece of land of about four acres located direct 
ly across the river from the foreign concession. Recent 
ly two acres more have been procured. In 1898 Dr. 
Kerr was able, with funds handed him by a friend, to 
put up two buildings. For several years none but 
private patients were brought for treatment. In 1904 
cases began to come from the officials. The police 
brought the insane from the streets of Canton, and the 
district magistrate sent the same class of patients deported 
to Canton from Hongkong. The latter, after prelimi 
nary confinement in the government asylum, are brought 
up in groups to Canton and delivered over to the 
Chinese official who sends them to this hospital for 
treatment. Formerly these patients, if dangerous, were 
locked up in the prison along with the criminals. If 
not troublesome, they were set free in the streets of this 
great city to beg or steal, live or die, unless happily 
friends appeared to claim them. The consideration with 
which they are now treated by the officials shows that 
the Chinese are ready to help their own people when 
there is a way to do so. The admirably organized police 
department of Canton also, zealous in its desire to clear 
the streets of insane and otherwise objectionable person 
ages, is glad to make use of this hospital for treatment 
of the former. 

Beside the many private cases from Canton and other 
parts of the province, patients have been received from 



392 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Amoy, Foochow, Shanghai, Chinkiang and Tientsin. 
Two cases were received last year also from Weihaiwei, 
sent down by the government of that little colony. We 
contend that every province should have its own institu 
tion of this kind. We are glad to know that Dr. Mul- 
lowney, of the Methodist Mission in Peking, is planning 
to open a work for insane as soon as funds allow. Any 
help that can be given him will, we are sure, be grate 
fully received by him. Meantime this remains the only 
hospital* for insane in the Empire until a scheme, at 
present put before the local government by certain of 
the gentry, matures. 

Last year all the five buildings were full, and two 
matsheds had to be erected to take in- the overflow, for 
which very harmless patients were selected. The officials 
were informed that we must refuse to receive patients, 
excepting as some should go away, thus leaving room. 
We felt we must, if possible, take in the family cases, 
since care of the insane in the homes is difficult and 
often dangerous, usually unwise and sometimes cruel. 
The officials cases on the other hand could, if necessary, 
be detained temporarily in the prisons. Our U. S. Consul 
applied to the Viceroy for help toward erecting a new 
building. As a result the hospital received a grant of 
$1,000 from the provincial treasury. The Police Depart 
ment also made a grant of $4,200 for the same purpose. 
Buildings for insane people should be fire proof and 
strong. And we find we still lack several thousand 
dollars before we can begin to build. Meantime the 
rooms are crowded and many patients are sleeping 
in matsheds, on the verandah and in the bath rooms. 
And new ones are pressing for admittance. 

Since the opening in 1898 there have been admitted 
1,480 patients. At present there are 250 and more. 
Last year 239 entered, 196 were discharged. Of the 
latter, 97 went away well, being 40^ per cent, of 

* Dr. Wilkinson, of Soochow, has a small ward for the insane in his hos 
pital. F;D. 



SPECIAL PHILANTHROPY. 393 

the number admitted ; 49 per cent, of the number dis 
charged. 

The medical staff consists of Dr. J. A. Hofmann 
and the writer. 

Support. The land and permanent buildings were 
given almost entirely by foreign Christians. The phy 
sicians salaries are provided for in the same way. The 
running expenses are just met by the income from the 
patients. The room-rent paid by the well-to-do is an 
important item. On the other hand there is always a 
considerable number without friends, who are therefore 
dependent upon the hospital. 

Aim. The work was begun and has been carried 
on as a part of the love-born work of God for man, and 
we thank and praise the Master for giving us this part 
in His service for the Chinese people. 

Needs. The buildings are full and overflowing. 
To be able to take in the patients who are continually 
knocking at the door for treatment, we shall have to 
turn to the philanthropic sons of China and to her 
foreign friends residing within her boundaries, as little 
more can be looked for from America at this late day. 
We have much satisfaction in stating that certain Chi 
nese gentlemen have expressed their willingness to try 
to raise a portion of the above amount locally. It is 
very hard to turn away these poor people. Yet we 
have had to refuse a considerable number already both 
from this province and from other provinces. 

To build additional, needed houses for patients ; fill 
in low, unhealthy land ; provide good, clean water from 
the river ; repair the older buildings ; provide proper 
quarters for the attendants ; erect new compound walls ; 
replace the present poor entrance by one worthy of the 
institution ; make other needed improvements and re 
pairs, a sum ot $30,000 is required. 

CHAS. C. S 



CHAPTER XXV, 



INDUSTRIAL WORK. 

fROFESSOR BURTON, of Chicago University, gave 
the results of his careful, sympathetic, but judi 
cious study of the educational problems of China 
in an important paper read before the Conference of 
Foreign Mission Boards in January, 1910 The central 
thought of this authoritative deliverance is in the 
following : 

" I am persuaded that as conditions are in the Chinese 
Empire to-day, we cannot as members of a Christian nation 
limit our efforts either to the development of a Christian com 
munity or to the permeation of the Confucian community 
with Christian ideals, but must accept the far larger task of 
seeking to promote the welfare of that nation in practically 
every phase of its life moral, religious, social, economic, politi 
cal It is the condition of China at this great moment in 

her history that seems to me to demand the policy which I am 

advocating China confronts to-day one of the greatest 

tasks that any nation ever faced. This is nothing less than the 
creation of a new civilization." 

The writer prepared the paper upon Industrial 
Education for the China Centenary Conference, which 
was published in the Records of that body (pp. 81-91). 
The three years elapsed since that investigation have 
not seen such striking developments in this direction 
as to put the findings of 1907 far out of date. The 
editor has requested the writer to condense the sub 
stance of that paper for the Year Book. This is done 
without quotation marks with such additions or sub 
tractions as seem suitable. 

WHAT HAS BEEN DONE? 

Early in 1907 questions were sent to one hundred 
and two principals of mission schools. These formed by 
no means an exhaustive list, but they were chosen from 



INDUSTRIAL WORK. 395 

all parts of China, and nearly all missionary societies, 
with a view to making the symposium as representative 
as possible. The one hundred and two requests brought 
sixty responses. It is fair to assume that very few of the 
forty-two who made no reply have any industrial work 
in their schools. A number who responded did so only to 
say that they had no experience nor opinions to express. 
Of these sixty, forty represented schools for boys and 
twenty, schools for girls. Of the forty principals of boys 
schools sixteen or fort} 7 per cent, had industries of some 
kind in their schools and seven had given the subject 
very especial attention. Of the 1 * twenty in charge of 
girls schools nine had done nothing, five had the girls 
do their own housekeeping, generally with plain sewing 
also, and six had a department of some industry requir 
ing training, generally drawn-work, lace-embroidery, or 
weaving. So that fifty-five per cent, of the schools for 
girls which reported, and forty per cent, of the schools 
for boys, have industrial employment for their pupils. 
Among the industries taught in the sixteen schools for 
boys may be noted: printing, five; carpentry, four; 
household work, five ; weaving, three ; shoe-making, two; 
farming or gardening, two ; masonry, one ; milling, one. 
Often several lines are carried on in the same school. 
But it must not be assumed that this average would hold 
throughout all the mission schools of the empire, for the 
unresponding forty per cent, must be counted as having 
little or nothing to report. It may be reasonably safe, 
however, to estimate that some kind of industrial work 
is being carried on say in twenty per cent, of the schools 
for boys, and, including housework and plain sewing, in 
fully forty per cent, of the schools for girls. 

The industries taught in industrial schools seem to 
have in the main two objects. First, in order to give 
the pupil a means of earning a living after leaving 
school. Second, in order to help the pupil to support 
himself while in school. There is a very marked differ 
ence between education in industries and education with 



396 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

industries as an adjunct. The first is a trades school, 
where book education is given chiefly during the com 
paratively brief hours of rest from manual labor. The 
second is a school whose first aim is to give a liberal 
education, in which manual labor is introduced either 
for economical or ethical purposes. Among Protestant 
missions the trades school type seems to be confined 
almost wholly to schools for girls and women. These 
have been most conspicuously successful in Chefoo, 
Soochow, and Foochow, following the line of drawn- 
work, laces, and hand si Ik- weaving. In Swatow the work 
has become a commercial enterprise, carried on almost 
entirely by the Chinese themselves. In all these places it 
has opened the way for Chinese women and girls in a 
suitable manner to earn a living or to supplement the 
earnings of the men of the family. The blessings wrought 
by such industrial education, when wisely and skilfully 
directed, are simply incalculable. It is found in the great 
Chefoo enterprise that this kind of mission work can be 
carried on without drawing upon any missionary funds 
whatever ; the support of all the missionaries and cost of 
buildings being provided by the legitimate profits of the 
business. It would seem as though all that is necessary 
for the indefinite expansion of work of this kind is the 
multiplication of such personalities as Mr and Mrs. 
James McMullan. We admit that this condition is one 
not easy to overcome, but is it impossible ? These 
pioneers have blazed the way ; what missionary societies 
will follow in the comparatively easy path made ^mooth 
by their experience and success ? 

The Chinese government has started trades schools 
in a number of places. The writer has not had an 
opportunity to make a thorough study of these institu 
tions, but so far as he can learn they have been expen 
sive experiments, as all Chinese government enterprises 
are. The one in Foochow is said to have cost about 
one thousand dollars a month the first year, but later 
the losses have been reduced by more careful manage- 



INDUSTRIAL WORK. 397 

ment. The fact that such schools are being started by 
the Chinese themselves shows clearly the need and the 
opportunity. In these schools boys are taught modern 
trades in wood, iron, leather, rattan, etc. They have 
night classes to teach primary education. What limit 
less possibilities for molding the New China are here 
offered to the Christian nations ! One chief difficulty 
is in securing competent Chinese assistants. Last year 
a skilled weaver was sent by the Hinghwa Christian 
Herald Orphanage to Japan to learn the use of modern 
hand looms and to do fine figured weaving. Upon his 
return the requests for his teaching others outside the 
orphanage were so urgent that a dozen young men have 
been accepted as weaving pupils to begin this autnmn 
at a rate of tuition that reimburses the orphanage for 
the initial outlay in sending the workman to Japan. 

This kind of mission work commends itself to the 
leaders of the New China. It breaks down prejudice. 
It represents the Carpenter of Nazareth and the tent- 
maker of Tarsus. No other country now offers to this 
type of missionary effort anything like the opportunity 
that is presented in China at this time. The writer is 
more than ever convinced that the suggestion made to 
the Centenary Conference still holds that the prime 
necessity for the carrying on of this important branch 
of Christian philanthropy in China now is the immediate 
establishment of a well-equipped central school for 
training Chinese workmen to become teachers or master 
workmen in various mission trades schools, or industrial 
departments of boarding-schools. In spite of the ap 
parently successful instance above mentioned, the diffi 
culties and dangers of sending such men to Japan for 
training are very great, and sending to Europe or 
America is even more impracticable. The missionary 
statesman who leads this nation out from its present 
industrial thraldom will be the Moses of Modern China. 
He will become her lawgiver and her prophet as well. 

WILLIAM N. BRKWSTRR. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 



PROGRESS OF OPIUM REFORM. 

1TN May, 1906, Dr. H. C. DuBose, of Soochow, the pres- 
X ident of the Anti-Opium league, had an interview 

with the Governor-General of the river provinces, 
H. B. Chou Fu, and was told that, if a memorial signed 
by missionaries of all nationalities were sent to him, 
he would forward it to the Throne. Ruled sheets were 
sent to 450 cities, and the returns gave 1,333 signatures, 
which were bound in a volume covered with yellow 
silk and sent to Nanking, reaching there August iQth, 
whence they were forwarded to Peking. Dr. A. H. 
Smith says the result was the decree of September 2oth. 

On the 20th of September, 1906, the Chinese 
government issued an imperial edict containing eleven 
recommendations to the Throne for the speedy sup 
pression of the opium habit. This was the beginning 
of the present campaign against opium. A timely visit 
of Mr. J. G. Alexander, of England, secretary of the 
Society for the Suppression of the Opium Trade, did 
much to encourage the reform. 

On the 8th of January, 1907, the Chinese govern 
ment ordered the viceroys to reduce the poppy growing 
area by half by the spring of 1908. On May nth, all 
opium dens in Foochow were closed, and on May i6th 
the opium dens in Peking were also closed, but it 
was not until the 22nd of June that the opium dens 
of Shanghai native city were closed. On June 25th 
another imperial edict was issued prohibiting opium 
smoking and planting. (See Chinese Recorder, January, 
1908, pages 31-32.) 

After this various other large cities followed suit 
with the closing of their opium dens, but it was not 
until March 2Oth, 1908, that Shanghai foreign settle- 



PROGRESS OF OPIUM REFORM. 399 

ment, after representations from the missionary body, 
decided to cancel one-fourth of the opium den licenses 
in the settlement at the expiration of the first half 
of 1908, and so onwards cancelling one-fourth each 
half year until all were finally extinguished. The 
difficulties which some foretold in connection with this 
operation proved to be entirely imaginary, and now 
in the foreign settlement all dens are closed. 

The Chinese Recorder of March, 1908, published 
the report of an extensive enquiry from missionaries 
throughout the empire regarding the progress of the 
prohibition of opium in China. The general result 
showed that satisfactory progress was being made. 

On March 22ud, 1908, the Throne again renewed 
its efforts by issuing a decree commanding effective 
measures to reduce opium plantation experimentally 
for three years and calling for more stringent measures 
on the part of the officials. 

This decree was shortly followed by another even 
more stringent, great efforts being made to compel 
officials to break off the habit. In a number of cities 
public burning of opium pipes took place. Missionaries 
everywhere continued to back up the movement against 
opium. The committee of the Hupeh Missionary 
Association addressed a memorial to the viceroy at 
Wuchang regarding the backward condition of the 
opium reform in that province. 

The next important stage in the campaign was 
reached when the International Opium Commission 
convened in Shanghai in February 1-17, 1909, with 
Bishop Brent of the Philippines in the chair. The follow 
ing nations participated : 

United vStates of America. Japan. 

Austro-Hungary. Netherlands. 

China. Persia. 

France. Portugal. 

Germany. Russia. 

Great Britain. Siam. 
Italy. 



400 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

The Chinese delegate, Tong Kai-son, a graduate 
of- Yale, made the best speech of the conference. 

The resolutions adopted are as follows : 
Be it resolved, 

1. That the International Opium Commission recognises 
the unswerving sincerity of the government of China in their 
efforts to eradicate the production and consumption of opium 
throughout the Empire ; the increasing body of public opinion 
among their own subjects by which these efforts are being 
supported ; and the real, though unequal, progress already made 
in a task which is one of the greatest magnitude. 

2. That in view of the action taken by the government 
of China in suppressing the practice of opium smoking, and 
by other governments to the same end, the International Opium 
Commission recommends that each delegation concerned move 
its own government to take measures for the gradual suppression 
of the practice of opium smoking in its own territories and 
possessions, with due regard to the varying circumstances of each 
country concerned. 

3. That the International Opium Commission finds that 
the use of opium in any form otherwise than for medical 
purposes is held by almost every participating country to be 
a matter for prohibition or for careful regulation, and that 
each country in the administration of its system of regulation 
purports to be aiming, as opportunity offers, at progressively 
increasing stringency. in recording these conclusions the 
International Opium Commission recognises the wide variations 
between the conditions prevailing in the different countries, but 
it would urge on the attention of the governments concerned the 
desirability of a re-examination of their systems of regulation 
in the light of the experience of other countries dealing with the 
same problem. 

4. That the International Opium Commission finds that 
each Government represented has strict laws which are aimed 
directly or indirectly to prevent the smuggling of opiun, its 
alkaloids, derivatives and preparations, into their respective 
territories ; in the judgment of the International Opium Com 
mission it is also the duty of all countries to adopt reasonable 
measures to prevent at ports of departure the shipment of opium, 
its alkaloids, derivatives and preparations, to any country which 
prohibits the entry of any opium, its alkaloids, derivatives and 
preparations. 

5. That the International Opium Commission finds that 
the unrestricted manufacture, sale and distribution of morphine 
already constitute a grave danger, and that the morphine habit 
shows signs of spreading. The International Opium Commission, 



PROGRESS OF OPIUM REFORM. 4OI 

therefore, desires to urge strongly on all governments that 
it is highly important that drastic measures should be taken 
by each government in its own territories and possessions to 
control the manufacture, sale and distribution of this drug, 
and also of such other derivatives of opium as may appear 
on scientific enquiry to be liable to similar abuse and productive of 
like ill effects. 

6. That as the International Opium Commission is not 
constituted in such a manner as to permit the investigation from 
a scientific point of view of anti-opium remedies and of the 
properties and effects of opium and its products, but deems 
such investigation to be of the highest importance, the Interna 
tional Opium Commission desires that each delegation shall 
recommend this branch of the subject to its own government for 
such action as that government may think necessary. 

7. That the International Opium Commission strongly urges 
all governments possessing concessions or settlements in China, 
which have not yet taken effective action toward the closing of 
opium divans in the said concessions and settlements, to take 
steps to that end, as soon as they may deem it possible, on the 
lines already adopted by several governments. 

8. That the International Opium Commission recommends 
strongly that each delegation move its government to enter into 
negotiations with the Chinese government with a view to effect 
ive and prompt measures being taken in the various foreign 
concessions and settlements in China for the prohibition of the 
trade and manufacture of such anti-opium remedies as contain 
opium or its derivatives. 

9. That the International Opium Commission recommends 
that each delegation move its government to apply its pharmacy 
laws to its subjects in the Consular districts, concessions and 
settlements in China. 

Ill a report to Peking in March 1909, Viceroy Tuan 
Fang states that officials and people, to the number of 
3,000,000, have given up the opium habit since the 
issue of the anti-opium decrees, and that compared with 
three years ago the opium smokers are now sixty-five 
per cent. less. The cultivation of the poppy and the 
revenue from opium has been decreased by half. He 
proposed that the government should establish an opium 
monopoly, but this has not been approved. 

The government, after considerable vacillation, has 
now made up its mind to utterly prohibit the planting of 
the poppy with nearly complete success. The people 



402 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

in opium-planting provinces are feeling the economic 
disturbance caused by this, and the price of foreign 
opium has gone up to over treble the former price. 
Hongkong has been ordered by the government to close 
its opium dens, but negotiations are still proceeding. 
The British government on its part has, from time to 
time, made official investigations as to the good faith of 
the Chinese government in the matter of opium pro 
hibition, and is loyally carrying out its agreement about 
the annual decrease from India, although it is to be 
feared that great quantities of opium are shipped from 
India to ports outside of China, from which it is re- 
exported again to China. 

The Anti-Opium Society has met with a great loss 
by the death of Dr. DuBose, its first and only president, 
on March 22nd. A reconstruction of the society in China, 
with a view to broaden its basis, is now under discussion. 

Dr. Arthur H. Smith on pages 11-12 of this Year 
Book gives his mature opinion of the present position of 
the opium reform, and to this we refer our readers. 



CHAPTER XXVIL 



YOUNG MEN S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION. 
I. IN CHINA (from Report). 

(TJTHE past year (1909) has proven to be by far the 
vJx best year in the history of the Young Men s 
Christian Associations of China and Korea. Ad 
vance has been made in every field and in every phase 
of the association s activities. The membership, con 
tributions toward current expenses and equipment, the 
attendance at religious meetings, the enrollment at Bible 
classes, the subscriptions to periodicals, the sales of 
literature, the number of men joining the church as a 
result of the association s work, all show a substantial 
increase. 

Last year s report mentioned as the greatest prob 
lem which faced the movement the securing of a trained 
secretarial force from the young men of the Orient. It 
is most gratifying to note therefore that one of the most 
striking advances of the present year has been the addi 
tions to the secretaryship from Chinese young men of 
education and standing. The willingness of such men 
at large personal sacrifice is one of the surest tests of the 
depth of the impression which the association is making 
and the best guarantee of its becoming thoroughly 
orientalized. In its foreign staff also the Association has 
been much strengthened. 

The most notable progress of the year has unques 
tionably been in the religious work. This has been 
true in all parts of the field, and not only in the religious 
meetings but in the Bible classes and the personal deal 
ing with men. 

The Shanghai association surpassed the total at 
tendance of 10,000 at the religious meetings during 



404 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

twelve months of 1908 within the first three months of 
1909, and revealed the remarkable total of nearly 30,000 
for the year. In this association meetings definitely 
planned to lead men to a decision have been held during 
the year. At one meeting thirty-five men and at another 
fifty-five men signed cards indicating their decision to 
become Christians. In the Seoul association a total 
attendance of over eighteen thousand is recorded at 46 
religious meetings. On the day of prayer for students 
there were over three thousand in attendance ; it being 
necessary to hold four different meetings for them all 
to find a seat in the auditorium. The year has marked 
an increase in the meetings of the Hongkong associa 
tion of 100 per cent. At Tientsin fifteen men have been 
baptised as a result of the association influence, and 
others have applied for admission to the local churches. 
In the same centre there are marked evidences on every 
hand of a changed attitude toward Christianity. One 
of the notable events indicating this change was the 
meeting conducted by Dr. Chapman and Mr. Alexander at 
the city branch. It was an audience not usually 
accessible to Christian influence, and one with great 
possibilities. During the two and a half hours that the 
meeting lasted there was closest attention. After re 
peated tests and full explanation seventy men publicly 
expressed their desire to know Jesus Christ. Mr. Chang 
Po-ling, who was present, w r ell prophesied: "This is 
but the beginning. Great times are ahead of us." 
A series of evangelistic meetings have just been con 
ducted by the Hongkong and Canton associations with 
deepening interest and growing attendance ; over twelve 
hundred being present at the closing meeting. 

The policy in Bible study, adopted as a result of 
the visit of Mr. Clayton S. Cooper, has included 

(1) Organization into smaller groups. 

(2) A weekly normal class for group leaders. 
3) A yearly Bible institute. 

4) Popular lectures on Bible study. 



YOUNG MEN S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION. 405 

One result is a four-fold increase in enrollment 
throughout the entire field. The Peking- Student Associa 
tions show an enrollment of 627, divided into. sixty-seven 
groups. Of these men 400 are reported as studying 
their Bibles daily, and three weekly normal classes are 
held for the group leaders of the city. A Bible institute, 
the first to be conducted in Peking, was held during the 
autumn with six addresses on the importance of Bible 
study. The Bible institute has been a feature of the 
work of the Tientsin association for the past seven 
years, but the institute of this year has marked a 
decided advance over those of previous years. The 
attendance was 1,500, mostly of the student class. Many 
were enrolled during the meetings and classes have been 
started in the association building, in chapels through 
out the city, in the homes of the secretaries and as 
sociation teachers. At a meeting conducted by Mr. 
Geo. T. B. Davis seventy men joined the Pocket Testa 
ment League, thus signifying their determination to 
make it the rule of their lives to carry a New Testament 
with them constantly and to read at least one chapter 
of the Bible daily. Besides the students in day and 
evening classes the Seoul association has 350 different 
men enrolled in 21 classes. Last year s enrollment of 
357 in the Shanghai association has increased to 600, 
nearly 500 of whom are not yet Christians. 

In distant Cheutu among the non-Christian stu 
dents the Bible class is found to be one of the most 
practical evangelistic agencies. At the beginning of one 
of the classes only one student gave an affirmative reply 
to the question, <4 Do you believe in a God ?" and yet 
the students attended with remarkable regularity, spent 
no little time in preparation of the lessons and a 
changed attitude was soon apparent. 

This growing interest in some quarters is being 
manifested among men of high standing in the Chinese 
community. In a city where the association has been 
established for several years and has consequently had 



406 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

time to make its influence felt, one of the secretaries 
reports as follows : 

" There are man)* evidences of a deepening interest 
in Christianity on the part of leaders here such as we 
have never seen. The president of one government 
institution is a member of a Bible class; the vice-pres 
ident of another important institution confesses that his 
becoming a Christian is inevitable ; an aged and very 
influential member of the literati, through the influence 
of his son, recently converted in the association, has 
become an inquirer and is attending the association 
meetings ; the head of a large business concern, a man 
of official rank as well as wealth, is earnestly inquir 
ing of a member of our Board of Directors as to Chris 
tianity, spending nearly all of last Sunday on the 
question. Another gentleman of very high standing, 
a Chinese scholar and writer on Confucianism, has 
recently been attending our meetings, and in a number 
of interviews has shown a sympathetic interest in Chris 
tianity." 

The association is having to cope with a most 
vigorous anti-Christian propaganda, and the difficulties 
which young men experience in accepting Christianity 
in the turmoil of life in the Far East at the present 
time, is considerable. A recent investigation secured 
the following as the essence of answers to the question, 
" What constitute the five chief obstacles in the way of 
a Chinese young man becoming a Christian ?" Opposi 
tion in the home, by parents and wives, who l< think 
that in giving up ancestor worship (the centre of home 
life in China) their dead ancestors will be angry with 
them and will make a curse upon them." The children s 
view point is thus given by another: "We are under 
the influence and control of our parents and guardians, 
disobedience to whose instructions will be unfilial, and 
the greatest of crimes that can ever be committed by a 
Chinese young man." It is far different to mere 
moral cowardice." 



YOUNG MEN S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION. 407 

"Confucius," writes one, "has long been teaching 
us to be in love with one another, and Christianity has 
the same object. Why is it necessary to introduce a 
foreign religion to take place of our own ? " " Religion," 
says another, " is the same in every country ; the forms 
alone vary in different parts of the world. China s 
forms are best suited to her customs." And another, 
"we have our religion ; why do we want to adopt a 
foreign one, which opposes our customs in every way? " 
"Many men," writes still another, "connect Christian 
ity with the foreigner and the missionary with his 
foreign government ; they fail to recognize that the 
Protestant missionaries are working independently of the 
ministers at Peking and the Consuls sent over to China 
to protect them." 

Materialism, rationalism, scepticism and often atheism 
are given as a chief hindrance. The seed brought 
in from Japan and scattered promiscuously has already 
taken root. 

The hongs, banks, and other business houses of 
such ports as Shanghai, Tientsin, and Hongkong are 
filled with Chinese young men but partially prepared 
for the duties which they attempt to perform. The 
pressure of poverty often forcing mere lads to seek 
employment ; the lack of educational facilities and the 
displacing of China s old system of commerce by modern 
business methods have been contributory causes to this 
state of affairs. The result is not only a serious handi 
cap for life to the young men themselves but an enor 
mous economic waste to society. The evening classes 
of the Association, therefore, to the extent that they 
afford a remedy for this deficiency, become a matter of 
importance to the community. 

Fortunately the problem is simplified by the acute- 
ness with which the young men themselves feel their 
lack and the eager diligence with which they pursue 
their studies when an opportunity is afforded them to 
learn. The crowded classes of the evening schools of 



408 CHINA MISSION YAR BOOK. 

the Associations are proof of this desire on the part of 
the young men to use their leisure hours for increasing 
their working efficiency. The gain in attendance upon the 
educational classes at Foochow over the preceding year 
is one hundred and fifty per cent. The attendance is 
only limited here and in Peking by the size of the 
Association buildings. At Seoul, although the new 
building has been occupied but a year, some of the 
educational classes have waiting lists. As a rule the 
longer the hours the more popular the classes. 

In Korea industrial subjects are being taught with 
marked success. The classes in the Seoul Association 
in wood and iron work, although conducted without 
adequate equipment, have proven that a wide field 
exists for this kind of effort. 

The experience of the year has brought into clearer 
relief the importance and hopefulness of the evening 
school as a field for religious work. In one of the 
Associations a series of weekly lectures on religion and 
ethics was instituted with the purpose of giving ex 
planation of the leading teachings of Christianity. At 
the same time a Bible class was organized, attendance 
upon which was purely voluntary. Both features proved 
a decided success. The number of Bible classes 
increased to four, and the attendance, although the 
membership was non-Christian, averaged about 45 per 
cent, of the total attendance at the evening school. 
At the close of the first term a group of ten and of 
the second of twenty men agreed to meet regularly for 
serious study of Christianity with a view to its personal 
acceptance. 

So great is the demand for education the Association 
does not find it feasible to confine its educational work 
to evening classes. The demand that the rooms used 
by the students at night should be opened for day 
classes continues as insistent as ever. The Association 
building thus becomes a hive of busy industry from nine 
in the morning until ten at night. 



YOUNG MEN S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION, 409 

One of the best indications of the hold which the 
Association is getting upon the communities of the Far 
East, in which it is established, is their willingness to 
subscribe to this work. Exclusive of the salaries of the 
foreign secretaries the current expenses of these Associa 
tions are raised locally. Their yearly budgets are from 
six to thirty-seven thousand dollars", raised largely by 
tuition fees from day and evening classes, membership 
dues, and subscriptions. In addition to raising their 
regular budgets three Associations have, during the year, 
conducted financial campaigns which call for special 
comment. 

Through the invitation of Prince Ito, one of the 
secretaries in Seoul made a visit to Japan, where through 
the personal cooperation of Baron Shibusawa, he raised 
from Japanese friends over Yen 11,000 toward the en 
dowment fund of the Seoul Association. The fact that 
this money was given for work in a distant city, to be 
used by the men of another race, and that it came 
almost altogether from non-Christian sources renders the 
canvass remarkable. It is a testimony not only to the 
interest of prominent Japanese in the Association, but is 
indicative of its possible power as a harmonizing force. 

During May the directors of the Shanghai Associa 
tion learned that the lot in the rear of the present 
property on Szechuen Road was to be placed on the 
market. If sold to others, the possibility of enlarging 
the present building, which is already crowded and of 
meeting the urgent demand for a bo} r s department, 
might be permanent!}- lost. Although the canvass for 
the lot on which the building is placed had been closed 
but a few months before and financial conditions in 
Shanghai were worse than for years, the faith and 
enthusiasm of the leaders demanded an appeal to the 
city to save the lot for the extension of the Association s 
equipment. It was also decided to include in the amount 
asked for the cost of an athletic field, a total of Taels 
65,000. Within twenty-one days the amount had beeii 



410 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

subscribed. The canvass was carried on very largely 
by the Chinese secretaries and a few Chinese members 
and the subscriptions were very largely from Chinese 
sources. One notable circumstance was the unanimous 
vote of the Municipal Council to give Taels 5,000 to\vard 
the fund. 

In August the Board of Directors of the Tientsin 
Association, secured an option on a most desirable lot 
for Tls. 31,500. The limit of this option made a short 
term canvass necessary. This was inaugurated October 
23rd. In a canvass of seven weeks this amount was 
pledged and paid in and the purchase completed, and in 
addition sufficient pledged to meet the current expenses 
for the year. Tls. 36,700 was pledged by 504 persons. 
The first pledge was for Tls. 20,000, given by Mr. Ou 
Yang, a prominent Chinese business man of the city 
previously unknown to the Association workers. This 
was paid in before the close of the canvass ; 95 per cent, 
of the entire amount secured came from Chinese sources, 
and a largely majority of the pledges were secured 
through the efforts of members of the Association. 
92 per cent, of the contributions were paid in either 
before the close of the canvass or within two weeks after. 

The greatest improvement in the work of the Stu 
dent Associations has been along three lines : 

(i). There has been an increased emphasis upon 
the work of evangelizing the non- Christian students, both 
those in the Christian institutions and also those in the 
government schools. This has come without decreasing 
the splendid work already being done for the non-student 
class. In Nanking University this work resulted in 
some thirty men becoming Christians at one time. 

(2). The Bible classes have shown better judgment 
in their selection of courses, study groups have more 
largely replaced reading circles, larger numbers have 
been enrolled and the leadership has been more efficient. 
This work is growing so rapidly both in size and depth 
that it already demands the entire time of a special Bible 



YOUNG MEN S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION. 411 

study secretary. The demand is now so strong that 
provision is being made for producing and publishing a 
literature in Chinese upon the pedagogy of Bible study. 

(3). For many years the church as a whole and all 
those connected with the student work have been pray 
ing that the great dearth of suitable candidates for the 
ministry in China might be met by the offering of some 
of the splendid young men in our missionary colleges. 
The past year has been a large answer to these prayers. 
L,ast Chinese New Year a class of six strong young men 
was graduated from Boone College and are now serving 
as deacons in the Episcopal church preparatory to receiv 
ing full ordination. Of the seven who received degrees 
at the last commencement at William Nast College in 
Kiukiang six are already members of the Methodist Con 
ference. During the spring at Nanking University and 
Union Christian College, Nanking, there was a movement 
resulting in more than thirty men deciding to give them 
selves to Christian work. The Volunteer Band in Peking 
University continues large. Pastor Ting Li Mei con 
ducted meetings in the Shantung Union College at 
Weihsien in the spring, which resulted in more than one 
hundred students and teachers deciding to enter the 
ministry. The whole of the senior and junior classes 
and some of the instructors will go this Chinese New 
Year to the Theological Seminary at Chingchowfu. In 
the autumn they formed a volunteer band and signed a 
declaration card. Not one of these men has yet yielded 
to the pressure which has been put upon them to give 
up the purpose. History rarely records such an offering 
of lives for the Christian ministry. 

77/6 Year s Literature. The year has been one of 
the most marked development in the production of liter 
ature and its distribution. Two new editorial secretaries 
were added to the staff at the Chinese New Year. 

In continued fulfilment of the specific task committed 
to it by the Shanghai Centenary Conference the General 
Committee has devoted the largest share of its attention 



4 I2 



CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 



to the publication of literature for young men, to 
text-books and pamphlets on Bible and Mission Study. 
Aggressive efforts were made throughout the year to 
widen the influence of the Chinese edition of China s 
Yountr Men, the paid circulation of which grew from 
3,700 in January to 5,279 in December. A larger meas 
ure of self-support was also secured through an increase 
in advertising, and on the purely mechanical side of its 
production and distribution the magazine has ceased to 
be a financial burden to the committee. The following 
table, showing its circulation by provinces, is evidence 
of the widespread influence of what may be called 
"the most widely circulated Christian periodical in 
China." 



Anluvei . 


83 


Hupeh ... 400 


Shantung... 


353 


Chekiang. 


392 


Kansuh ... 23 


Shansi 


81 


Chihli . 


305 


Kiangsi ... 61 


Shensi 


31 


Fnkien 


633 


Kiangsu ... 917 


Szechuen... 


124 


Houan 


53 


Kwangsi ... 13 


Yunnan ... 


28 


Hongkong 


62 


Kwangtung.. 950 


Japan 


502 


Hunan 


94 


Manchuria... 101 


Korea 


2 








Foreign ... 


71 



Total 



5-279 



9 new books were issued and 14 reprinted. 

Physical Training .The. notable sign of progress of 
the year in physical training has been the establishment 
of systematic gymnasium work in the Shanghai Associa 
tion under the direction of Dr. M. J. Exner. During 
the year class work has been regularly carried on with 
sufficient continuity to test its adaptability to this new 
environment. Eight classes were maintained throughout 
the season one of picked men in training as leaders, 
one for young business men, two for students in the 
day-school who were members of the Association, two 
for other students in the day-school and one for the 
training of physical directors. In this last were enrolled 
five nieii who have come to Shanghai for thorough prep- 



YOUNG MEN S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION. 413 

aration as physical directors in associations and col 
leges. These men, who have come from Nanking, 
Hangchow, Tientsin, and Seoul, are taking a two years 
course in the technical studies and practice of physical 
training. In addition four public gymnastic exhibitions 
were held to popularize class work. 

In connection with the land campaign in May the 
Shanghai Association secured an excellent plot of ground 
for an athletic field. 

At Tientsin the Association continues to exert a 
large influence in the development of a system of phys 
ical culture among the educational institutions. Special 
athletic instruction has been given at Pei Yang Univer 
sity, the Government Army Medical College, the Govern 
ment Middle School and the private Middle School. 



II. IN JAPAN AMONG CHINESE STUDENTS. 

Although it has been but four years since the 
Christian work for the Chinese students in Japan was 
begun, yet it has reached a phenomenal growth, due to 
the peculiarly advantageous conditions presented by the 
great body of Chinese students in Tokyo. The relig 
ious, social, and educational character of the Young 
Men s Christian Association affords many chances of 
mixing with the young men in various relations. If one 
remembers that every province in China is represented 
by the students in Japan, and further that they belong to 
the best and most influential families of China, it will be 
readily seen that to influence these men will eventually 
reach a larger constituency than could be reached in 
any other way. Never in the history of missions lias 
such an opportunity been given to the church. The 
bearing of the Young Men s Christian Association 
work among these men in its relation to the regen 
eration to China, and Mission work in particular, is 
obvious. 



4 14 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

One means of reaching the men in Tokyo is by 
teaching English. In our evening classes, during the 
fall term of 1908, we had a total of 446 students, 
representing every province of China. The class room 
affords opportunities of gaining the respect of the men, 
and such a vantage ground, followed up by getting them 
into our distinctively social and religious meetings, 
forms a lever of influence. The statistics of 1908 shows 
a total of 203 members of the Young Men s Christian 
Association " active " and " associate." Some of these 
have returned to China, some remained with us. Not 
every member becomes an earnest pro-Young Men s 
Christian Association advocate, nor a sincere Christian, 
but the point to be emphasized is that we gained at 
least 200 fewer anti-Christian individuals. This nega 
tive aspect is important and weighty. 

The fact that the students of China, who have 
always opposed progress in every form, should go abroad 
in such vast numbers, was an open admission that China 
must change. In the spring of 1906 the fact that a 
new door of great promise had been opened for Chris 
tian work, was realized, and the Young Men s Christian 
Association was asked by the missionary body of Shang 
hai to undertake this work. In the spring of 1907, 
there were enough students connected with the Young 
Men s Christian Association to make possible the estab 
lishment of a church. 

A little later, at the Centenary Conference, it was 
decided to select some one church to represent all the 
Christian churches in China, so that the ideal of Chris 
tian unity represented by the Young Men s Christian 
Association should not be broken. A committee was 
appointed to decide the matter, and they chose the Rev. 
Mark Liu, the pastor of the Methodist Church in Tien 
tsin, to become the pastor of this representative church. 
Ever since his inaugural at this post he has been most 
earnest and energetic in winning students to become real 
disciples of Christ. 



YOUNG MEN S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION. 415 

The passing away of the late rulers of China and 
the enthroning of the new and more progressive one was 
the most noted event in China during 1909. This 
change of rulers has had a striking influence on the 
Chinese students body in Tokyo. It has caused this 
body of some 4,000 students to be more hopeful for their 
country s welfare. They believe that China is now 
destined to be in reality a world power. This has in 
spired them to greater effort in order fo prepare and 
equip themselves for serving their country. Formerly, 
when larger numbers of students came to Tokyo for 
learning, many of them were pessimistic as to their 
country s future and naturally held revolutionary ideas. 
Now a greater unity and more genuine patriotic spirit is 
manifested. This, together with the fact that the 
students now here are a stronger type of men and better 
qualified, makes Christian effort in their behalf all the 
more important and urgent. 

Owing to the great demand in China for teachers 
and men of training, many students are constantly 
returning to take up various positions. Also, not a few 
are studying here preparatory to entering some college 
or university in America or Europe. Now is the time 
in the lives of these men for influencing them for 
Christ. The following letter, from a veteran missionary 
in China, will illustrate the importance and urgency 
of this : 

" A few weeks ago, as I took the Boston and Albany train at 
Worcester, Mass., I saw a fine looking Chinese young man standing 
near the door. He returned my bow and smile, and I said : I m 
going to Tientsin, China, soon, and would like to talk with you. 
He talked freely about the new China and gave me his ideas on 

the kind of a school needed for girls He was on his way to 

Ann Arbor to study law. Are you a Christian? I asked. No, 
was the reply, but I am studying Christianity. I have been 
studying various religions to find the best. I do not like Bud 
dhism. I now have a feeling that Christianity is better than Con 
fucianism. I believe that Jesus Christ is stronger than Confucius. 
It seems to me that Jesus gives the affirmative, while Confucius 
gives the negative. The affirmative is always stronger than the 



4l6 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

negative. When asked as to how he came to study Christianity, 
he said : I began to study the Bih e in the Chinese Young Men s 
Christian Association of Tokyo. " 

Truly it has been said by Rev. H. Loom is, of the 
American Bible Society: "God has thus given in 
Tokyo an opportunity that has never been equalled to 
reach the representatives of the vast heathen population 
of China." 

When I arrived in Tokyo three years ago I found 
only six Christians among all the large army of Chinese 
students. The Christian work among them has steadily 
grown. It has, like most Christian work, had to fight 
its way against prejudice, superstition, immorality, ma 
terialism, and many other kindred evils, but thank God, 
it has triumphed over them all and has borne the fruit 
of its labor as well as materially widened its scope of 
usefulness and influence. 

During the year 1909 land was bought for the 
Arthington building. The New Association and Hostel 
building was completed in December, and on January 
8th, 1910, the formal opening took place. Before for 
mally opening the building to public use the Associa 
tion conceived the idea of inviting all the Chinese 
Christian men to the building for a three days retreat 
or conference. The main purpose of this conference 
was to deepen the spiritual lives of the men. An 
other object was to devise means for carrying on more 
effectively the Christian campaign among the Chinese 
students. 

The Chinese Young Men s Christian Association 
and Hostel was erected at a cost of Y. 10,000 in the 
very heart of the student section of Waseda. Tl:e build 
ing contains provision for 30 or 40 students in the 
dormitory. 

The most important advance during the present 
year and the most far reaching in results has been along 
the line o( Bible study. An Evangelistic Association 
was formed among the students with the expressed 



YOUNG MEN S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION. 417 

purpose of "making Christ known to the people of 
China." Twenty men have declared their purpose to 
carry out the objects of this Association wherever they 
might be in Japan, China, or elsewhere. Practically 
every Christian man has been enrolled in some Bible 
class of the Association. Each evening fifteen minutes 
is devoted to Bible study and prayer for the students in 
our educational classes. When this was first introduced, 
nearly all of the non-Christian students fought shy of 
the meeting. Now, however, this short service has 
become popular, and is attended by nearly all the 
students enrolled in the evening classes. An Evangel- 
istic Bible Class has been conducted at the Waseda 
Department with increasing interest. At the same 
hour a normal training class is held at the Central 
Department. Some of the men, trained in this class, 
are now leading prayer meetings and speaking at the 
Evangelistic Bible Classes. These, together with the 
other Bible classes held in the Association, the Naval 
School and the homes, give cause for thanksgiving to 
God. 

We have as yet left unmentioned the work among 
the Korean students in Tokyo, who number over 700. 
There is a deep and genuine interest among them toward 
Christianity. At this writing there are more than 30 
awaiting baptism. These men have been in training 
some time in the Association Bible Classes. Of the no 
members enrolled in the Korean Young Men s Christian 
Association, 30 are active and 80 associate members. 
Sixty-six have been enrolled in the Bible classes during 
1909 and 192 in the educational classes. Seventy-eight 
young men want to become Christians and also wish to 
join the church. 

There is an urgent need for a dormitory for the 
young Korean Christians, where they may stay together 
for prayer and Bible stud} 7 . Such a dormitory would 
form a strong Christian centre and would influence 
largely the whole Korean student body. 



41 8 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Statistics of Chinese Students, January, 1910. 

Name of School. Gov l or No. En- 

Private, rolled. 

Keigakudo Private 130 

Iwakura Tetsudo Gakko ... ,, no 

Toa Tetsudo Gakko ,, 80 

Toyo Daigaku ,, 3 

Waseda University ,, 5 1 * 

Shinbu Gakko 160 

Serjo Middle School ,, 221 

Keio Gijuku ... ... ... ... ... ,, 19 

Hosei Daigaku ... ... ... ... ,, 560 

Tokyo Higher Technical School Government 158 

Imperial University ... ... ... ... ,, 5 

Higher Normal School ... ,, 85 

First High School ,, 7 

Tokyo Higher Commercial School ... ,, 50 

Chuo Daigaku Private 153 

Dobun Shorn ,, 7 

Nihon Daigaku ,, 10 

Meiji Daigaku ,, 75 

Koto Shihan Fusoku Chugaku ... ... ,, I 

Tokyo Foreign Language School... ... Government 2 

Seisbku English School Private 300 

Shisei Gakko ,, 44 

Seisoku Yobiko ... ... ... ... ,, 200 

Total, 3,737 
Students studying in military schools and in other 

schools and with private teachers (estimated) 5 

Grand Total, 4,237 

J. M. CLINTON. 



CHAPTER XXVIIL 



WORK FOR CHINESE ABROAD. 

HINESE are found in nearly all of the important 
trading centres in the world, and it is gratifying to 
find, upon investigation, how much missionary 
work is being done for them and also how marked have 
been the results. In this chapter of the Year Book will 
be found a list, not of all the places where Chinese are 
resident abroad, but of places where it is known that 
there are missions to the Chinese, and a brief account 
of the work of these missions in so far as reports have 
been obtainable That the list is very incomplete is due 
to the casual manner which has been the only one in 
which information could be gained and to the impos 
sibility of getting in touch with all parts of the world 
within the five months at our disposal. In future num 
bers of the Year Book it is hoped that this chapter may 
show a much more complete record, and to this end it 
is requested that any who know of the existence of work 
for the Chinese abroad that is inadequately reported here 
will send information of such to Dr. MacGillivray, with 
the name of at least one person in the mission to whom 
requests for full information may be addressed. We are 
not aware that the facts of such work have ever been 
gathered, and except in a few cases it has been only by 
hearing of one here and one there that the present com 
pilation has been effected. 

1. Australia : Apart from the fact that the C. M. S. 
has work in Melbourne no information has been obtained. 

2. British North Borneo : Chinese population about 
25,000. The Basel Mission opened work in 1906, and re 
ports 800 Christians in 6 congregations at Kudat, Happy 
Valley, Sandakan, Jesselton, Papar, and Beaufort. The 
mission station is at Happy Valley. Four chapels have 



420 



CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 



been built at a cost of $4,000, raised locally. Two congre 
gations fully support their own preachers and teachers. 
An English school has been self-supporting from the 
beginning. About 100 pupils are attending lour schools. 
The vS. P. G. has two catechists for preaching and one 
for teaching ; they report about 400 Christians/ 1 

3. Burmah : Rangoon. American Baptists. 

4. Canada: Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver, and 
Winnipeg. 

5. Formosa : Chinese population at the end of 
1908, 3,019,412. The first to begin work was the Ro 
man Catholic Church, 1849. Seventeen chapels through 
out the island, and one or two small orphanages. 1,900 
Catholic Christians. f 

The Presbyterian Church of England opened work 
in 1865 and that of Canada in 1872. The latter work in 
the north, ministers to about 1,000,000 ; and the former 
in the south ministers to about 2,000,000. Methods used 
are : Medical work ; girls boarding-schools and boys 
boarding middle schools, with primary schools in country 
chapels ; book-room, printing-press {Tainan Church News 
issued monthly for over 24 years). For the rest the fol 
lowing table shows conditions in the summer of 1909 : \ 



MISSION. 


M 

H 
g 

M. 


X 

4> 

c 

2 
t o 

F. 


i 
^ 

i 

/. 
od 


Preachers. | san. | 


Number. | Ho soi- 11 


Assistants. | tals. |] 


Bible Women. 


Schools. 


Theol. Students. 


*S 1 Klders. 

<C -~J I H 


2 

8 
g 

Q 

169 
46 


Church 
Members. 


Formosan Contributions. 


|l 


a ^ 


Adults. 


Children. 


/ 

>, 

~ 


f. 

T. 

3 


Number. 


Scholars. 


Kng. Pres. ... 
Can. 


8 
4 


4 
2 


5 

4 


5.6 3 
55 i 


7 


360 
9... 


60 

35 


l , 


! 55 


23 


3-525 
800 


2,746 


sisifc 



* See Chinese Recorder, Vol. 40, No. 9, September, 1909. 
f Geographic de L Empire de Chine, L. Richard. Table on 
p. 321. 

I Recorder t September, 1909 (as above). 



WORK FOR CHINESE ABROAD. 421 

6. Hawaii : Honolulu. The Hawaiian Board has 
carried on a mission work among the Chinese for many 
years. One organized church : 160 adult, 200 children, 
members. Services in Chinese. Sunday School, 200 to 
250 children ; largely conducted in English. Y. P. S. 
C. K., Chinese Y. M. C. A., and branch mission Sunday 
Schools. In 1907 contributed $200 for current ex 
penses, $100 to Hawaiian Board, $12 to American Board, 
$25.00 to American Missionary Society, and sundry 
others. The Sunday School supports its own Chinese 
missionary in China. There were 21 workers connected 
with the Chinese work in the different islands, 6 or 
ganized churches and n other chapels. Superintendent 
makes frequent trips to plantations and holds services 
among the laborers. The Mills Institute is an educa 
tional institution for Chinese boys. 

The American Church Mission also has a thriving 
work among the Chinese, and Bishop Restarick speaks 
with highest praise of the Chinese Christians. But no 
report has been received. 

7. Japan: Tokyo. Chinese population, 3,500. Mis 
sion work is carried on by the Y. M. C. A. The 
Wesleyans, C. M. S., and C. I. M. have assisted, and 
a C. M. S. missionary is still at work. At the China 
Centenary Conference a Chinese Christian church was 
organized and placed under the care of the American 
Methodists, who have a Chinese pastor resident. There 
is a branch of the Y. M. C. A., at Waseda University. 
The Chinese have shown much interest in Christianity, 
as witnesses a report by Mr. F. S. Brockman, printed in 
the Chinese Recorder for May, 1910, page 373. 

8. Java: 2 Chinese congregations of the American 
Methodist Episcopal Church.* 

9. Johor. 

10. Macao : The Chinese population about 75,000. 
There is a branch church established fifteen years ago 



* Recorder, September, 1909. 



422 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

by the self-supporting Chinese church of the London 
Missionary Society in Hongkong. The latter grants 
$250.00 annually, and there is about an equal amount 
raised locally. The latter congregation have a building 
that cost $2,5000.00, in which the Sunday congregation 
meets from 80 to 100 persons. 

Evangelistic effort is carried on in preaching-halls 
bv the Bible Mission Society, of which Mrs. S. C. Todd 
is the head. 

ii. New Zealand : 

(a) Presbyterian Church of N. Z. (Work among 
Chinese) : 

SI off and location: Rev. Alex. Don, Dunedin. Regular work. 
(Chinese) Mr. F. L. Law, Dunedin. Regular work. 
(Chinese) Mr. T. F. Loie, Auckland. Regular work. 

. Greymouth. Visited regularly. 

Membership of Dunedin church, 12 ; adherents 150-200. 
Greymouth station, 4 ; ,, 50- 60. 

,, Auckland ,, (just opened). 

Mission Classes at Oamaru, Timaru, Nelson for some years. 

(b) Anglican Church in N. Z. : 

Catechist, Mr. Daniel Wong, stationed at Greymouth in 1901 ; 
transferred to Wellington in 1902. Fine little church built (cost 
with site ^1,085) in 1905. Mr. D. Wong died March, 1908. An 
other catechist stationed 1909, but said to have resigned recently. 
Classes at Napier and Blenheim. 

(c). Interdenominational Classes carried on at Auck 
land for some 6 or 8 years past, at Paltnerston North, 
Masterton, Wellington. 

(d). Baptist Classes at Dunedin, Invercargill, Wel 
lington, Christchurch. At Christchurch a little mission 
hall built for the class. In Dunedin the class is a part 
of the ordinary Sunday School. Numbers in 1909: 24 
scholars, 22 teachers on roll; average attendance 18 
scholars, 16 teachers. 

(e). Wesleyan Methodist Classes at Dnnedin and 
Wellington. 

(/). Church of Christ Class at Wanganui. 



WORK FOR CHINESE ABROAD. 423 

O). Rev. B. G. Fox (Anglican) and others regu 
larly distribute Christian literature. 

12. Penang : 
Brethren s Mission. 

American Methodists. Anglo-Chinese School. * 

13. Philippines : The American Church Mission 
has recently taken over the work of the Methodists, and 
reports for 1909 : 16 baptisms and 42 confirmations. Rev. 
Hobart E. Studley in his report to Bishop Brent says . 
"We have now on our communicant list nearly all of 
those who were formerly members of Protestant churches 
in China and are now resident in Manila." Regular 
services are held every Sunday and evangelistic services 
every Sunday and Thursday. The day-school has been 
closed, but the night-school continues to do good work. 
Six of those reported as baptized and confirmed were 
reached through the schools. About 1,000 pesos have 
been contributed locally towards a church building 
fund. 

14. Siam: Bangkok and Island of Tongkah. 
The American Baptists are in Bangkok. In Tongkah 
resides the only medical missionary to the Chinese in 
Malaysia, a member of the Brethren s Mission. 

15. Sumatra : One congregation of the American 
Methodist Mission. f 

1 6. The United States : Boston, Chicago, Denver, 
New Orleans, New York, San Francisco. 

New York : The St. Bartholomew s Chinese Guild 
has just completed its 2Oth year. "The work of the 
guild has two distinctive parts. . . . The secular protects 
their (i. e., the Chinese) rights in law and business 
transactions. During these years over 23,000 matters 
have been attended to .... Personal services have been 
rendered to the Chinese in over 15 cities. The religious 
work includes the Sunday School, the Christian associa- 

* See article "The Chinese in Malaysia." Recorder, Sep 
tember, 1909. 

t Recorder, vSeptember, 1909, p. 505. 



424 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

lion, and religious services." Number of baptisms : 
From 1889 to 1899, 2I ; from 1899 to 1909, 61.* 

San Francisco: Chinese population in 1906, 7,000 
Presbyterian Church, Presbyterian Young Men s House, 
Occidental Board of Foreign Missions in the Chinese 
Women s House, Baptist Chinese Church and School, 
Chinese Congregational House, Methodist Church. 

Women workers, both American and Chinese, visit 
the women in their homes regularly. The Chinese 
Women s Home does a large work in rescuing unfortu 
nate women. 

Educational work is carried on in Mission schools, 
where both boys and girls are given a good education. 

"Taking it all in all the missionary work in the 
Chinese colony in San Francisco has been crowned with 
great success in the past, and prospects are that it will 
meet with even greater success in future, "f 

G. F. MOSHER. 



* From Report of Mr. Guy Maine, superintendent. 

t Article by Rev. Ng Poon-chew in Recorder, September, 1909. 



CHAPTER XXIX. 



THE GREEK CHURCH. 

T the end of the year 1909 were : Bishop Innocent, 
the chief of the Russian Orthodox Mission, two 
Archimandrites, ten priests, three of whom were 
Chinese, six deacons, two of whom were also Chinese, 
three psalm-readers, ten monks, and seven nuns. 

The Mission has several branches one convent 
of the first class in Peking, three conventual churches, 
two in Manchuria and one in St. Petersburg, fourteen 
Mission quarters in China, one church of the diplomatic 
legation in Peking, three churches in Hankow, Dalny, 
and Port-Arthur, two chapels and five churchyards in 
different parts of China. There are fifteen schools. One 
of them is an ecclesiastical school for the education of 
the catechizers in Peking, twelve for boys and two for 
girls. Three new Mission quarters have just been 
opened this year. 

The translation commission finished the translation 
of the Epistles of the Apostles, psalm-books and prayer- 
book with interpretations. It printed important selections 
from the Pentateuch and the New Complete Chinese 
Russian Dictionary under the editorship of the chief 
of the Russian Orthodox Mission, Bishop Innocent. 
This dictionary comprises 2,100 pages. It contains 
16,845 Chinese characters and about 150,000 familiar 
expressions from Chinese classics and also a summary 
orthodox catechism by Bishop Innocent. The printing 
office continues to edit the journal of Mission, Chi 
nese Good News, and Chinese-Russian-English calendar. 
About one hundred designs from the Bible, illustrated by 
the artist Dore, have been printed, and also some large 
coloured pictures concerning important biblical events. 
The Explanations of the Creed, the second part of 



CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

the church book, explained prayer-book and one part 
of new psalm-book have been printed. The meteoro 
logical station is in charge of one of the monks, 
who sends his records to the Chief Nicholas Physical 
Observatory. A female committee worked as before, 
looks after the girls school. Handiwork and em 
broidery are taught. 

The following are the names of the places in China, 
where the Russian church have work : The centre 
of Mission work is in Peking. There are a church 
and school in Yungping and a church in Peitaiho. 
A conventual church and house in Harbin and also 
in Manchuria. There are a church and school in Doon- 
dingagu and only a church in Tientsin. Weihui, Honan, 
has a meeting house and school. But there are only 
schools in Kaifeng, Cisiang, Sangtaogeng, Nilisiang, 
Taokou, Honan, Yengdefoo, Fengkow, Hamen, and 
Shanghai, where there are the church and school. 

O. FIGOUROYSKY. 



CHAPTER XXX. 



ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONS IN CHINA. 

NN. SS. les fLveques et Vicaires Apostoliques. 

(octobre 1909) 



Bveche, \ icanat, 
Prefecture ou Mission 



Noin europeen et chinois 



Titre 



Mandchourie S 
Mandchourie N 

vSe-tch oan N\V 
Se tch oan E 
Se-tch oan S 

Thibet 
Yun-nan 

Koei-tcheou 



Koang-tong (Pre*f. 
Koang-si (Pref.) 

Hou-pe" K 
Hou-pe NW 
Hou-pe" SW 
Chan-si S 
Chan-si N 
Ilou-nau S 
Chan-long N 
Chan-long K 

Chen-si N 



Tche-li N 
Tche-li W 
Tche-li K 
Tche"-kiang 
Kiang-si N 
Kiang-si K 
Kiang-si S 



I. MISSIONS ETRANGlvRKS DE PARIS 

Mgr Choulet Marie-Felix 

Lalouyer Pierre- INI arie Raphane e 

Dunand Marie-Jnlien Caloe 

Chouvellon Celestin-Fe lix Dansara 

Chatagnon Marc Clierson^se 

Kayolle Jean-Pierre Lanipas 

Giraudeau Pierre-Philippe Tiniade 

de Gorostarzu Charles-Marie Aila 

Excoffior Joseph-Claude Metropolis 
Guichard Franco s-Mathurin Toron 

Seguin Frangois-Lazare Pinara 

| Merel Jean -Marie Orcisto 

Lavest Joseph-Marie Sophene 



II. FRANCISCAINS. 

Mgr Gennaro Gratien J6richo 

Landi Fabien Thenare 

Everaerts Modeste Tadama 

Tiininer Odoric Drusipare 

Fiorentini Agapite Russadir 

Mondaini Jean Pellcrin Sinao 

Giesen Ephreni Palto 

Schang Cesaire Vaga 

Wittner Ade*odat Milet 

Maurice Gabriel Lesbi 

III. IvAZARISTES. 

Mgr Jarlin vStanislas Farbeto 

Coqset Auguste Cardique 

Geurts Francois Rinocolura 

Reynaud Paul Fussola 

Ferrant Paul liarbalissa 

Vic Casimir Metellopolis 

Ciceri Nicolas Dausara 



428 



CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 



, Vicariat, 
Prefecture ou Mission 



Nom europe"en et chinois 



Titre 



Ho nan N 
Ho- nan S 
Hong-kong 



IV. MISSIONS ETRANGERES DE MII^AN. 

Mgr Menicatti Jean Tanis 

Cattaneo Ange Hippus 

Pozzoni Dominique Tavia 

V. CONGREGATION DE SCHEUTVEI/T. 



Mongol ie E 
Mongolie C 
Mongolia W 
Kan-sou N 
Kan-sou S (Pre"f.) 
I-li (Mission) 



Amoy 

Fou-tcheou 

Shikoku 



Tche-li SE 
Kiang-nan 



Chen-si S 



Chan-tong S 



Hou-nan N 



Mgr Abels Conrad Lajjania 

Van Aertselaer Jerome Zarai 

Bermyn Alphonse Stratonicde 

Otto Hubert Assura 

R.P.Terlaak Evrard 

Steeneman Jean-Baptiste 

VI. DOMINICAINS. 
Mgr Clemente Guttierez Isidore Augilas 

Masot Salvador Avara 

R.P. Alvarez Joseph 

VII. JESUITES. 

Mgr Maquet Henri Am itonte 

Paris Prosper Silando 

VIII. SEMINAIRE ST PAUI, DE ROME. 

Mgr Passerini Pie-Joseph Acanthe 

IX. CONGREGATION DE STEYI,. 

Mgr Henniughaus Augustin Hypaepa 

X. ORDRE DE S. AUGUSTIN. 

Mgr Pe>ez y Pe>ez Louis Corico 



XI. CONGREGATION DE S. FRAN^OIS-XAVIER DE PARME. 
Ho-naii W R. R. Calza Aloysius 



Macao (Ev.) Mgr de Azevedo e Castro Jean-Paulin Macao 



ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONS IN CHINA. 



429 



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Vicariats 
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13 M 



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a a a 

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430 



CHINA MISSION YKAR BOOK. 



S 8 

, rf SO 



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vi; 2 



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CO O OGO 04 rfCO ""> 

oo -^vo Tj- 1^ o c< w 



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ROMAN CATHOTJC MISSIONS IN CHINA. 



431 




APPENDIX L 

IMPORTANT EVENTS IN 1908-June 5, J9JO. 
1908. 

Jan. i. Hsinning Railway, Kuangtung, opened to traffic. 

Jan. 4-11. Second annual native conference of the China Tibetan 

Border Mission of the C. and M. A. at Minchow, Kansuh. 
Jan. 13. The agreement for the Tientsin-Pukou Railway signed. 
Jan. Arrival of representatives of the Pentecostal church in 

Hongkong. 

Jan. 2T. Corner stone of Yates Hall Shanghai laid. 
Jan. 26 to Feb. 2. The West China Conference. 
Jan. 26. Sir Robert Hart applies for leave of absence to. vifcit 

home. 
Feb. 5. Seiz.ure of arms and the s. s. Tatsu Maru by the Canton 

Customs. 

Feb. 12. Wu Sheng synod meeting. (Pres.) 
Feb. Riots in Northern Chekiang. 
Feb. 12. Unique Christian gathering at Peking. 
Feb. Opening of Wvlie Memorial Church, Liao-yang. 
Fel). 19. Opening of the American Presbyterian hospital at 

Chenchow, Hunan. 
Mar. 6. The Soo- Hang- Yung Railway agreement signed. 

The German government grants 50,000 marks for the 

establishment of a university for Chinese students in 

Kiaochow. 
Mar. II. The laws regarding holding meetings and forming 

societies, in thirty-five articles, drawn up by the Office 

for the Study of" Constitutional Politics, sanctioned by 

decree. 

Mar. 11-17. ^- I- M- Kiangsi Conference. 
Mar. 14. Imperial sanction given to the press laws in forty-five 

articles, drawn up by the Office for the Study of Con 
stitutional Politics. 
Mar. 20. Ratepayers annual meeting ; Shanghai decides to cancel 

one-fourth of the opium den licenses in the Settlement at 

the expiration of each half-year, beginning July ist. 
Mar. 21. German China Alliance Church Conference and Bible 

school, Chekiang. 
Mar. 22. Decree issued commanding effective measures to reduce 

opium plantation in view of Great Britain s promise to 

reduce importation experimentally for three years. 
Mar. 24. Annual meeting of United Methodist Mission at Tong- 

shati. 



11 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

1908. 

Mar. 28. Arrival of the first passenger train at Nanking. 

Apr. i. Tram cars began to run in Shanghai. 

Apr. Edict for compulsory education. 

Apr. 14. Serious disturbance at Soochow. 

Apr. 17, 18, 19. C. I. M. Church Conference, Hanchang Plain, 

Shensi. 

Apr. 25. Foochow Easter Monday Choral Festival. 
May 6. The American and Japanese Arbitration Treaty signed 

at Washington. 
May 14. Riot in Hankow caused by a proclamation issued, by the 

Taotai, forbidding hawkers and stalls in the public 

streets. 

Revival in Manchuria. 

Annual meeting of South Fukien Presbyteries and 

Synods. 
June 7. Sir Walter Hillier appointed by China adviser to the 

Chinese government. 

June Y. M. C. A. Conference at Tungchow. 
June 30. Construction work on the German section of the 

Tientsin- Pukou Railway formally inaugurated. 
July 1-6. Conference of Shantung Church at Chinchowfu. 
July 11-19. Chinese Y. M. C. A. Conference, Shanghai. 
July 20-21. Conference on Sunday School work at Kuliang. 
Aug. 5, 6. Second annual meeting of the Chihli Provincial 

Council at Peitaiho. 

Aug. ii. Annual meeting of North China Tract Society at Pei 
taiho. 

Aug. 26. The Nanking City Railway opened. 

Oct. 5. The Japanese government announces the total prohibi 
tion of the pari mutuel at all races, including those of 

the Nippon Race Club. 
Oct. 7. Meeting at Lord Salisbury s house, at which it was 

resolved to form an Etonian Association for China to 

support Bishop Cassel s scheme for a students hostel 

at Chengtu. 
Oct. 9. An Arbitration Convention between China and the United 

States signed at Washington. 

Oct. 13. The Chinese Railway Loan of ^5, 000,000 for the redemp 
tion of the bonds of the Peking-Hankow Railway issued 

in London. 

Oct. 17. Revival in Shansi. 
Nov. 10. Trial at Shanghai of H. D. O Sbea, editor of the China 

Gazette, for criminal libel against Judge L. R. Wilfley. 

Formation of K en Ch in Huei or Society for Mutual 

Fellowship. 

Nov. n. Meetings and revival in Changtefu, Honan. 
Nov. 14. Death of the Emperor Kuang Hsu at 5 p.m. Pu Yi, the 

son of Prince Chun, adopted as heir to the Throne. 



IMPORTANT EVENTS. Hi 

1908. 

Nov. 15. Death of Tz e Hsi, the Empress- Dowager of China, at 2 
p.m. Valedictory Manifesto of Emperor Kuang Hsu 
issued as an Imperial decree. Valedictory Manifesto of 
the Em press- Dowager. 

Nov. 23, 24. Meeting for federation in Taiyuanfu. 
Dec. 2. Enthronement of Emperor Hsuau T ung. 

Japanese-American Agreement concluded. 

Dec. 15, 16. Meeting of Committee on Federation in Soochow. 
Dec. 26. The line from Chengchow to Hsiaufu (Kaifeng-IIsianfu 

Railway) opened.. 
1909. 

Jan. 2. Decree dismissing Yuan Shih-kai, Grand Councillor and 

President of the Waiwupu, from office. The first sod of 

the southern section of the Tieutsin-Pukou Railway cut. 

Revival in Auking, Anhuei. 

Jan. 28. Formation of Hupeh Provincial Council of Christian 

Federation. 

Feb. i. The International Opium Commission opened at Shang 
hai. 

Rev. William Newell and J. R. Deans visit Shanghai. 
Evangelistic Services in Nanking. Mr. Goforth. 
Feb. 4. Scandinavian Missionary Conference in Nauyangfu, 

Honan. 
Feb. 27. The International Opium Commission at Shanghai 

closed. 

Mar. 27, April 6. Conference of the Anglican Communion. 
Mar. 30. Revival in Weihsien College, Shantung. 
Apr. Rev. Lord William Cecil visits China regarding the 
scheme for establishing a university in China (also Pro 
fessors Burton and Chamberlain). 
Apr. C. I. M. Mission Conference in Kiangsi. 
Apr. 13. Formation of Evangelistic Association. 
Apr. 19. Revival in Hinghwa, Fuhkieu. 
Apr. 30. Revival in Chekiang. 

May i. Funeral of Emperor Kwang Hsu (Teh Tsung). 
May Triennial Meeting of the Educational Association. 
May Meeting of Presbyterian Federation. 

May 27, 30. Christian Endeavor National Convention at Nanking. 
June 14, Aug. 29. Rev. F. B. Meyer in China in the interest of 

S. S. work. 
June 28. H. E. Tuan Fang appointed Viceroy of Chihli. 

Foochow Easter Monday Choral Festival. 
Aug. Revival in Tunghiaug. Che. 

Aug. 23, 24. Conference of Fukien Sunday School Union. 
Sept. 24. Opening of the Railway from Peking to Kalgan. 
Oct. 4. Death of Grand Secretary Chang Chih-tung. 
Oct. Chapman-Alexander Meetings in Shanghai. 



CHINA MISSION YKAR BOOK. 
1909. 

Oct. Revival on the Si-ngan Plain, Shensi. 
Oct. 5. Semi-centennial celebration of Protestant Missions in 

Japan, held at Tokio. 
Oct. 13-29. Nanking Bible Institute. 
Oct. 14. The first meetings of the Provincial Assemblies in the 

Provinces of China. 
Oct. 26. Prince Ito assassinated at the Harbin Railway Station 

by a Korean. 

Nov. 5-7. Shanghai Bible Institute. 
Nov. 9. The remains of the Empress-Dowager carried from the 

Forbidden City to the Pastern Mausoleum. 
Nov. 24-25. Kiangsu Christian Federation Council Meetino-. 
Nov. 24. H. E. Tuan Fang, Viceroy of Chihli, dismissed from 

his post. 

Dec. 10. The first sod of the Szechuen Railway cut at Ichano-. 
Dec. ii. Dedication of Kinchow Seminary and Normal School. 

Union of educational work in Nanking. 
Dec. Evangelistic campaign in Tientsin. 
1910. 

Jan. Formation of local branch of the Educational Association 
of China. 

Jan. 8. Proposal by Mr. Knox for neutralization of Manchurian 
railways. 

Jan. 9. Meeting of Anti-opium Reform in Y. M. C. A., Shanghai. 

Jan. ii. Opening of the Chinese Y. W. C. A. home on Haining 
Road, Shanghai. 

Jan. 15. Ting Li-mei s evangelistic meetings at Ichowfu, Shan 
tung. vSome 1,700 enrolled as enquirers. From here 
Pastor Ting went to Manchuria. 
Rumours of the partition of China. 

Dr. G. E. Morrison left Peking for a trip through Shensi 
Kansu and Chinese Turkestan. 

Jan. 16. Provincial delegates in Peking petition for the inaugura 
tion of the Chinese Parliament. 

Jan. 26. Riot at Tunghianghsien. 

Jan. 28.-Feb. 10. Annual Council Meeting of the Canadian Method 
ist Meeting at Chentu, Szechuen. 

Jan. 20. Imperial edict to the effect that the opening of Parlia 
ment is to be delayed till the 8th year of Hsiiau Tung. 
Also one enforcing opium suppression. 

Jan. 30-Feb. 2. The Seventh Annual Conference of Scandina 
vian missionaries in Northern Hupeh was held at lyao- 
hokow. 

Feb. 22. Meetings held at Oxford for the furtherance of the 
project to establish a university for Chinese at Hankow. 

teb. 8. Annual meeting of the North China Educational Board 
of Managers. 



IMPORTANT EVENTS. V 

I9LO. 

Feb. ii. Edicts dealing with local government and the reform of 

the judicial system. 

Mutiny of troops at Canton and Soochovv. 

Riot at Soochow. 

Negotiations for Chinchow-Aigun Railway. 
Feb. 21. Departure of Rev. J. MacGowan from China. 
Feb. 23-25. Meeting of the Biennial Council of the Chihli Pro 
vincial Federation of Protestant Missions in Peking. 
Feb. 23-March 9. A Bible Institute held at Wuhu. 

Memorial submitted to the throne re the abolition of 

slave traffic. 
Feb. 24. Chinese army under H. E. Chao Erh-feng push forward 

to Tibet to establish Chinese domination there. Dalai 

Lama left for India. 
Feb. 25. Dalai Lama deposed. 
Feb. 28. A Delegates conference of the Basel, Berlin, and 

Rhenish Missions held at Tungkun. Object of Conference 

is the Union of the Missions. 
Feb. 27. Imperial edict abolishing slaver} . 

Mar. 5. Meeting at Cambridge to discuss university for China. 
Mar. 7. The Ministry of Posts and Communications has decided 

to build a railway from Tainanfu in Shantung to Cheutefu 

in Chihli. 

Mar. 12-17. Revival meetings at Mienchuhsien. 
Mar. 15. The Ministry of Posts and Communications to commence 

a railway from Kaifengfu, Honan, to Suchoufu, Kiangsu. 
Mar. 16. Sir Frederick Lugard lays the foundation stone of the 

Hongkong University. 

Mar. 17-24. Conference of Chinese workers in Kiangfu, Kiangsi. 
Mar. 20. Day of prayer of all Christians for the million move 
ment in Korea. 
Revival meetings and evangelistic work carried on by 

Rev. W. R. Hunt at Nantungchow. 
Mar. 28. Riot at Hangchow. 
Mar. 29. Christian Endeavour Rally in Foochow to celebrate the 

twentieth anniversary of Christian Endeavour in Foo 
chow, 

Mar. 30. Ten miles of the Canton-Hankow Railway opened. 
Apr. Plot in Regent s Palace, Peking. 
Apr. 4 Rice riots in Nanking and Nanling. 
Apr. 8. Semi-annual meeting of the International Institute, 

Shanghai. 
Apr. 10. 83rd anniversary of Dr. W. A. P. Martin s birth and 

his diamond jubilee in China. 
Apr. 12. Rebellion in Yunnan. 
Apr. 13. Riots broke out in Changsha, Hunan. 
Apr. 13. Concession granted to American and British firms to 

construct the Chiuchow-Aigun Railway. 



VI CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

1910. 

Apr. 15. Mr. F. A. A glen becomes Acting Inspector-General of 
the Imperial Maritime Customs. 

Apr. 19. Annual meeting of the China Association. 

Apr. 26. Disorder in Chekiang. 

May 2. Grain riots in Suchien, Kiangsu. 

May 4. Negotiations for railway between Tsingtao and Ichoufu. 

May 7. Death of King Edward VII. 

May 7. Meeting of the Yale Association of China. 

May 14. Opening of the Anglo-Japanese Exhibition in 1/ondon, 
England. 

May 18. Pass through the tail of Halley s Comet. 

May 22. Sunday School Day observed throughout the world. 

May 20. Meeting of Anti-opium League of China. 

May 24. The dollar standard fixed for currency in China. 

May 25. Continued requests for a speedy opening of Parliament 
in China. 

June i. The 27th Annual Conference of the International Mis 
sionary Union at Clifton Springs, N. Y. 

June 5. Opening of the first Chinese National Exposition at 
Nanking. 



APPENDIX II. 



OBITUARIES. 

On the 30th of May, 1907, passed away one of 
China s most noted veteran missionaries in the person 
of Rev. YOUNG J. AIJ.EN, D.D., LL-D. Dr. Allen was 
born in Georgia, U. S. A., studied at Emory College, and 
upon graduation in 1858 offered himself to the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South. He arrived in China in 1860 
to labour for nearly fifty years as an active, energetic, 
devoted missionary to the Chinese. "The founder of 
a college, and prolific as an author, it is more particular 
ly as a pioneer of Christian journalism that he won dis 
tinction. If, not the creator of the modern newspaper in 
Chinese, he made himself the standard-bearer of the 
growing cohort, and for forty years he bore it aloft 
in the ^interest of Christian civilization. The Anglo- 
Chinese College remains as his monument," but it was 
probably in the literary line that he was able to exert 
most influence. 

Rev. WM. SCOTT AMENT, D.D., was born in Owosso, 
Michigan, U. S. A., in 1852. Graduating from Oberlin, 
he studied theology in the Union Theological Seminary, 
New York, receiving a degree of B.D. in 1877. That 
year he came to China. After spending a year at Tien 
tsin, he was stationed at Paotingfu until 1880, when 
he went to Peking. There he laboured for twenty-nine 
years, except when home on furlough. Dr. Ament s 
work was chiefly evangelistic and pastoral. He was 
also a member of the Board of Managers of the Peking 
Methodist University, and took a large share in the 
development of the North China Tract Society, 
the Boxer troubles many of his people suffered, and 1 
did what he could to secure reparation. After the 



Vlll CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

trouble was over, he threw himself as vigorousl) r as ever 
into the work of reconstruction. At the Shanghai Con 
ference Dr. Ament was chairman of the Committee on 
Union. 

Rev. WM. ASHMORE, D.D., was born at Putnam, 
Ohio, in 1824. In 1848 he completed a course of train 
ing in Denison University and in the Western Bap 
tist Theological Institution. Three years later found 
him working in Bangkok, Siam. After furlough in 
1863, he settled in Kahchieh, opposite Swatow, and 
here he laboured almost continuously until he took 
final leave of China in 1903 for America, where he 
lived until his death, the 23rd of April, 1909. His 
life work consisted in la}-ing the broad and deep 
foundations of a living evangelical church, believing as 
he did that preaching the Gospel was the greatest 
factor in the spread of the kingdom of Christ. As 
teacher, he was the founder and leader of the Ashmore 
Theological Seminar} , a fitting memorial to his great 
work. 

In 1875 GARDEN BLAIKIE was born in Edinburgh, 
and received his early training at Woolwich College, 
London. Later he studied at Cambridge, obtaining 
high honours throughout his course. In 1898 he en 
tered the Theological College of the Presbyterian Church 
of England. As a student he was always interested in 
Christian work and especially the S. V. M. U. In 1901, 
after completion of his theological course, he offered 
himself to the E. P. church, and was sent out to China. 
Here he engaged in pastoral and evangelistic work in 
and round Ch aochoufu, N. E. Kuangtung, and was 
preparing for larger service when a breakdown in health 
compelled him to return to England in 1907. On 
recovery he engaged in deputation work, but suddenly 
had an attack of appendicitis and died on the 28th of 
May, 1908. 



OBITUARIES. ix 

A native of Glasgow, JOHN SHAW BURDON came out 
to Shanghai, China, as an ordained missionary in 1853. 
TheT ai-p ing Rebellion being then at its height, station 
work was therefore almost impossible, and Mr. Burdon 
commenced itinerating. Amidst many difficulties he con- 
tinned evangelistic work for the first eleven years of his 
life and made many unsuccessful attempts to open up new 
stations. Returning from furlough in 1864 he laboured 
in Peking for eight years. In 1873 he was consecrated 
Bishop of Victoria, Hongkong. His episcopate of twenty- 
four years was one of ceaseless activity, including trans- 
lational and evangelistic work. After a brief sojourn 
in England he returned to continue translation work, 
but was finally forced to leave China in 1900, and 
lived in retirement at Royston until his death, the 5th of 
January, 1907. 

In 1874 Rev. D. W. CHANDLER came to China to 
connect himself with the Foochow M. E. Mission. In 
the question of self-support in the Chinese church he 
rendered valuable service, especially by his enthusiasm 
and fidelity. In 1880 he was elected president of the 
Conference. Shortly after he had to return home to 
Ann Arbor, Michigan, where after a lingering illness of 
seventeen years, he died on the 2ist of December, 1909. 

On the 6th of May, 1909, was called home one of 
China s beloved missionaries in the person of Miss MAY 
CHAPIN. Miss Chapin was the daughter of Rev. and 
Mrs Dwight L. Chapin, the pioneer missionaries of 
North Tuugchow. After twenty years, service the family 
had to leave China on account of the father s ill- 
health. It was not until 1905 that Miss Chapin received 
her lono-ed-for wish and came back to China, settling 
at Kalgan. Here she gave herself \ip to a ministry 
of prayer and quiet personal work until her death, 
and won the admiration and love of all those who 
knew her. 



X CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Ill 1898 Rev. T. A. P. CLINTON took charge of the 
China Inland Mission at Changteh, which became the 
centre of his labours until his death on the i8th of 
January, 1909. His unlimited determination enabled 
him to carry out his ambition to establish a mission 
within the city walls. Throughout his preaching he 
always magnified the cross of Christ, and thus brought 
hope and salvation to many sin-burdened souls. 

Rev. GEORGE CORNWELL was born at Peekskill, 
New York, U. S. A., January i3th, 1866. After gradua 
tion he held a pastorate for some time, coming out 
to China in 1892. As a missionary his sympathies 
extended to all classes of men, and his influence was 
felt from Siberia to South Africa ; two of his pupils 
having been sent down to the Transvaal. Chefoo was 
his station, and he had charge of a large district south 
west of the city which he visited frequently in spite of 
bodily weakness or hardships. Two results of his zealous 
labour are the fine church building and the Anglo- 
Chinese School at Temple Hill. Not only Chinese but 
foreigners were greatly helped by him, especially the 
sailors of the U. S. navy. His death from cholera on 
August 26th, 1909, came as a great blow to all those 
who knew him. 

Mrs. MARTHA FOSTER CRAWFORD came to China 
in 1851 when but 21 years old. During the 58 years 
of service here, excluding three furloughs, she has done 
all kinds of missionary work evangelistic, school and 
medical in Shanghai and Tengchowfu confining her 
self to evangelistic work and the training of Chris 
tians during the later 16 years of her life at T aianfu. 
Almost every village about Taian has been visited by 
her with the Gospel, and at every pilgrim season she 
would go to the Great Temple to try to persuade the 
women to believe in Jesus, and before her death, August 
9th, 1909, she had the blessed privilege of meeting 



OBITUARIES. XI 

many Christians who had heard the Gospel from her 
at this temple. 

Mission work in Soochow will always be associated 
with the name of HAMPDEN COIT DuBosE, who died on 
March 22nd, 1910. Dr. DuBose was born in Darling 
ton, S. C., September, 1845, of Huguenot ancestry, and 
came to China, June 2nd, 1872, opening work in Soo 
chow with the Rev. John L.Stuart, where for nearly 
forty years he was indefatigable in the work of preach 
ing the Gospel in street chapel, town, and country. 
Besides he did much literary work in English and Chi 
nese. As president of the Anti-opium League in China, 
he lived to see his work almost finished. 

ERNEST JOHN EITEL, D.D., a distinguished grad 
uate of Tubingen, after a brief pastorate in Germany, 
was sent to Canton, China, in 1862 by the Basel Mis 
sionary Society. In 1865 he transferred his connection 
to the Londqn Missionary Society until 1879, when he 
became inspector of schools for the British government 
in Hongkong. The close of his life he spent as a minis 
ter in Adelaide, South Australia. While inspector he 
was guided by the belief that true strength of character 
lay in religious teaching. As a sinologist he wrote several 
books on the Chinese : their customs and religion. Not 
only did he perform to the full his duties as an official, 
but as a religious leader also he " had the outlook of the 
Christian philosopher, comprehensive and far-reaching, 
combined in rare perfection with that simplicity of soul 
that marks the devout believer." 

Miss AGNES GIBSON came to China in 1884, and 
after teaching in Ku-chow-fu for about a year, she went 
with Miss Williams to Ho-kou in Kiangsi. By prayer 
and faithful perseverance they gradually overcame the 
prejudices of the people. Her winsomeness of character 
soon won for Miss Gibson the respect and goodwill of 



Xll CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

the officials and gentry and many shopkeepers of the 
city and district. The mission grew, and five or six 
out-stations were formed. Later a boys day school and 
a girls day school were opened. In the spring of 1906 
Miss Gibson left for her second furlough, but death 
prevented her ever returning to China. 

After spending almost fifty years of service in 
China, Mrs. C. HARTWELL passed away on the yth of 
December, 1908. Mrs. Hartwell was born in Stur- 
briclge, Mass., U. S. A., in 1823. After graduation from 
Mount Holyoke in 1848 she was a teacher for ten years 
when she married Rev. Lyman B. Peet, a missionary at 
Foochow, and came out to China. In 1871 she went 
back to America to spend thirteen years there, during 
which time her husband died. Returning to China she 
married Rev. C. Hartwell. With the exception of one 
brief furlough, she spent the rest of her life in the 
interests of the Chinese women, and was also engaged 
as teacher in Foochow College. 

After thirty-seven years of service, Dr. LUCY HOAG 
passed away in September of 1909. During these }~ears 
she had laid strong foundations for work in Kiukiang, 
Chinkiang and Nanking, where she worked unceas 
ingly for the kingdom of God among the Chinese, 
especially the Chinese girls that they might be freed 
from bound feet, infant betrothal and kindred evils. 
Her character has been summed up by one of her fellow- 
workers as consisting of crystalline truthfulness, a 
spartan simplicity, faithfulness, selflessness, utter fear 
lessness, loving sympathy and an entire consecration 
to God s service for the Chinese. 

On the 2ist of July, 1907 passed away one of the 
leaders of the medical profession in China, the Rev. 
SYDNEY R. HODGE, of the Wesleyan Mission, Hankow. 
Dr. Hodge was born in 1859 and educated in Cambridge 



OBITUARIES. Xlll 

and London. After ordination as a minister, he studied 
medicine, and soon obtained a high standing in this 
profession. In 1887 he came to China, and began to 
rebuild an abandoned medical work in Hankow. By 
caution, sound judgment, and skill, Dr. Hodge continued 
this work for twenty years in such a thorough manner 
that his hospital became one of the best organized 
and equipped in China. He was always a strong sup 
porter also of the Medical Association of China. As a 
preacher, too, he had more than ordinary ability, and 
was always a strong and wise leader. 

H. MINERVA JENKINS, of the A. B. M. U., Shao- 
shing, was educated at a district school in Lewis, N. Y., 
and later at the Academy of Leonville and Ladies Semi 
nary at Whitestown. In 1859 she came out to China to 
labour with her husband. Her especial work during 
almost forty years of service on the field was with the 
wives of the students whom she faithfully taught to 
read the Scriptures and other Christian books until her 
death on the i8th of October, 1907. 

After a long service of 52 years in connection with 
the Basel Mission, China, the Rev. R. LECHLER died in 
Kornwestheim, Wurttemberg, on the 29th of March, 
1908. This missionary veteran was born in 1824 in 
Hundersingen, Wurttemberg. At the age of twenty he 
heard the call of God to China, and then entered the 
Basel Missionary Training School at Basel, Switzerland, 
and in 1844 was sent out to China. Here he worked 
amidst many trials and difficulties among the Hoklos 
and Hakkas until the war of 1856 made work in the 
interior impossible. Then he engaged in hospital and 
school work in Hongkong. His greatest service ill 
China was that of founding, establishing and direct 
ing the Basel Mission for forty years until it ob 
tained a leading place among all the missions in South 
China. 



XIV CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Dr. Y. S. Li, the son of a well-beloved pastor in 
the American M. E- Church, was born in Soochow, On 
his graduation from St. John s University, Shanghai, he 
went to the Imperial Medical College, Tientsin. There 
he became a foremost Christian worker, zealous for the 
conversion of his fellow-students, and with them built a 
chapel, at the same time distributing Gospels and 
preaching the Word everywhere. After graduation, Dr. 
l,i, abandoning his profession, became a noted evangel 
ist. In Shanghai he presided over a branch chapel, but 
soon resigned to become teacher in the Anglo-Chinese 
College and later in Soochow University. Dissatisfied, 
however, he went back to his previous career as evangel 
istic preacher, and as such laboured with remarkable 
faith and zeal until his death at Mokansau on August 
16, 1908. 

Rev. CALVIN W. MATEER, D.D., IvL.D. , was born 
January 9th, 1836, in Mechanicsburg, Penu. Graduating 
as teacher in 1857, and as minister in 1861, he became 
pastor in Delaware until 1863, when he sailed for China. 
Of his life and work especially in Chefoo, Rev. W. P. 
Chalfant gives a very good summary in these words : 
" Dr. Mateer was a man of unusual versatility. He was 
versed in applied mathematics and mechanics, and was 
a practical electrician. He was one of the best speakers 
of the Mandarin dialect in North China, was a power 
ful preacher, especially in Chinese, and the chairman 
and organizer of the Mandarin Committee of the New 
Testament revision. He rightly regarded his work on 
Bible translation as the crowning work of his life . . . 
His life has been an inspiration to those who have come 
into contact with him, and his death (September 28th, 
1908) means unspeakable loss to the cause of Christ in 
China. In his unsparing devotion to that cause, Dr. 
Mateer illustrated the pregnant words from which he 
used to preach in Chinese one of his most impressive 
sermons, 4 He saved others, Himself He could not save. 



OBITUARIKS. XV 

Miss CATHARINE MARIA RICKETTS came to China 
in the fall of 1878. In the home land she had gained 
great experience and did noble work in connection with 
the Sunday School, the Y. W. C. A., and the Board 
School of Brighton, England. Influenced and encour 
aged by Mr. Duff us, of the Swatow Mission, she came 
out to labour for twenty-nine years in the girls board 
ing-school, and later among the women of her mission. 
After her arrival the Women s Missionary Association 
was formed, and she was appointed its first represent 
ative. Throughout her life, first at Swatow at then at 
Chao-chow-foo, she spent much time in writing and 
printing booklets and sheet-tracts. But she was most 
successful in teaching the women and worked among 
them always with infinite patience and labour. 

On the igth of November, 1839, Mrs. URSULA 
JOHNSON STANLEY was born in Cincinnati, Ohio. In 
1862 she sailed with her husband for China, and they 
took up their headquarters in Tientsin. Mrs. Stanley 
began the first organized work for women and the first 
boarding-school for girls in North China. She was 
gifted with "a fine mind, highly cultured, deep and 
broad sympathies and a rare sense o humour." But 
among all the traits of her strong personality that of 
motherliness seemed to impress those who came in con 
tact with her most. The Union Church, the Ladies Be 
nevolent Society, and a ladies literary ^ club were greatly 
indebted to her for help and inspiration. Of the last, 
she was the honorary leader until her death on the 8th 
of September, 1908. 

JAMES EDWARD WILLIAMS, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., 
was born at Seaford, Lincolnshire, England in 1855. 
After graduating in medicine at St. Bartholomew s 
Hospital, London, he engaged in medical mission work 
for some time. In 1890 he felt a call of God for workers 
in China, and the same year came out. After the pre- 



XVl CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

liminary training at the C. I. M. Home at Ganking, he 
rendered valuable service as a medical missionary in 
several provinces, and the Christlike devotion and sym 
pathy endeared him to both foreigners and Chinese. As 
a member of the Central Committee for Famine Relief at 
Chinkiang, he opened a dispensary and improvised hos 
pital and ministered faithfully to the suffering people. 
Whilst engaged in this work he contracted typhus fever 
about the middle of May, 1907, and died shortly after. 



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APPENDIX IV. 



SOME ARTICLES ON CHINA IN THE MAGAZINES 
FOR J908-J909. 

The Coining Man In China, Viceroy Yuan Shih-kai, review of 
an article by Mr. Charles Denby in " Pacific Era " of January, 
1908, in " Review of Reviews " for February, 1908. 

China and the Great Nations, review in "Review of Reviews" 
for May, 1908. 

A Chinese Republic, a review in " Review of Reviews " for May 
1908. 

The Foreign Garrisons in Peking, editorial in " Review of Re 
views " for January, 1908. 

Chinese Students in Japan, review of an article by Mr. V. K. Ting 
in "Westminster Review," in "Review of Reviews" for 
January, 1908. 

Chinese Opinions of To-day, by Avesnes, Correspondant," Jan 
uary. 10, 1908. 

Christian Missions, by F. W. Fox and others, " Contemp. Rev.," 
February 1908. 

Chinese and Japanese, by Loo-py, "La Revue," January 15, 1908. 

China and the Language Question, by Howard Swan, " Anier. 
Rev. of Revs," February, 1908. 

Law Reform in China, by C. S. Lohinger, " Anier. Rev. of Revs.," 
February, 1908. 

The Heavenly Foot Society, review of an article by Rev. John 
MacGowan in "Modern Review," "Review of Reviews," 
February, 1908. 

Press Legislation, editorial in " Review of Reviews," March, 1908. 

The Opium Question, by A. de Pouvourville, "La Revue," Feb 
ruary 15, 1908. 

China and Its National Army, by Capt. M. Kincaid Smith, "Em 
pire Rev." March, 1908." 

The Chinese Theatre, by Paul d enjoy, " La Revue," February i, 
1908. 

The Reform Movement in China, by Count de Pouvourville, 
"Deutsche Rev.," April 1908. 

Coolie Labour, by Dr. R. Schachner, " Preussische Jalirbucher," 
March, 1908. 

The Races of China, by M. von Brandt, " Deutsche Rundschau," 
May. 1908. 

Deaths of the Emperor and the Dowager-Empress, edit, in " Re 
view of Reviews," December, 1908. 



XXIV CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

A Chinese Statesman s View of Religion, Hibbert Journal, Octo 
ber, 1908, reviewed in " Review of Reviews " under Kang Yu- 

\vei, November, 1908. 
The Late Chinese Empress, review of an article by Sir Henry 

Blake in the " Nineteenth Century," "Review of Reviews," 

December. 1908. 

Kiaotchau. by R. Ockel. "Westminster Rev.," July, 1908. 
Political Parties in China, by Chinese Student," " Westminster 

Rev.." August. 1908. 
The Chinese Problem b,y Paul Rohrbach, " Preussische Jahr- 

bucher," October, 1908. 
What the American Fleet Could do for China, by B. L. Putnam 

Weale, " North Ainer. Rev.," October, 1908. 
Chinese Education : 

Allen, Rev. R., in " Cornhill," November 1908. 

Kanda, T. M., in " World s Work," November, 1908. 
Chinese Emigration, Grande Rev.," October 10, 1908. 
The Rule of the Empress Dowager, by Sir W. Blake, " Nineteenth 

Cent.," December, 1908. 
Social Transformation in China, by Chinese Cambridge-man, 

"Contemp, Rev., 1 December, 1908. 

The Boxer Indemnity, by J. C. Hall, " Positivist Rev.," Decem 
ber, fgoS. 

The Jews in China, by S. M. Perlmann, " International," Novem 
ber. 1908. 
Tsingtau, by P. Rohrbach, " Preussische Jahrbucher," November, 

1908. 
China Rushing Ahead, review of an article by Mr. David Lambuth 

in " American Rev. of Reviews," Review of Reviews," 

February, 1909. 
Apprenticing China to Self-Rule, review of an article in "North 

American Review," by Dr. O. F. Wisner, "Review of 

Reviews," June, 1909. 
The Chinese Emperor, Truth about his Death, review of an article 

in " L,a Revue" by Francis Mury, " Review of Reviews," 

March, 1909. 
Chinese Women, Bound Feet versus Pinched Waists, review of an 

article in "The Century Magazine," by Professor Headland, 

" Review of Reviews," April, 1909. 
The Regent of China, review of an article in "The Century 

Magazine, " by Professor Headland, "Review of Reviews," 

April, 1909. 
The Late Empress of China, review of an article in " Fortnightly 

Review," for Jan., 1909, by Dr. E. J. Dillon, "Review of 

Reviews," Jan., 1909. 
The Late Empress of China, review of an article in "Contemp. 

Rev.," by Mrs. L. H. Hoover, " Review of Reviews," January, 
1909. 



ARTICLES ON CHINA IN THE MAGAZINES. XXV 

China : Agreement with Japan, editorials in " Review of Reviews," 

September and October, 1909. 
Chinese Impressions, by Lord William Cecil, " National Review," 

July, 1909. 
The Chinese Awakening, by W. A. McKinney, "World To-day," 

September, 1909. 
China in Transformation, by A. Colquhoun, " Fortnightly Rev.," 

September, 1909. 

Why China Sleeps, by Lieut. L. A. Cotten, "Arena," August, 1909. 
New Ideas in China, by L. Laloy, "Grande Rev.," October 25, 

1909. 
A Century of Progress in China, by C. I. M., "Miss. Rev. of 

the World," May and November , 1909. 
Educational Reform in China, "Miss. Rev. of the World," 

August, 1908. 
Some Facts about China To-Day f by Rev. E. W. Thwing, May, 

1908. 
Fifty Years Ago and Now in South China, by Rev. R. H. Graves, 

D.D., "Miss. Rev. of the World," November, 1908. 
China is Awake, Are We? by Rev.. Louis Byrde, Miss. Rev. of 

the World," from "The Church Missionary Gleaner," 

February, 1908. 
The New Woman in China, by Helen Davies, "Miss. Rev. of the 

World," May, 1908, from" " The Wesleyan Foreign Missions 

Journal." 
The Trend of Education in China, by Mary E. Carlton, M.D., 

" Miss. Rev. of the World," February, 1908. 
China s Awakening and Christianity, by Rev. Robert F. Fitch, 

" Mis. Rev. of the World," February, 1908. 
China s Need of Jesus Christ, by a Chinese, " Miss. Rev. of the 

World," February, 1908, from the " World s Chinese Students 

Journal." 
The Chinese Race as a Factor in the World s Life, by Marshall 

Broonihall, "China s Millions," May, 1908. 
The Christian Literature Society for China, by Rev. D. 

MacGillivray, "Miss. Rev. of the World," February, 1909. 
John Kenneth Mackenzie, the Beloved Physician of Tientsin, by 

Belle M. Brain, " Miss. Rev. of the World," August, 1909. 
The Chinese National C. E. Convention, by Mrs. Emma Inveen 

Upcraft, " Miss. Rev. of the World," September, 1909. 
Pastor Hsi A Miracle in China, by Edwin Leslie, " Miss. Rev. of 

the World," February, 1909. 
Sowing in Stony Places in China, by Rev. A. J. McFarlane, 

" Miss. Rev. of the World," February, 1909. 
The God Who Can Move London, by Rev. J. Gcforth. "Miss. 

Rev. of the World," August, 1909. Condensed from the " Life 

of Faith," May 5, 1909. 



XXVI CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK 

The Union Educational Scheme of Western China, by Rev. W. F. 

Beainan, Miss. Rev. of the World," May, 1909. 
An American-Chinese Christian Circle by C. T. Wang, " Miss. 

Rev. of the World." February, 1909. 
The Chinese Dragon s Awakening, by Rev. K. I. Doty, " Miss. 

Rev. of the World." February, 1909, from "The Chinese 

Recorder. 
The Great Awakening in Manchuria, by Rev. P. P. Faris, " Miss. 

Rev. of the World " February, 1909. from "-The Christian 

Endeavour World." 

Missionary Influence in Chinese Reform, by Isaac Taylor Head 
land, Miss. Rev. of the World." January. 1909. 
Christian Missions as Affected by Liberal Theology, by Rev. J. W. 

Burton, " Hibbert Journal," January, 1909, 
Religious and Social Aspects of the Cult of Ancestors and Heroes, 

by I.. R. Farnell. D.I.itt... Hibbert Journal," January, 1909. 
Christianity and the Empire in Rome and in China, by Rev. P. J. 

Maclagan, M.A., D.Phil., " Hibbert Journal, " April. 1909. 
A Chinese Solomon, by Sir J. George Scott, K.C.I.E., " Contemp. 

Rev.," August, 1909. 
The New Education in China, by Paul S. Reinsch. "Atlantic 

Monthly," April, 1909. 
The Empress Dowager of China, by I. T. Headland, " Outlook/ 

1909 
Manchuria. Desired of Nations, by George Marvin, "Outlook,"" 

December. 1909. 

America and the Far Easteni Question, by L. R. Wilfley, "Out 
look, May 29, 1909, 



APPENDIX V. 



CORRECTIONS AND ADDENDA FOR "A CENTURY OF 
MISSIONS IN CHINA." 

As this work will not be reprinted, it is thought 
that the following list of corrections and addenda may 
be useful to any who would like to insert them in their 
copies : 

Page 8. 3rd line from top. After Hryson insert, "and the 
Rev. Alex. King," 

Page 16. Last line. Instead of " W. Hopkyn Rees " put 
"R. Ward law Thompson." 

Also add another book, "Pocket Dictionary Mrs. 

A. Foster." 

Page 18. 4th line from lx>ttom. Insert 14 King, Alex 1880." 

Page 69. I2th line from bottom. Instead of "Dr. William 
son, of the Scotch Presbyterian Mission," put "other missions." 

Page 73. Last line. For " English " put " Chinese." 

Page 83. i6th line from top. After " Gospel Village" insert 
<4 35 miles north of Hsi An fti." 

Page 85. Bottom of page. Add " Statistics : 824 in full mem 
bership. 4 Schools in Hsi An fu. Day Schools, 26. Scholars, 360." 

Page 135. 8th line from top . Communicants should be 
instead of "8,867," " 14,078." 

Also, for the opening paragraph, substitute the following : 

"Headquarters: Woosung Road, Shanghai. Founder: The 
late J. Hudson Taylor, M.R.C.S. General Director: D. E. Hoste. 
Home Departments: Newington Green, Mildmay, London, N., 
England ; 235 School Lane, Germantown. Philadelphia, Pa., t". S. 
A.; 507 Church Street, Toronto, Canada ; 267 Collins Street, 
Melbourne, Australia,, with a branch office in Auckland, New 
Zealand. There are Councils in China and in each of the home 
centres. Entered China 1866." 

i6th line from tottoin. Delete " Independent." 

Page 136. nth line from top. Substitute " inter-denomina 
tional " for "pan-denominational." 

Also, 1 2th line from top. Insert " Protestant " before " Chris 
tians." 

Page 138. roth line from bottom. Delete the sentence " In 
1886 quarter." 

Page 138. 4th line from bottom. After " The Work in China" 
insert " In the year 1886 important developments in the adminis- 



XXV111 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

tration of the work throughout the field were instituted ; a China 
Council being formed, composed of superintendents and a few 
other senior workers, who meet in Shanghai once a quarter. The 
work throughout the country is divided into districts, each of 
which is under the care of a superintendent." 

Page 144. 2oth line from bottom. Instead of "were sub 
sequently relinquished " put " the former place was subsequently 
relinquished." 

Page 146. Footnote. For "See Life, by his widow" put 
"See Twenty-six Years of Missionary Work in China" by his 
widow. 

Page 149. i6th line from bottom " The life of her husband " 
by Mrs. Stott, should be "Twenty-six Years of Missionary Work 
in China." 

I4th line from top. "Days of Blessing in Inland China" is 
by " Montagu Beauchamp," not "Stanley Smith." 

29th line from top. "The Culture and Conversion of a Con- 
fucianist " should be " One of China s Scholars." 

I4th line from bottom. Insert "A. GRAINGER 

Dictionary of Western Mandarin." 

Page 196. 22nd line from top. Insert asterisk after Cook, to 
refer to footnote, "Sunny Singapore, by Rev. J. A. B. Cook." 

Page 259. 2yth line from top. Instead of "seventy" put 
"eighty." 

Page 280. loth line from top. " 1886 " should be " 1865." 

Page 379. 4th line from top. After Central China insert 
" Hunan." 

Page 384. 22nd line from bottom. Instead of " 1873-1879" 
put " 1875-1899." 

Page 387. 23rd line from bottom. " 1905 " should be " 1907." 

23rd line from bottom. " 17 " should be " 23." 

1 6th line from bottom. " Fifty " should be " thirty." 

Page 400. 4th line from top. " Husbands " should be "hus 
band." 

Page 430. 3rd line from top. Insert asterisk after " Hu Bo- 
mi s," then add footnote with asterisk :." The Way of Faith 
Illustrated, Autobiography of Hu Yong-mi, brother of Bo-mi. 
Eaton and Mains, 1896, pp. 259." 

Page 457. gth line from top. Instead of sentence "Miss 

Lydia Fay China," insert " The first American single 

ladies to come to China were Miss Eliza J. Gillett, Miss Emma G. 
Jones, and Miss Mary J. Morse, who all came out in April, 1845, 
under the Protestant Episcopal Mission. Miss Gillett married Dr. 
E. C. Bridgman on the 28th June of the same year. See Index, 
Mrs. Bridgman. also Wylie, p. 72. She died in 1868." 

i8th line from bottom. Instead of "whom is not known," 
put "the L. M. S." 



CORRECTIONS FOR " A CENTURY OF MISSIONS". XXJX 

Page 464. 9th line from bottom. Insert " e " after " I, " in 

"Lonora." 

Page 472. iSth line from top. "Down " should be "Douw." 

20th line from top. Insert " Mrs. Lucy E. C. Starr 1870." 

Bottom line. After Dr." insert "A. I." 

Page 479. 1 9th line from top. After "Schaub " insert " 1874- 

1900." 

Page 508. ist and 2nd line from top. Omit the apostrophe 

in the word " Hauge s." 

1 6th line from top. " Fairhault " should be " Faribault." 
24th line from top. After " Ronning " insert "and Miss 

Ronning." 

27th line from top. " Del " should be " Den." 

28th line from top. " Salshab " should be " Salskab." 

In the footnote, " Sweden should be " Norway." 

Page 512. i4th line from bottom. "150,00" should be 

44 150,000." 

Page 516. 2nd line from top. In " Hegel seforbundet " insert 

" 1" after the first "e." 

Page 524. The name of the mission should be " Swedish 

American Missionary Covenant," 

Page 525. 7th line from bottom. Insert " 1905 " after "Cov." 
2nd line from bottom. " 167 " should be " 283." 
Page 546. I7th line from top. Omit " s " in the word " Rob 
erts." 

Pags 569. nth line from top. Omit " Pekinese." 

Page 57 1 - l6tn Hue from bottom. " Inland Mission" should 

be " Mission Field." 

Page 573. 3rd line from bottom. To the statistics add those 

for 

" 1906 2,096 18,683 927,228 948,007 " and 

total of 19,357 253,163 8,659.650 8,932,170 

Page 573, Bottom line. Instead of "by the million" put 
41 at a similar number." 

Page 665. 4th line from bottom. " 1816" should be " 1817." 
* Went to " should be "reached." 

Appendix I, Page ii. 2Oth line from bottom. " 1853 " should 
be " 1854." 

Appendix I, Page iii. Last line, "built" should be 
41 occupied." 

Appendix I, Page iv, 6th line from bottom, Insert " Messrs. 
Bruce and Lowis, of the C. I. M., killed at Chenchow, Hunan." 

Appendix I, Page v. igth line from bottom. Insert " 1873 
W. E. McChesney, American Presbyterian Board, killed by pirates 
on Canton river." 

i6th line from bottom. The names should be " Messrs. F. O. 
Wikholm and A. D. Johansson." 



XXX CHINA MISSION YKAK BOOK. 

Appendix I, Page viii. loth line from bottom. Insert " 1902 
J. R. Bruce and R. H. Lowis, of the C. I. M., at Chenchovv, 
Hunan. Last line. " 221 " should l>e " 224," 

Appendix I, Page ix, i8th line from bottom. Change "on " 
to " 111 " in the word " Knthusiason. 

Appendix I, Page xxi. 8th line from bottom, last column. 
" 467 " should be " 468." 

Appendix I, Page xxv. nth line from !x>ttom, last column. 
Insert Jones, Miss E. J., 457." 

Appendix I. Page xxvi. 34th line from top first column. 
Insert " King, Alex. , 8, 18." 

Appendix I, Page xxvii. 4th line from top, second column. 
Insert " McChesney, \V. F,., App. V." 

Appendix I, Page xxxiv. 4th line from top, 2nd column. 
Before " Hinghua" insert " Foochow, 430." 

Appendix I, Page xxxv. 9th line from bottom, 2nd column. 
Insert "Johore; 194." 

Appendix I, Page xxxvi. 2nd Hue from top, 2nd column. 
Insert "Malay States; 194." 

Appendix I, Page xxxvii. 2ivd column. Line 17 should follow 
line 24. 

Appendix II. Page I, 2nd and 3rd line from to]). The figures 
" 50" should be "64," "18" should be "21," and "31 " should 
be "32." 

Appendix II, Page 2. 8th line from bottom. " 1834 " should 
be "1835." 

Appendix II, Page 4. Last line. Add " Ev. M. Evangelical 
Association of North America." 

Appendix II, Pages. 3*~d line from top. After Mission" 
add "England. See A. F. M." 

The editor of * A Century of Missions in China " 
has received other minute corrections and additions 
which, however, need not be mentioned here. 

As to the list of missionaries who came to China 
during the century, he has revised and augmented the 
list with 558 new names, and in the absence of a new 
edition it may be that the new list will be printed in 
some succeeding year book. 



APPENDIX VI. 

CHURCH OFFICIALS. 
Methodist Episcopal Mission (North). 

Presidents of Methodist Conferences : The Two Bishops _ 
Bishop James W. Bashford. residence, Peking. 
Bishop Wilson S. Lewis, residence, Foochow. 

Secretaries : 

North China Conference, Rev. Carl A. Felt. Peking. 
Central China Conference, Rev. Win. R. Johnson, Nanking. 
Foochow Conference, Rev. W. H. Lacy, Shanghai. 
Hinghua Conference. Rev. F. C. Carson", Hi nglma, via F(x>chow. 
West China Mission Conference, Rev. Ray L. Tor rev, Chun"- 



. 

The treasurers of conferences are the proper correspondents. 
The secretaries are only recorders at the Conference sessions. 

Mission Treasurers : 

North China Conference, Mr. Oliver. J. Kranse, Tientsin. 
Central China Conference. Rev. Dr. Robert C. Heebe. Nanking. 
Foochow Conference, Mr. W. S. Bissonette. Foochow. 
Hinghna Conference, Rev. W. X. Brewster, Hiiigluia. 
West China Mission Conference, Rev. Ray S. Torre v, Chung 
king. 



C. I. M. Superintendents of Provinces. 

Kansti : Rev. G. Andrew, Lanchowfn, via Hankow and Sianfu. 
Shensi : Rev. G. F. Kaston, Hanchtillgfll, via Hankow and 

Sianfu. (On his way out.) 
Shansi : Rev. A. Lutley. Chaochengsha, via Peking. 

Rev. A. Berg, Yuncheng, via Hankow and Honanfu. 
Kiansu : Rev. A. R. Saunders. Yangchow, via Chinkiang. 
Szechwan : Right Rt-v. Bishop Cassels, Paoning, via Iclian^ and 
Wanhsien. 

Dr. H. L. Parry, Chungking. 

Rev. J. Vale, Chengtu. 

Yunnan : Rev. J. McCarthy. Yunnanfu, via Hokow and Mengts/.. 
Kian^si : A. Orr- lowing 1-isq.. Kiukiang. 
Anhwei : C. T. Fishe, Esq., Wuhu. 
Chekiang : Rev. J. J. Meadows. Shaohingfu. 



XXX11 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Bishops of the Anglican Communion in China and Hongkong. 

Chekiang (with jurisdiction over English congregations in Mid 
China): The Right Rev. H. J. Molony, D.D., Ningpo. 

Fukien : The Right Rev. H. McC. E. Price, M.A., Foochow. 

*Hankow: The Right Rev. L. H. Roots, D.D., Hankow. 

tHonan : The Right Rev. W. C. White, D.D., Kaifengfu. 

Hunan and Kwangsi : The Right Rev. William Banister, D.D. 

North China : The Right Rev. C. P. Scott, D.D., Peking. 

"Shanghai : The Right Rev. F. R. Graves, D.D., Shanghai. 

Shantung : The Right Rev. G. D. Iliff, D.D., Taianfu. 

Victoria (with jurisdiction in Kwangtung): The Right Rev. G. 
H. Lander. D.D., Hongkong. 

West China: The Right Rev. W. W. Cassels, B.A., Paoningfu, 
Szechuen. 

The Missions of the English, American and Canadian 
Churches are united in the 4> Conference of the Anglican 
Communion." This conference will meet in April, 1912, 
at Shanghai. There is a Standing Committee of the 
conference, of which Bishop Scott is convener. 

* American. 
f Canadian. 

College Presidents. 

Anglo-Chinese College, Anioy, H. F. Rankin, F.E.I.S. 

Anglo-Chinese College, Foochow, J. Gowdy, B.A., B.D. 

Anglo-Chinese College. Shanghai. J. W. Cline. D.D. 

Boone University, Wuchang, Jas. Jackson, D.D. 

Canton Christian College, C. K. Edmunds, Ph.D. 

English Methodist College, Ningpo, H. S. Redfern, M.A. 

Foochow College, L. B. Peet, M.A. 

Griffith John College, Hankow, A. J. McFarlane, B.A. 

Hangchow College, J. H. Judson, B.A. 

Manchuria Mission College, D. F. Robertson, M.D. 

Medhurst College, Shanghai, H. LI. W. Bevan, M.A. 

Nanking Union University, A. J. Bowen, B.A. 

North China Union College, D. Z. Sheffield, D.D. 

North China Union College of Theology. C. H. Fenn, D.D. 

North China Union Woman s College, Miss L,. Miner, M.A. 

Peking University, H. H. Lowry, D.D. 

Shanghai Baptist College, J. T. Proctor, B.D. 

Shantung Christian University, P- D- Bergen, D.D. 

Soochow University, D. L, Anderson, D.D. 



CHURCH OFFICIALS. XXX111 

St. John s University, Shanghai, F. L. Hawks Pott, D.D. 

Tientsin Anglo-Chinese College, S. LavingtonHart, M.A.,D.Sc. 

Trinity College, Ningpo, W. S. Moule, M.A. 

Union Medical College, Hankow, R. T. Booth, M.D. 

West China Union University. Chentn. 

William Nast College, Kiukiang, C. F. Kupfer, Ch.D. 

Woman s College of South China, Foochow, Miss Trimble. 

Yale College, Changsha, Hunan, B. Gage, Dean. 



General. 

Archibald, J., Hankow, National Bible Society. 

Bondfield, G. H., Shanghai, agent B. and F. Bible Society. 

Brockman, F. S., Shanghai, Gen. Sec. Y. M. C. A. in China. 

Cousland, P. B., President Medical Assoc. of China. 

Darroch, J., Shanghai, Agent R. T. S., London. 

Fitch, Geo. F., Editor Chinese Recorder. 

Hoste, D. H., Shanghai, Director C. I. M. 

Hykes, J. R., Shanghai, Agent American Bible Society. 

Reid, Gilbert, Shanghai, Director International Institute. 

Richard, T., Shanghai, Secretary C. L. S. 

Silsby, J. A., Shanghai, Sec y Educational Assoc. of China. 

Stuart, Geo. A., Shanghai, Editor Methodist Publications. 



APPENDIX VIL 

NORTH-CHINA BRANCH OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC 
SOCIETY. 

The present officers of the Society are : President, Sir 
Pelham Warren, K.C.M.G.; Vice-President, T. W. Kingsmill, 
Esq.; Hon. Secretary, John C. Ferguson, Ph.D.; Hon. Treasurer, 
E. S. Little, Esq.; Hon. Librarian, Mrs. F. Ayscough ; Hon. 
Curator, Dr. A. Stanley ; Councillors, Col. C. D. Bruce, W. G. 
Lay, Esq., W. E. Leveson, M.A., Dr. Prof. C. du Bois-Reyniond, 
Rev. S. Cotiling. 

The Society maintains a library which is open to 
the public. It has recently been re-catalogued and made 
available for immediate use by the adoption of a card 
index. This library is one of the most valuable in 
existence on subjects connected with China. 

A museum is also supported by the Society, con 
taining a large collection of birds, butterflies, and moths, 
and other specimens of general scientific interest. 

Membership in the Society is obtained by the pro 
posal and seconding of a candidate by members of the 
Society. The subscription is $5 per annum, which 
entitles to a copy of the Society s journal, containing 
papers of special interest to Chinese students. Many 
missionaries belong to the Society, 



APPENDIX VIII. 

CHINA CENTENARY MISSIONARY CONFERENCE. 
The Committee s Final Report. 

At a meeting of the Executive Committee held on 
the ist of February the secretary s and treasurer s 
reports were presented and passed, and thus the long 
labours of the committee were brought to a close. It 
will be remembered that the Executive Committee was 
to continue in office until the accounts and business of 
the conference had been settled, and it will not be a 
surprise to anyone familiar with the conference records 
and resolutions to know that it has taken the committee 
nearly three years to complete its duties. Before the 
chairman formally declared the Executive Committee 
dissolved, the following missionaries were nominated as 
the permanent committee : 

Rt. Rev. Bishop F. R. Graves, D.D. 

Rev. G. F. Fitch, D.I). 

Rev. J. R. Hykes, D.D. 

Rev. E. Box." 

Rev. D. E. Hoste. 

Rev. G. H. Homlfield. 

Rev. D. MacGillivray, D.D. 

The Permanent Committee organized by electing 
the Rt. Rev. Bishop Graves, Chairman ; Dr. G. F. 
Fitch, Treasurer ; and Rev. G. H. Bondfield , Secretary. 

Secretary s Report. A report on the work of the 
various committees appointed by the conference was 
published in the September and October numbers of 
the Chinese Recorder, 1908, and is presented herewith. 
To that report there is but little to add. 

i. The Committee (No. 8) on the Preparation of a 
Message to the Literati of China issued their message 



XXXVI CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

early last year. The draft, prepared by Rev. T. W. 
Pearce, and approved by his colleagues, Revs. Dr. 
Chauncey Goodrich and F. W. Bailer, was submitted to 
several other sinologues and finally prepared for the 
press by Mr. Pearce and his able Chinese helpers. Over 
10,000 copies (in parcels of 10, 15, 25 and 50) were 
posted to the mission stations throughout the empire. 
Many missionaries wrote for additional copies, and every 
where it appears to have been welcomed as an admirable 
statement and a timely appeal. The committee, and 
the translators in particular, are to be congratulated on 
the success of this publication. The message should not 
be allowed to go out of print. 

2. The Committee (No. 15) on the Form of Prayer 
also successfully completed their labours, and some 
thousands of the revised prayer were sent out in April 
last. Several letters of thanks have been received. 

3. With regard to the organization or work of the 
Committee (No. 19) on the Preparation of Comme?itarieSt 
I have merely to repeat what was reported in Octo 
ber, 1908, viz., no information of any kind has been 
received. 

4. Publication. The instructions of the conference 
to publish records of the proceedings and the addresses, 
etc., that were delivered, were carried out, and the 
treasurer s report shows that the sale of these books and 
of the Century of Missions has not only helped to finance 
the conference but has left a substantial balance in the 
treasurer s hands. The committee is greatly indebted 
to the editors and sub-committees for preparing and 
seeing these volumes through the press. 

The following details may be of interest : 

Number of Copies 
Cost, copies sold. on hand. 

1,000 Century of Missions ... $2,880.32 946 

3 ooo Conference Records ... 5,413.26 2,095 877 

1,000 Conference Addresses 671.53 322 654 



CENTENARY CONFERENCE COMMITTEE . 



XXXVll 



Copies of the "Records" and "Addresses" were 
presented as mementos to reviewers, reporters, editors 
and others, and to members of committees, etc., as 
sanctioned by resolutions of the Kxecutive Committee. 
Letters of thanks are attached to this report. 

A resolution dealing with the remaining stock will 
be submitted to this meeting. 

5. It now only remains for the Executive Committee 
to complete its labours in accordance with the conference 
resolutions (Records, p. 757), to pass for publication a 
cash statement and appoint the committee. 

G. H. BONDFIEI.D, Hon. Secretary. 



CENTENARY CONFERENCE COMMITTEE. 
BALANCE SHEET. 



Assets. 

Cash at bank ...... $ 331-79 

Due by American Tract 

Society ..... 1,211.38 

Stock at cost value : 

877 Records ...... 1,562.87 

654 Addresses ... 438.98 
Typewriter and writing 

utensils in secretary s 

office ... ... ... 



13,535.02 



Liabilities. 

Due to Methodist Pub 
lishing House ...$ 800.00 
Cr. balance ... ... 2,785.02 



$3.585-02 
G. F. FITCH, Treasurer : 



Audited and compared with books and 
vouchers and found correct. 

J. N. HAY WARD. 
S. K. SM ALLEY. 



APPENDIX IX. 



LIST OF NEW STATIONS. 
Opened Since the Conference of J907. 

This list contains 54 names. A few places have been abandoned 
since 1907. 



Name of Provinct, 



Name of Station. 



Anhwei : 
Chekiang : 
Chihli : 
Honan : 



Hunan : 
Htipch: 
Fukien : 



Kansi : 
Kiangsi : 

Kiang.su : 



Kuangsi : 
Kuangtung 



None. 

None. 

None. 

Hsu Cheo * *H 

Kih Hsien ft &. 

Kio Shan it |!l *&. 

Kvveiteh Fu &jf $j /. 

Lo Shan jg UJ fc. 

Tao K ow 58 p . 

Nan Chow Ting. 

U Kang. 

Linyang. 

Kien Li %\\ &. 

Kingchowfu $J j\\ tff. 

Kingmenchow $J| H 

Pu Cheng nU 1$. 

Sun Ki ^ J^. 

Yungan. 

None. 

Ku Ling 55 $fc. 

Yung Feng Hsien 7K 

Antung ^c )!( 

Hai Chow i1;t >H. 

Nan Tung Chow j$f i 

Lung Chow gg ^ Jsg. 

Chong Lok. 

Pophin. 

Hopo, via Swatow. 

Kao Tang ifa ffi. 

Ko Chow ifS t!1. 

Kong jNIoon. 

Lenphin. 

Poklo ft?M- 

Santong. 

Ts in Shan. 

Waichowfu. 



By whom opened. 



Augustana Syn. 
Am. Free Meth. 
Amer. Luth. 
Christian M. 
Amer. Luth. 
C. P. M. 
C. I. M. 
Liebenzell. 
W. M. S. 
Swed. M. S. 

Sw. A in. Cov. 
C. M. S. 
C. M. S. 
M. E. M. 

C. I. M. 
C. I. M. 
C. I. M. 
A. P. M. So. 
For. C. M. 
C. and M. A. 
Basel M. 

A! B. M. u. 

N. Z. P. M. 
A. P. M. 
C. P. M. 
Basel M. 
L. M. S. 
Rhen. M. 
Bible M. 
S. D. A. 





libT OI< NEW .STAT1 


ONS. XXXIX 


No. me of Pt ovi 


nee. Name, of Station. 


By whom opened. 


Kweichow : 


None. 




Shansi : 


Chieh Chow. 


Sw. M. in C 


Shantung : 


Pcichen -& j. 


K. B. M. 


Shensi : 


Suitechow Jg fcg ft. 


K. B. M. 


Sinkiang : 
Szechwan : 


Yen Ngan fu. /jfj 
TihwafuJlflj ffr. 
Batang. 


K. B. M. 
C. I. M. 

C. I. M. 




Hochow -Q ft. 


M. E. M. 




Lucbow. 


C. M. M. 




Mow Chow. 


C. M. S. 




Penbsien. 


C. M. M. 




Siaoki. 


C. I. M. 




Tachu. 


C. I. M. 




Tzelintsing. 


C. M. M. 




Yei Chow. 


C. I. M. 


Yunnan : 


Sap ushan (Wulingchow). 


C. I. M. 




Tengyueh. 


C. I. M. 


Manchuria : 


Ch ao Yang Chen ^ SJ g|. 


U. F. C. S. 




Dalny. 


Dan. Luth. M. 




Hulan iPp Vft. 


U. F. C. vS. 




Hwaijen jg fc. 


Dan. Luth. M. 




Yungling 7 ^ (^. 


U. F. C. S. 


Mongolia : 


Paotou. 


Scan. All. M. 



APPENDIX X. 



HALLEY S COMET IN CHINA. 

N Halley s comet was seen last in 1835, Robert 
Morrison had just died, and there were no mis 
sionaries on the mainland of China anywhere. 
The year before, the opium dispute began at Canton, 
and China s troubles on that account might very well 
have been attributed to the comet which blazed in 
the sky the following year. At any rate there was no 
one save a few Catholic missionaries to explain to the 
people the wonders of the solar system, of which comets 
form a part. 

It is the object of this brief paper to describe what 
was done in 1909-10 to enlighten the Chinese people as 
to these phenomena. The presence of so many foreign 
ers scattered up and down through every province of 
China rendered the possibility of riots all the more 
likely, especially if designing revolutionaries pointed to 
the comet as a signal of probable successful rebellion. 
When on September n, Professor Wolfe, of Heidelberg, 
Germany, got the first photographic evidence of the 
approaching visitor, interest in the comet was world 
wide. But it was not till November that it was sug 
gested that missionaries ought to look alive and betimes 
prepare literature for the widest distribution. At that 
time the writer was paying a visit to some cities in the 
far interior, and in the course of an address, which was 
listened to by many officials and students, referred to 
the comet as due to appear shortly, visible to the naked 
eye. The address was, much to the surprise of the 
speaker, interrupted at this point by excited enquiries 
for further particulars. This experience gave birth to 
the idea of a wide comet propaganda, and on my return 
to Shanghai the idea was set afloat by the preparation 



H ALLEY S COMET IN CHINA. xli 

of a striking poster by the Christian Literature Society. 
At the same time letters were dispatched to six tract 
societies pointing out the importance of preparing the 
minds of the Chinese people, lest secret societies work 
on their feelings, causing much unrest and possibly 
riots in different parts. To prevent these sad conse 
quences, all classes in China, merchants as well as mis 
sionaries, were all equally interested, and the help of 
the foreigner could be relied upon to aid in circulating 
the tract. 

As a result of these letters, in addition to the 
Christian- Literature Society s tract, tracts were prepared 
in Hankow, Shanghai, and West China. Practically 
all of these tracts were on sale at a very cheap rate long 
before the comet became visible to the naked eye in 
China, and this was a great advantage. The Chinese 
newspapers reprinted these tracts with comments of 
their own, agreeing with the views set forth in them. 
Copies were also sent to all the high officials of the 
Empire, and to show the interest they took in the tract, 
it was then that the governors, inspectors of education, 
etc., from Yunnan to Manchuria, ordered 33,000 copies, 
which they distributed to all their official subordinates, 
thus covering every corner of their provinces. Consuls 
were also zealous in the good work. A letter to the 
North-China Daily News of January 26, pointing out 
what the literature societies were doing, met a warm 
response, being backed up by a leader on January 28. 
The attention of merchants being thus secured, many of 
them bought quantities for distribution among their 
clients. 

The Christian Literature Society found means to 
have its tract posted up at some 3,500 post offices and 
telegraph offices throughout the Empire, and the tract 
was posted up in many schools. Altogether 115,000 of 
its tract were sold, 2,000 of which went to Korea. 
The following table shows where the tract went as far 
as traceable. 



xlii 



CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 



Statement of Halley s Comet Posters sold in China, 
Japan, and Corea. 



Shantung .. 

Honan 

Hupeh 

Kiangsu 

Hongkong .. 

Hunan 

Chekiang .. 

Chihli 

Anhui 

Kwangtung.. 

Fuhkien 

Shansi 



.. 3,675 


Formosa 


.. 11,460 


Yunnan 


.. 5,250 


Kiaugsi 


H;595 


Manchuria .. 


4,465 


Korea 


i, 080 


Kwangsi 


2,575 


Kweichow .. 


10,700 




1,760 




6,550 


Sundry sales 


6,300 




~ 5,650 






74,160 
40,840 

115,000 



In addition to these, 45,000 copies of the Hankow 
tract were sent out, 30,000 of the West China Society s 
tract were given away, 65,000 of the Chinese Tract 
Society s tract were sold, and 22,000 of Dr. Hallock s 
tract, which was posted all over Shanghai. Most of 
these tracts are of permanent value and will take their 
place in the catalogues for regular sale. The missionaries 
of Kansu got out a special poster of their own, which 
they report as having done much to quiet the people. 

In the months from September onwards the people 
gave constant evidence of growing unrest throughout 
the Empire ; none of it, however, being attributed to the 
comet, which did not become visible until Ma} , but 
these reports sufficiently accentuated the need of remov 
ing at least this one element of additional danger and 
lent wings to the propaganda of enlightenment. A 
spark, so to speak, from the comet, finding the popular 
air already electrified, might well precipitate widespread 
disaster. 

The comet has come and gone, and it is possible for 
us now to sum up the final results of this wide distribu 
tion of comet literature. It is safe to say that never 
before in China was it possible to grapple with supersti 
tion in this fashion. When Halley s comet came before, 
China had no newspapers, no telegraph offices, no post 



HAU,EY S COMET IN CHINA. xliii 

offices, no modern schools. At the present time all 
these things were so many arms wielded by the well 
wishers of China. 

In the first place, peace has been preserved through 
out China. The Changsha riots are well known to have 
had nothing to do with the comet. Correspondents 
reported that when the comet did appear, everybody 
was more or less prepared for it. Even the knowledge 
that on May 19 China, along with the rest of the world, 
was to pass through its tail, produced even less effect 
upon the Chinese than it did upon some people in 
Russia and the Western States of America. They be 
lieved the foreigner when he said the passage through 
the tail would be harmless, for had not the foreigner told 
them of the comet months before they could see it ? 

A second result, then, is a greater respect for the 
foreigner s knowledge. In Kansu the Chinese from long 
waiting began to have their doubts, but in due time the 
foreigner was triumphant, and if he knows so well the 
heavenly bodies perhaps he is an expert also in heavenly 
doctrine. Again, without doubt superstition of every 
sort has received a staggering blow. The comet tract 
pointed out that the heavenly bodies generally have no 
influence for weal or for woe on mankind, and astrology, 
geomancy, and horoscopy have been sensibly weakened. 
For this every foreigner, syndicate company and mer 
chant, should be forever grateful to the missionary body, 
and this because these superstitions are their most 
formidable enemies in China. To multitudes of Chinese 
have come their first ideas of the solar system and 
its great creator, and new and striking attention has 
been called to Christianity in China. The Chinaman is 
happy because he knows the comet will not return for 
another 75 years. 



DIRECTORY OF MISSIONARIES IN CHINA. 



CONTRACTIONS for Societies used in the following list. 



A. A. C. 

A. B. C. F. M. 

A. B. M. U. 

A. B. S. 

A. C. M. 

A.E.P. (All.Ev. P.M.) 



A. F. M. 
A. Free M. M. 
A. L. M. 
A. P. E. 

A. P.M. 

A. P. M.,So.,orS. P. M, 

Apos. F. M. 

A. R. P. M. 

A. So. B., or 8. B. C. 
Aug. 

B. C. M. 

B. & F. B. S. 

B. M. 

Ber. Fo. H. 
Ber. M. 
Bible M. 
Broadcast P. 

C. C. Z. 
Ch. Coll. 
C. E. M. 
C. E. Z. 

Ch. Blind, Peking. 

C. I. M. 

C. L. S. 

C. M. 

C. & M. A. 

C. M. M. 

C. M. S. 

C. P. M. 

C. S. M. 



American Advent Christian. 

American Board of Com. for For. Mis 
sions. 

American B-iptist Missionary Union. 

American Bible Society. 

American Church Mission (or A. P. E.) 

Allgemeines Evangelische Protestantis- 
cher (General Protestant Mission of 
Germany). 

American Friends Mission. 

American Free Methodist M. in China. 

American Lutheran Mission. 

American Protestant Episcopal (or A. 
C. M.) 

American Presbyterian, North. 

Southern Presbyterian Mission. 

Apostolic Faith" Mission. 

American Reformed Presbyterian. 

American vSouthern Baptists. 

Augustana Synod. 

Bible Christian Mission. 

British and Foreign Bible Society. 

Basel Mission. 

Berlin Foundling Home. 

Berlin Mission. 

Bible Mission. 

Broadcast Press. 

Christian Catholic Church in Zion. 

Christian College, Canton. 

Church of England Mission. 

Church of England Zenana Mission. 

Mission for the Chinese Blind, Peking. 

China Inland Mission. 

Christian Literature Society. 

Christian Mission, Ningpo. 

Christian and Missionary Alliance. 

Canadian Methodist Mission. 

Church Missionary Society. 

Canadian Presbyterian Mission. 

Church of Scotland Mission. 



11 



CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 



Cumb. P. M. 

D. L. M. 

E. B. M. 

E. M. M.,orE. M.N.C. 

E. P. M. 

E. U. M.F.C. 

E. W. M. 
Ev. M. 

Fin. F. C. M. 

F. C. M. 

F. F. M. 
Fin. M.S. 

G. M. 

Ger. C. A. M. 
H. M. Blind. 
H. S. M. 
Ind. 

Ind. L. M. 
I. P. M. 
Kieler C. M. 
L. Br. M. 

L. M. S. 

M. E. M. 
M. E. f So. 
M. M. S. 
N. B. S. S. 
Nor. L. M. 
Nor. M. in C. 
Nor. M. S. 
P.C. N. Z. 
R. C. in A. 

R. C. in U. S. 
Rheu. M. S. 
S. A.C. F. 
S. A. M. C. 
S. B.C. 
S. C. 
S. C. A. 
S. D. A. 
Seventh D. B. 
S. Holiness. 
S. M. S. 
S. P. G. 

S. P. M. 



Cumberland Presbyterian Mission. 

Danish Lutheran Mission. 

English Baptist Mission. 

English Methodist New Connexion. 

English Presbyterian Mission. 

English United Methodist. 

English Wesleyan Mission. 

Evangelical As sociation of North Amer 
ica. 

Finnish Free Church Mission. 

Foreign Christian Missionary Society. 

Friends Foreign Mission (England). 

Finland Missionary Society. 

Gospel Mission. 

German China Alliance. 

Hildesheiin Mission for the Blind. 

Hauges Synodes Mission. 

Independent, 

Independent Lutheran Mission. 

Irish Presbyterian Mission. 

Kieler China Mission. 

Lutheran Brethren Mission. 

London Missionary Society. 

Methodist Episcopal, North. 

Methodist Episcopal, South, 

Medical Missionary Society, Canton. 

National Bible Society of Scotland. 

Norwegian Lutheran Mission. 

Norwegian Mission in China. 

Norwegian Missionary Society. 

Presbyterian Church, New Zealand. 

Reformed Church in America (Auioy, 
etc.) 

Reformed Church in the United States. 

Rhenish Missionary Society. 

Scandinavian American Christian Free. 

Swedish American Missionary Covenant. 

Southern Baptist Convention. 

South Chihli Mission. 

Scandinavian China Alliance. 

Seventh Day Adventist. 

Seventh Day Baptist. 

Swedish Ho liness Union. 

Swedish Missionary Society. 

Church of England Mission in North 
China. 

Southern Presbyterian Mission. 



CONTRACTIONS USED IN DIRECTORY. in 

Sw. B. Swedish Baptist. 

Sw. M. in China. Swedish Mission in China. 

U. B. in C. United Brethren in Christ. 

U. E. C. M. United Evangelical Church Mission. 

U. F. C. S. United Free Church of Scotland. 

U. M. C. M. United Methodist Church Mission. 

Unc. Unconnected. 

U. P. C. S. United Presbyterian Church of Scotland 

(before Union). 

W. M. S., or E. W. M. Wesleyan Missionary Society. 

W. U. M. Woman s Union Mission. 

Yale M. Vale University Mission. 

Y. M. C. A. Young Men s Christian Association. 

Y. W. C. A. Young. Women s Christian Association. 



DIRECTORY, 

Abernethy, Miss G., S. B. C., Chefoo. 

Ackerson, Mi.ss A., S. A. M. C., Siangyang, via Hankow. 

Ackeraon, Miss E., S. A. M. C., Siangyang, via Hankow 

Adam, J R., and wife, C. I. M., Anshunfu, via Yochow and 

Kweiyang. 

Adams, A. S., and wife, A. B. M. IT., Hope, via Swatow. 
Adams, J. S., and wife, A. B. M U., Hanyang 
Adams, S. G., and wife, A. B. M. U., Hanyang. 
Adams, W. P., M.D., and wife, R. C. in U. S., Yochow, via 

Hankow. 

Adams, W. W., A. So. B., Tengchowfu, via Chefoo. 
Adams, Miss E. L., A. B. M. U .. Kinhwafu. 
Adams, Miss J., M. E. M., Foochow. 

Adkins, R. E., M .D., and wife, A. B. M. U., Kityang, via Swatow. 
Agar, Miss G., C. & M. A., Taochow, Kansuh. 
Ahlman, Miss O. G. W., Sw. M. in China, Hanchenghsien, via 

Hankow. 

Ahlstrand,G., and wife, S. C. A., Chienchow, Sianfu, via Hankow. 
Ahlstrom, Miss T., C. I. M., Shanghai. 

Aiken, E. E., and wife, A. B C. F. M., Paotingfu, via Tientsin. 
Aitken, Miss I., L. R. C. P. & S., Ed., U. F. C. S., Liaoyang, via 

Newchwang. 

Akers, Mi.ss, Unc., Shihtao, via Chefoo. 
Alanko, H., Fin. M. S., Tsingshih, via Shasi. 
Albaugh, Miss I. M., A. P. M., So., Kiangyin. 
Albertson, W. B., C. M. M., Chengtn. 

Alderson, J. W., and wife, Unc., Juichowfu, via Kiukiang. 
Aldis, W. H., and wife, C. I. M., Paoning, Sze. 
Aldis, Miss K. M., C. I. M., Paoning, Sze. 
Aldridge, Miss A. S., E. B. Zen. M., Chowtsun. 
Alexander, B., and wife, C. & M. A., Changsha, Hunan. 
Alexander, J., W. M. S., Liuyang, Hunan. 
Alf, A., and wife, A. B. S., Canton 
Allan, C. W., and wife, W. M. S., Wuchang. 
Allan, F F., M.D., and wife, C. M. M., Jenshow. 
Allen, Mrs. O. A., Ind., Canton. 

Allen, H. A. C., and wife, C I. M., Kutsingfu, via Mengtze. 
Allen, Mrs. M. H., M. E. So., Shanghai. 
Allen, Miss A. R., C. I. M., Wanhsien, via Ichang. 
Allen, Miss M., C. T. M., Chinkiang. 

Allen, Miss M., M. E. M., Hokchiang, Ngucheng, via Foochow. 
Allen, Miss Maud, Ind., Tsaohsien, Shantung. 
A libone, Miss E. H., C. I. M., Nanpu, via Ichang. 
Allum, F. A., and wife, S. D. A., Chowkiakow, Honan, 



DIRKCTORY OF MISSIONARIKS IX CHINA. V 

Allward, Mrs. M. C., C. & M. A., Wuchow. 

Ahnblad A. F.. and wife, S. C. A., Paoteo, Wangjefu, via Peking 

Alty, H. J. and wife, C. I. M., Chefoo. 

Ambler, P. V., C. I. M., Chaocheng, Sha., via Peking. 

Ament, Mrs. W. S., A. B. C. F. M., Peking. 

Amundsen, E., and wife, B. & F. B. S., Yunnanfu. 

Ancell, B. L., and wife, A. P. K., Yangchow, via Chinkiang. 

Andersen, Miss T. K., C. I. M.. Sliekichen. via Hankow. 

Anderson, J. Webb, M.I)., S. Ch. Med. Coll., Canton. 

Anderson, A. S., E. P. M., Changchowfu, via Amoy. 

Anderson, B. L., and wife, vS. D. A., Knlangsu, Amoy. 

Anderson, C. J., and wife, vS. C. A., Sianfu. via Hankow. 

Anderson, Dr. Robert, H. 8. M., Fancheng, via Hankow 

Anderson, D. L., D.D., and wife, M. E. . So., Soochow. 

Anderson, G. A., and wife, C. I. M., Shekichen, via Hankow. 

Anderson, H. E., and wife, W. M. S.. Wuchow, via Canton. 

Anderson, H. f. P., M. A., and wife E. P. M., Amoy. 

Anderson, J. G., M. A., L. M. S., Tientsin. 

Anderson, J. A , M. D., and wife, C. I. M., Taicbow, via Ningpo. 

Anderson, J. P., S. D. A , Waichowfu, via Canton. 

Anderson, K. R., Sw. M. in China, Honanfu. 

Anderson, P. H., A. So. B., Canton. 

Anderson, R. L., M. E., So., Soochow. 

Anderson, W. J. W., M.I)., and wife, W. M. S., Fatshan, via 
Canton. 

Anderson, Miss C., S. C. A., Wukung, Sianfu, via Hankow. 

Anderson, Miss E., Sw. M. in China, Chiehchow, via Taiyuanfu. 

Anderson, Miss E., C. I. M.. Tsoyun, via Peking. 

Anderson, Miss E. F,., M.D., A. P. M., Soochow. 

Anderson, Miss E K., S. Holiness, Tsoyun, via Taiyuanfu. 

Anderson, Miss G. S. , S. C. A., Piangliang and Sianfu, via Han 
kow. 

Anderson, Miss I. E., Sw. M. in China, Hoyang, via Peking. 

Anderson, Miss I. M., M. E., So., Changchow. 

Anderson, Miss J. R., K \veiki, via Kiukiang. 

Anderson, Miss K., D. L.M., Fenghwangheng, via Newchwang. 

Anderson, Miss K., S. Holiness, Tsoyun, via Taiyuanfu. 

Anderson, Miss M., A. L. M., Sinyangchow, Honan. 

Anderson, Miss A M., S. C. A., Fengchen, via Taiyuanfu. 

Anderson, Miss M. T., P. C. N. Z., Canton. 

Anderson, Miss T. E., C. I. M., Shekichen, via Hankow. 

Andersson, K. R., Sw. M. in China, Honanfu. 

Anderzen, C. A., and wife, S. Holiness, Tsoyun, via Taiyuanfu. 

Andr, A. B., and wife, S. A. M. C., Fancheng, via Hankow. 

Andrew, G., and wife, C. I. M., Lanchowfu, via Hankow and 
Sianfu. 

Andrew, Miss G. F., C. I. M., Lauchowfu, via Hankow and Sianfu. 



vi CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Andrew, Miss J. M., M.B., Ch.B., U. F. C. S., Kaiyuen, via 

Newchwang. 

Andrews, H. E. V., and wife, C. I. M., Shrinking, Sze., via Ichang. 
Andrews, W., and wife, C. M. S., Singtu, Sze. 
Andrews, Miss, C. M. S., Gosangche, via Foochow. 
Andrews, Miss M. E., A. B. C. F. M., Tungchow, Chi. 
Angvik, Miss C., Nor. M. in C., Hanchenghsien, via Peking. 
Angwin, Miss R., C. I. M., Chefoo. 
Annand, A. S., and wife, N. B. vS. S., Tientsin. 
Annis, Miss H., C I. M., Chuhsien, Sze., via Ichang. 
Aplin, Miss H. G., C. I. M., Chefoo. 

Appleton, C. F. , and wife, A. F. M. M., Kaifengfu, Honan. 
Archibald, J. , and wife, N. B. S. S. , Hankow. 
Argento, A., and wife, C. I. M., Kwangchow, via Hankow. 
Argento, Miss C., C. I. M., Shekichen, via Hankow. 
Arkeny, Miss J., M. E. M., Foochow. 
Arinfield, Miss M., C. M. S., Mienchuhsien, Sze. 
Armstrong, G. A., A. P. M., Ichowfu, via Chinkiang. 
Armstrong, O. V., and wife, A. P. M., So., Chinkiang. 
Arnetvedt, N., Nor. M. S., lyang, Hunan, via Changsha. 
Arpiainen, Miss J. W., Fin. F. C. M., Yungfenghsien, via Kiu- 

kiang. 

Ashmore, \V., Jr., D.D. , and wife, A. B. M. U., Swatow. 
Asken, Miss M. E., Miss. Home and Agency, Shanghai. 
Aspland, W. H. G., M.D., M.R.C.S., Ed., and wife, C. E. M., 

Peking. 

Atkinson, Miss V. M., M. E., So., Soochow. 
Atter, A., and wife, Apos. F. M., Shanghai. 

Atwood, I. J., M.D., and wife, A. B. C. F. M., Fenchow, Shansi. 
Austen, Miss M., M.D., C. M. M., Kiatingfu. 
Axling, Miss M., S. M. S., Hwangchow, via Hankow. 
Ayers, T. \V., M.D., and wife, A. So. B., Hwanghsien, via Chefoo. 

Babington, S. M., M.D., and wife, C. M. S., Taichowfu, via 

Ningpo. 

Bach, A. H., and wife, Ch. New Testament M., Pakhoi. 
Bachlor, Miss I., C. M. S., Pakhoi. 
Baer, F. B., C. and M. A., Hankow. 

Bahr, I., and wife, Rhen. M. S., Thongtauha, via Hongkong. 
Bahr, M., and wife, Ber. M., Fayen Luk Hang, via Canton. 
Baird, G. B., F. C. M., Luchowfu, via Wuhu. 
Bailey, Miss E. C., C. I. M., Kiungchow, Sze. 
Bakeman, P. R., and wife, A. B. M. U., Hangchow. 
Baker, B. L., and wife, A. B. M. U., Chaochowfu, via Swatow. 
Baker, E. G., and wife, E. B. M., Tsingchowfu, via Kiaochow. 
Baker, J. A. A., W. M. S., Hongkong. 
Baker, Miss, C. M. S., Shiuhing, via Canton. 



DIRECTORY OF MISSIONARIES IN CHINA. vii 

Baker, Miss F. A. R., C. I. M., Antung, kit., via Chinkianj/. 

Baker, Miss L., M. E. M., Foochovv. 

Baldwin, J. H., M. D., M. E. M., Taianfu, via Tsingtau. 

Baldwin, Miss, C. M. S., Foochow 

Bailer, F. W., C. I. M., Chefoo. 

Balnie, Dr. H., E. B. M., Taiyuenfu, Shansi. 

Balnier, Miss J., E. P. M., Wukingfu, via Swatow. 

Band, S. f B. A., and wife, E. P. M., Wukingfu, via Swatow. 

Banister, Ven. Archdeacon W., and wife, C. M. S., Hongkong. 

Bankhardt, F. W., and wife, M. E. M., Yenpingfu, via Foochow. 

Banks, Miss G., C. I. M., Ningkwofu, via Wuhu. 

Bannan, E. J., C. I. M., Changteh, Hunan. 

Barber, E. O., C. I. M., Yicheng, via Peking. 

Barber, Miss E. P., A. P. E., Anking. 

Barclay, Miss P. A., C. I. M., Kvveichowfu, via Ichang. 

Barharn, H. A., and wife, C. I. M., Luchow, via Chungking. 

Barker, Miss 1. M., S. C., Tamingfu. 

Barlow, C. H., M.D., and wife, A. B. M. U., Huchowfu. 

Barnes, Miss L. H., C. M. S., Hangchow. 

Barnett, E. J., C. M. S., Hongkong. 

Baruett, H., and wife, Unc., Jehoi (Chentefu), via Peking. 

Barr, Miss, C. E. Zen. M., Foochow. 

Barraclough, Miss, C. I. M.. Luchenghsien, via Peking. 

Barrie, H. G., M.D., and wife, C. I. M., Killing, via Kiukiang. 

Bartel, H. C., and wife, Ind., Tsaohsien, Shantung. 

Barter, A. J., M.D., and wife, C. M. M.. Chengtu. 

Barter, Miss M. K., C. I. M., Taikang, via Hankow. 

Bartlett, Miss C., M. E. M., Hokchiang, via Foochow. 

Barton, H., and wife, C. M.S., Shaohingfu. 

Bashford, J. W., Ph.D., D.D., LL. D., and wife, M. E. M., Peking. 

Bassett, Miss B., A. B. M. U., Suifu, via Chungking. 

Batchelor, Miss E., C. M. S., Hangchow. 

Batterham, Miss M., C. I. M., Yanghsien, via Hankow. 

Batty, Miss L. A., C. I. M., Shanghai. 

Baugh, Miss E., M. E. M., Peking. 

Baumann, I., and wife, Rhen. M. S. , Tungkun, via Canton. 

Baumer, Miss E., Ger. C. A. M., Yunho, via Wenchow. 

Baxter, A., L. M. S., Canton. 

Baxter, A. K., L.R.C.P. and S., Ed., and wife, E. U. M. F. C., 

Wutingfu, Shantung. 

Baxter, Miss M., C. I. M., Kweiki, via Kiukiang. 
Bayne, P. M., and wife, C. M. M.. Chengtu. 
Beach, J. G., and wife, C. M. S., Chungkianghsien, Sze. 
Beals, Z. Charles, and wife, A. A. C., Wuhu. 

Bearnan, W. F. , and wife, A. B. M. U., Kiatingfu, via Chungking. 
Bean, B. F. , and wife, U. B. in C., Canton. 
Beard, W. I,.. B.A.. and wife, Y. M. C. A., Foochow. 



Vlii CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Bearder, Miss A. M., C. E. M., Peking. 

Benth, Miss N., N.B., C.M., E. P. M., Swatow. 

Beattie, J., M.A., and wife, E. P. M., Arnoy. 

Beatty, J. C. P., M.D., T.C.I)., C. M. S., Hangchow. 

Beatty, Miss E., M.D., T.C.D., I. P. M., Kvvangning via New- 
chwang. 

Beauchamp, M., B. A., and wife, C. I. M., Kweichowfu, via Ichang. 

Beck. E. A., R. C. in U. S., Chenchoufu, Hunan. 

Beckingsale, Miss J., B.A., E. B. Zen. M., Sianfu, Shensi. 

Beckman, R.. and wife, S. C. A., Luchuanhsien, Sianfu, via 
Hankow. 

Beebe, R. C., M.D., and wife, M. E. M., Nanking. 

Beech, J., and wife. M. E. M., Chengtu. 

Begg, T. D., and wife, B. and F. B. S., Shanghai. 

Behrents, O. S., M.D., and wife, A. L. M., Kioshan, Honan. 

Beinhoff, E. O., and wife. Sw. M. in China, Honanfu. 

Belcher, \V. M., and wife, C. I. M., I v iangchowfu and Siaufu. 

Bell, J., A.T.S., and wife, E. B. M., Suiteichow, Shensi. 

Bell, Miss A.L., L. M. S., Chiangchiu, via Amoy. 

Bement, Miss K. K., A. B. C. F. M., Shaowu, via Foochow. 

Bemeiit, Miss L. P., M.D., A. B. C. F. M., Shaowu, via Foochow. 

Bender, J., and wife, Ger. C. A. M., Lnngchuan, Che., via Wen- 
chow. 

Bender, Miss M. E.. A. P. E., Shanghai. 

Benderlock, Miss, C M. S., Hongkong. 

Bengtsson, O., and wife, S. C. A., Sianfu, via Hankow. 

Bentiam, Miss E., L. M. S., Tingchowfu, via Amoy. 

Bennett, Miss E. L., C. I. M., Ninghai, via Ningpo. 

Bennett, Miss, C. M. S., Foochow. 

Benz, Miss L., Ind., Tsaohsien, Shantung. 

Bere, Miss M., D.C. S., C. S. M., Ichang. 

Berg, A., and wife, S\v. M. in China, Yuncheng, via Taiyuanfu. 

Berg, Mrs. A., S M. S., Hwangchovv, via Hankow. 

Berg, Miss G., Nor. L. M., Tengchow, Honan. 

Bergen, P. D., and wife, A. P. M., Weihsien, via Tsingtati. 

Bergfjord, K., and wife. Nor. L. M., Yunyang, via Hupeh. 

Bergin, Miss F. L., Unc., Nanchang, via Kiukiang. 

Bergling, A. R., and wife, Sw. M. in China, Hanchenghsien, via 
Hankow. 

Bergstrom. S., and wife, S. C. A., Hingping, Sianfu, via Hankow. 

Bernhardt, Miss B., H. M. Blind, Kowloon. 

Bernsten, B., and wife, Apos. F. M., Chengtingfu, Chi. 

Berry, Miss, L. M. S., Tsangchow. via Tientsin. 

Berst, \V. R., M.D., and wife, A. P. M., Changteh, Hunan. 

Beschnidt, Miss M., C. I. M., Tatungfu, via Peking. 

Best, C., and wife, C. I. M., Laian, via Nanking. 

Betow, Miss E., M.D., M. E. M., Sienyu, via Foochow. 



DIRECTORY OF MISSIONARIES IN CHINA. ix 

Bettinson, Miss A. H., C. M., Ningpo. 




Biggam, Miss M., C. I. M., Ninghai, via Ningpo. 

Biggin, T., M.A., and wife, L. M. S., Tungchow, via Peking. 

Biggs, Miss C. M., C. I. M., Sintientsz, via Ichang 

Bigler, Regina M., M.D., U. B. in C.. Canton. 

Billing, A. W., and wife, M. E. M., Foochow. 

Birch, Miss E. S., C. I. M., Shanghai. 

Bird, C. H., B. A., and wife, C. I. M., Kaifeng, via Hankow. 

Bird, F., C. I. M., Chungking. 

Birrell, M. B., and wife, C. and M. A., Wuchang. 

Bishop, H. N., C. M. S., Hangchow. 

Bissonette, W. S., and wife, M. Pub. House in C., Foochow 

Bitton, W. N., L. M. S., Shanghai. 

Bjertnoes, S., Nor. M. S., Sichow, via Peking. 

Bjorklund, Miss M., Sw. M. in China, Ishih, via Taiyuanfu. 

Bjorkman, Miss M. S., Apos. F. M., Chengtingfu, Chi. 

Black, E. F., M. E. M., Poochow. 

Black, Miss, C. I. M., Laohokow, via Hankow. 

Black, Miss E., C. I. M., Laohokow, via Hankow. 

Black, Miss E., E. P. M., Swatow. 

Black, Miss J., C. I. M., Laohokow, via Hankow. 

Blackmore, Miss, Unc., Tuchiawopu, via Tangshan. 

Blackmore, Miss L., C. I. M., Chefoo. 

Blackstone, J. H., and wife, M. E. M., Nanchang. 

Blain, J. M., and wife, A. P. M. So., Kashing. 

Blair, C. E., M.B., Ch.B., and wife, L. M. S., Tingchowfu, via 

Amoy. 

Blakely, Miss G. M., C. I. M., Tungsiang, Ki., via Kiukiang. 
Blalock, T. L., and wife, G. M., Taian, Shantung. 
Blanchett, C. I., and wife, C. M. S., Pakhoi. 
Bland, A., and wife, C. I. M., Anking. 
Bland, F. E., and wife, C. M. S., Foochow. 
Blandford, E. J., and wife, Northwest Kiangsi M., Wucheng, 

Ki., via Kiukiang. 

Blasner, F., and wife, C. I. M., Changshu, Ki., via Kiukiang. 
Blauvett, Miss E. H., M.D., R. C. in A., Siokhe, via Amoy. 
Bliss, E. L., M.D., and wife, A. B. C. F. M., Shaowu, via Foochow. 
Bloni, C., and wife, Sw. M. in China, Yuncheng, via Taiyuanfu. 
Blumhardt, B., All. Ev. P. M., Tsingtau. 
Blumhardt, Miss H., All. Ev. P. M., Tsingtau. 
Blundy, J., and wife, C. M.S., Kienningfu, via Foochow. 
Boardley, Miss L., E. U. M. F. C., Wenchow. 
Boardman, Miss E. B., A. P. M. So., Hangchow. 



X CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Boaz, Miss, C. E. Z., Nangwa, via Foochow. 

Bobby, W. G., and wife, C. I. M., Wuhu. 

Boddy, Miss E., M. E. M., Taiaiifu, via Tsingtau. 

Boehne, Miss E. S., A. P. M., Tsinan, via Tsingtau. 

Boon, E. O., Ind. L. M., Sihsien, Honan. 

Boggs, J. J., and wife, A. P. M., Canton. 

Bohnker, Miss K. L,., Ger. C. A. M., Chuchow, via Wenchow. 

Boileau, Miss, C. M. S., Ningteh, via Foochow. 

Boiling, T. B. J., and wife, Sw. M. in China, Hoyang, via Peking. 

Bolton, Miss A., C. M. S., Pakhoi. 

Bolton, Miss E. R., C. I. M., Taning, Sha., via Peking. 

Bolwig, C., and wife, D. Iv. M.> Takushan, via Newchwaug. 

Bomar, Miss M. B., M. E. So., Huchowfu. 

Bonafield Miss J., M. E. M., Foochow. 

Bondfield, G. H., and wife, B. and F..B. S., Shanghai. 

Bone, C., and wife, W. M.S., Hongkong. 

Bonsey, A., and wife, L. M. S., Hankow. 

Bonth ius, A., M.D., and wife, R. C. in A., Amoy. 

Boone, H. W., M.D., and wife, A. P. E., Shanghai. 

Boot, H. P., M.A., R. C. in A., Chiangchiu, via Amoy. 

Booth, R. T., M.B., B.Ch. (R. U. I.), and wife, W. M. S., Hankow. 

Booth, W. C., and wife, A. P. M., Chefoo. 

Booth, Miss M. E., C. I. M., Paoning, Sze. 

Booth, Miss N., W. M. S., Hankow. 

Borbein, Miss L., Ber. M., Canton. 

Borg, Miss J., M. E. M., Chungking. 

Borjeson, Miss H., S. M. S., Hwangchow, via Hankow. 

Bornand, G., B. M., Lilong, via Hongkong. 

Borst-Smith, E. F., and wife, E. B. M., Yennganfu, Shensi. 

Bosshard, J., B. & F. B. S., Hongkong. 

Bostick, G. P., and wife, G. M., Pbchow, Anhwei. 

Bostick, Miss A. T., G. M., Pochow, Anhwei. 

Bostick, W. D., and wife, G. M., Pochow, Anhwei. 

Bostroin, Miss, D. Iv. M., Takushan, via Newchwang. 

Bosworth, Miss S. M., M. E. M., Foochow. 

Botham, Mrs. T. E., C. I. M., Ninghaichow, via Chefoo. 

Bowen, A. C., and wife, M. E. So., Soochow. 

Bowen, A. J., M.A., and wife, M. E. M., Nanking. 

Bowles, N. E., B.A., C. M. M., Kiatingfu. 

Bowser, Miss Hilda G. , C. L/. S., Shanghai. 

Box, E., and wife, L. M. S., Shanghai. 

Boyd, H. W., M.D., and wife, A. P. M., Canton. 

Boyd, J. R. S., B.A., and wife, C. M. S., Kutien, via Foochow. 

Boyer, Miss M. , Ind., Shanghai. 

Boynton, C. L., B.A., and wife, Y. M. C. A., Shanghai. 

Brackbill, Miss S. C., C. M. M., Chengtu. 

Bradley, Dr. Neville, and wife, C. M. S., Pakhoi. 



DIRECTORY OF MISSIONARIES IN CHINA. xi 

Bradley, J. W., M.D., and wife, A. P. M., Sutsien, via Chinkiang. 

Bradley, Miss, C. M. S., Pakhoi. 

Bradley. Miss L., C. M. S., Ningtaik, via Foochow. 

Bradshaw, F. J., and wife, A. B. M. U., Kiatingfu, via Chung- 
king. 

Bragg, T., L.R.C.P. and S., and wife, L. M. S., Weichen, via 
Shuntefu. 

Brander, Miss J., E. P. M., Swatow. 

Breckhen, E. R., and wife, C. M. M., Chengtu. 

Brethorst, Miss A., M. E. M., Tzechow, Sze. 

Breton, E., Liebebzell M., Hengchow, via Yochow. 

Bretthauer, Miss E., B.A., M.D., A. B. M. U., Hanyang. 

Brewster, W. N., D.D., and wife, M. E. M., Hinghwa, via Foo 
chow. 

Bridge, A. H., and wife, L. M. S., Weichen, via Shuntefu. 

Bridge, J. E. E., Unc., Wenteughsien, via Weihaiwei. 

Briggs, Miss, L. M. S., Hongkong. 

Brightbill, Miss E. N., R. C. in U. S., Cheuchowfu, Hunan. 

Brillinger, A. M., and wife, C. M. M., Chengtu. 

Brimstin, Miss M. E., C. M. M., Chengtu. 

Briscoe, W. F. H., C. I. M., Hungtung, via Peking. 

Briseid, Miss T., Unc., Shihtao, via Chefoo. 

Britton, T. C., and wife, A. So. B., Soochow. 

Britton, Miss F. M., W. M. S., Canton. 

Broadfoot, T. A., B.A., B.D., and wife, C. P. M., Kongmoon, via 
Hongkong. 

Brock, J. and wife, C. I. M., Chowkiakow, via Hankow. 

Brockinan, F. S., and wife, Y. M. C. A., Shanghai. 

Brook, Miss J. P., C. I. M., Hiangcheng, via Hankow. 

Brooks, Miss C. A., C. M. M., Chengtu. 

Brooks, Miss I. L., Meth. Pub. House in C., Shanghai. 

Broomhall, A. H., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., and wife, C. I. M., Chung 
king. 

Broomhall, Dr. B. C., and wife, E. B. M., Taiyuenfu. 

Broomhall, M., B.A., and wife, C. I. M. (In England.) 

Brostrom, Miss, D. I/. M., Takushan, via Newchwaug. 

Broumton, J. F., C. I. M. (In America.) 

Brown, C. C., and wife, E. P. M., Changchowfu, via Amoy. 

Brown, F., F.R.G.S., and wife, M. E. M., Tientsin. 

Brown, G. G., and wife, C. I. M. (In England.) 

Brown, G. S. , and wife, M. E. M., Yenpingfu, via Foochow. 

Brown, H. J. B., and wife, S. P. G,, Peking. 

Brown, J. E., and wife. F. C. M., Luchowfu, via Wuhu. 

Brown, T. C., B.A., B.D., L. M.S., Chiangchiu, via Amoy. 

Brown, Miss A. E., S. C., Tamingfu, Chihli. 

Brown, Miss C. E., B. C. M., Tsinshaan, via Macao. 

Brown, Miss M. C., C. I. M., Kwangsinfu, via Ningpo. 



Xll CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Browne, B. Score, M.C., C. M. S., Taichowfu. 

Browne, W., and wife, C. M. S., Chuki. 

Browne, Miss, A. B. C. F. M., Tungchow, Chi. 

Brownell, H. C., B.A., Canton Christian College, Canton. 

Browning, R. E., A. P. E., Shanghai. 

Brownlee, E. A., and wife, C. I. M., Anking. 

Bruce, J. H., B.A., C. P. M., Changteho, Ho. 

Bruce, J. P., and wife, E. B. M., Tsiugchowfu, via Kiaochow. 

Brun, S., M.A., B.D., and wife, Nor. M. S., Sinhwa, via Chang- 

sha. 

Bryan, A. V., and wife, A. P. M., Port Arthur, Manchuria. 
Bryan, H. C., M.D., A. P. M., Nodoa, via Hoihow, Hainan. 
Bryan, R. T., D.D., A. So. B., Shanghai. 
Bryan, Miss F. C., A. So. B., Shanghai. 

Bryant, E. E., B.A., B.D., L. M. S., Weichen, via Shuntefu. 
Bryer, Miss, C. E. Z., Kienning, via Foochow. 
Bryers, Miss S. E., C. M. S., Anhsien, Sze. 
Bryson, A. G., and wife, L. M. S., Tsangchow, via Tientsin. 
Bryson, T., and wife, L. M.S., Tientsin. 
Bryson, Miss M. E., M.B., Ch.B., E. P. M., Changchowfu, via 

Amoy. 

Buchanan, T. F., N. B. S. S., Hankow. 

Bucher, J. F., and wife, R. C. in U. S., Yochow, via Hankow. 
Buck, Rev. Frank C., F. C. M., Luchowfu, via Wuhu. 
Buck, Miss ~F. M., Miss. Home and Agency, Shanghai. 
Buckner, H. F. , and wife, A. So. B., Wuchow, via Canton. 
Bugge, S., B.Sc., M.A., B.D., Nor. M. S., Changsha. 
Bullock, A. A., and wife, A. P. M., Nanking. 
Bunbury, G. A., M.A., and wife, C. M. S., Hongkong. 
Bunting, C. A., and wife, C. I. M., Wanan, Ki., via Kiukiang. 
Burbridge, Miss N., C. I. M., Kiatingfu, via Chungking. 
Burch, C. A., and wife, A. A. C., Chaohsien, via Wuhu. 
Burdick, Miss S. M., Ph.B., Seventh D. B., Shanghai. 
Buren, Miss E. A. E., Sw. M. in China, Honanfu. 
Burgess, O., and wife, C. I. M., Shanghai. 
Burke, W. B., and wife, M. E. So., Soochow. 
Burke, Miss Margaret E., A. A. C., Chaohsien. 
Burkwall, H. O. T., and wife, B. & F. B. S., Canton. 
Burlingatne, Miss E. M., Ind., Canton. 
Burn, Miss E. F., C. I. M., Chinkiang. 
Burne, A. E., and wife, S. P. G., Weihaiwei. 
Burnip, E., L. M. S., Siangtan, Hunan. 
Burns, W., Apos. F. M., Chengtingfu, Chi. 
Burroughs, Miss, C.E. Z. Sangiong, via Foochow. 
Burt, E. W., B.A., E. B. M., Weihsien, via Chefoo. 
Burton, Miss, C. M. S., Tosung, via Foochow. 
Burton, Miss E., C. I. M., Anjen, via Kiukiang. 



DIRECTORY OF MISSIONARIES IN CHINA. xiii 

Bushell, Miss J., C. M. S., Foochow. 

Butchart J M.D., and wife, F. C. M., Luchowfu, via Wuhu 

Butcher, Miss, Unc., Tuchiavvop u, via Tongshan 

Butler, Miss E. H., A. F. M., Nanking 

Butler, Miss E. M., A. P. M., Canton 

Button, Miss Iv. C., B.A., C. I. M., Chefoo. 

Butzbach, A. H., and wife, Ev. M., Shenchowfu Hunan 

Byerly, Miss A. E., A. P. E., Wuchang, via Hankow 

Byers, G. D., A. P. M., Hoihow, Hainan. 

Byles, Miss, M. B., Ch.B., L. M. S., Hankow 

Bynon, Miss M. H., M.D., A. P. M., Weihsien, via Tsingtau. 

Cable, Miss A. M., C. I. M., Huochow, via Peking 

Caiander, Miss E., Fin. F. C. M., Yun B fenghsien, via Kiukiang. 

n i^ WC S" an< ? W ? fe A " P M " Taichow, Ku., via Chinkiang. 
Caldwell, E. B., and wife, M. E. M., Foochow 

J^S^i 1 ? R " and Vife> M " E> M " Hokchiang, via Foochow. 
Caldwell, T., and wife, C. M. S., Shihchuan, Sze. 
Callum, I). A., and wife, C. M. S., Chungpa, Sze. 
Calvert, Miss E. E., L. M. S., Wuchang, via Hankow. 
Cameron, A. N., and wife, "Broadcast Tract" Press, Changsha 

Hunan. 

Campbell, Miss A., C. I. M., Panghai (Chenyuen), via Yochow 
Campbell, C. K., and wife, M. E. So., Soochow. 
Campbell, Geo., and wife, A. B. M. U., Kaying. via Swatow. 
Campbell, Miss E., M. E. M., Hinghwa, via Foochow. 
Campbell, W. M., and wife, A. P. M., Kiungchow, via Hoihow 

Hainan. 

Candlin, G. T., and wife, E. U. M. F. C., Tangshan. 
Cane, Miss L. M., C. I. M., Yushan, via Ningpo. 
Cannell, W. R., C. M. S., Shihchuan, Sze. 
Canner, W., S. P. G., Yungchinghsien. 
Cannon. A. L., C. I. M., Jaochow, via Kiukiang. 
Canright, H. L., M.D., and wife, M. E. M., Chengtu. 
Capen, R. T., and wife, A. B. M. U., Swatow. 
Garden, Miss, C. M.S., Hongkong. 
Cardwell, T. E., C. L. S., Shanghai. 
Caren, T. H., L. M. S., Canton. 
Carlen, O., Sw. Holiness, Hunyuan, via Peking. 
Carleson, Mrs. N., S. Holiness, Tatungfu, via Taiyiianfu. 
Carleton, Miss M. E., M.D., M. E. M., Lekdu, via Foochow. 
Carlton, Miss C., C. M. S., Chungkianghsien. Sze. 
Carlyle, Miss L., C. I. M., Tungsiang, Ki., via Kiukiang. 
Carothers, Miss A.M., M.D., A. P. M., Soochow. 
Carpenter, G. B., C. and M. A., Wuchow. 
Carpenter. J. B., B.A., and wife, C. M. S., Foochow. 
Carper, Miss Elizabeth R., M.D., A. P. M., l.imchowfu. 



XIV CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Carr, J. C., M.D., and wife, C. I. M., Pingyangfu, via Peking. 

Carr, S. H., M.D., and wife, C. I. M., Kaifeng, via Hankow. 

Carr, Miss H. E., C. I. M., Taning, Sha., via Peking. 

Carscallen, C. R., B.A., and wife, C. M. M., Chengtu. 

Carson, F. 8., and wife, M. E. M., Hinghwa, via Foochow. 

Carson, J., B.A., and wife, I. P. M., Newchwang. 

Carter, Miss A. E., Mission to Chinese Deaf, Chefoo. 

Carwardine, C., and wife, C. I. M., Chengku, via Hankow. 

Case, Dr. J. N., and wife, Unc., Weihaiwei. 

Caspersen, Miss E., Nor. M. S., Changsha. 

Cassels, Bishop, W. W., B.A., and wife, C. I. M., Paoning, Sze. 

Cassidy, Miss B., A. A. C., Wuhu. 

Casswell, Miss E., C. M. S., Mienchow, Sze. 

Castle, H., and wife, C. M. S., Hangchow. 

Castleton, A. G., E. B. M., Peicheng, Putai City, via Kiaochow. 

Cecil-Smith, G., and wife, C. I. M., Kweiyang, via Chungking. 

Chalfant, F. H., and wife, A. P. M., Weihsien, via Tsingtau. 

Chalfant, W. P., and wife, A. P. M., Ichowfu, via Chinkiang. 

Chambers, R. E., and wife, A. So. B., Canton. 

Champness, C. S., and wife, W. M. S., Yij 7 ang, Hunan. 

Chandler, H. E., A. P. M., Weihsien, via Tsingtau. 

Chapin, D. C., A. P. M., Paotingfu. 

Chapin, Miss A. G., A. B. C. F. M., Tungchow, Chi. 

Chapman, T. W., M.Sc., and wife, E. U. M. F. C., Wenchow. 

Chapman, W. C., Pres. Miss. Press, Shanghai. 

Charles, M. R., M.D., and wife, M. E. M., Nanchang. 

Charles, Miss A., C. and M. A., Wucbow. 

Charter, G. A., L.R.C.P. and S., and wife, E. B. M., Sianfu, Shensi. 

Chen, H. Y. , Book Room and Educ. Dep., Shanghai. 

Cheshire, Miss A., A. P. E., Shanghai. 

Cheshire, Miss E. T., A. P. E., Wuchang. 

Child, F., and wife, C. M. S., Kweilinfu. 

Chittenden, Miss C. E., A. B. C. F. M., Inghok, via Foochow. 

Christensen, C., and wife, D. L,. M., Port Arthur. 

Christensen, C. A., L.B., Unc., Tuchiawop u, via Tongshan. 

Christeusen, L,., A. L,. M., L,oshan, Honan. 

Christie, D., F.R.C.P., L.R.C.S., and wife, U.F. C. S., Moukden. 

Christie, W., and wife, C. and M. A., Choni (Thibet). 

Church, Miss, C. E. Z., Kutien, via Foochow. 

Churcher, Miss E. J., C. I. M., Kwangyuan, via Ichang. 

Churchill, H. M., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., C. M. S., Kienningfu, via 

Churchill, Miss E. A., A. P. M., Canton. [Foochow. 

Claiborne, Miss E., M. E. So., Shanghai. 

Clark, H. M., B.A., C. P. M., Weihwei, Ho. 

Clark, I. B., and wife, A. B. M. U., Suifu, via Chungking. 

Clark, W. T., M.D., and wife, C. I. M., Talifu, via Mengtze. 

Clark, Miss A. M., A. P. E-, Hankow. 



DIRECTORY OF MISSIONARIES IN CHINA. XV 

Clark, Miss E> J., C.M.S., Ningpo. 

Clark, Miss M. M., C. M. S., Ningpo. 

Clark, Miss, L. M. S., Shanghai. 

Clark, Miss, L. M. S., Hengchowfu, Hunan. 

Clark, Miss N. J., F. C. M., Chuchow, An., via Nanking. 

Clarke, G. W., and wife, C. I. M., Tientsin. 

Clarke, S. R., and wife, C. I. M., Kweiyang, via Chungking-. 

Clarke, Miss I., C. M. S., Shaohingfu. 

Clarke, Miss J. C., C. M. S., Ningteh, via Foochow. 

Clarke, Miss L., C. I. M., Kweichowfu, via Ichang. 

Clarke, Miss M. E., C. M. S., Fuuingfu, Foochow. 

Classon, J. L. , S. Holiness, Hunyuan, via Peking. 

Clausen, H., Kieler C. M., Pakhoi. 

Claxton, A. E., and wife, C. M. M., Chungking. 

Clayson, W. W., B.A., and wife, L. M. S., Canton. 

Clayton, G. A., and wife, W. M. S., Hankow. 

Clements, A. J., C. I. M., Fushun, Sze., via Chungking. 

Clements, H., C. M. S., Shaohingfu. 

Cline, J. W., and wife, M. E. So., Shanghai. 

Clinton, Mrs. T. A. P., C. I. M., Changteh, via Yochow. 

Clough, Miss E. S., C. I. M.. Yangchow, via Chinkiang. 

Cochran, J. B., and wife, A. P. M., Hwaiyuan, An., via Nanking. 

Cochran, S., M.D., and wife, A. P. M., Hwaiyuan, An., via 
Nanking. 

Cochrane, T., M.B., C.M., and wife, L. M. S., Peking. 

Codrington, Miss, C. E. Z. , Kutien, via Foochow. 

Cody, Miss, A. B. M. U., Hanyang. 

Cogdal, Miss M. E., A. P. M., South Gate, Shanghai. 

Cole, A. F., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., and wife, C. M.S., Ningpo. 

Cole, G. H., M.E., and wife, Y. M. C. A., Tientsin. 

Cole, J. G., S.C., Tamingfu, via Tientsin. 

Cole, W. B., M. E. M., Yungchun, via Foochow. 

Cole, Miss F., C. I. M., Yangchow, via Chiukiang. 

Coleman, Miss, C. M. S., Kieniang, via Foochow. 

Coleman, Miss I. M., C. I. M., Yanghsien, via Hankow. 

Coleston, Miss, C. E. Z., Nangwa, via Foochow. 

Collan, S., and wife, Finn. M. S., Yuingting, via Shashi. 

Collier, Miss C., M. E. M., Chengtu. 

Collier, Miss L., M. E. M., Foochow. 

Collins, Miss F. L., C. I. M., Kinki, via Kiukiang. 

Connaughty, Miss L., S. C., Tamingfu. 

Conway, H. S., and wife, C. I. M., Shekichen, via Hankow. 

Cook, Miss C. D., C. I. M., Chenchowfu, via Hankow. 

Cook, Miss E. K., E. U. M. F. C., Chuchai. 

Cooke, Miss K. E., C. I. M., lyaug, Ki., via Kiukiang. 

Coole, T. H., M.D., and wife, M. E. M., Kucheng, via Foo 
chow. 



XVI CHINA MISSION YKAR BOOK. 

Cooper, A. S., B.A., A: P. E., Wuchang. 

Cooper, E. C., W. M. S., Yungchowfu, Hunan. 

Cooper, E. J., and wife, C. I. M., Hungtung, via Peking. 

Cooper, F. C., and wife, A. P. E., Shanghai. 

Cooper, Mrs. W., C. I. M. (in England). 

Cooper, Miss A. B., C. E. Z., Longuong, via Foochow. 

Cooper, Miss E. B., M.D., A. P. M., Tengchowfu, via Chefoo. 

Cooper, Miss F., L.S.A., C. E. Z., L,onguong, via Foochow. 

Copp, A., and wife, B. and F. B. S., Chefoo. 

Coppock, Miss G., Y. W. C. A., Shanghai. 

Corbett, C. H., and wife, A. P. M., Tungchow, Chi. 

Corbett, Dr. Hunter, A. P. M., Chefoo. 

Corbett, Miss M. N., A. B. C. F. M., Peking. 

Corbin, Paul H., and wife, A. B. C. F. M., Fenchow, Shansi. 

Cormack, J. G., L.R.C.S. and P., Ed., L,. M. S., Hwangpi, via 

Hankow. 

Cortuack, Miss I., C. I. M., Anjen, via Kiukiang. 
Cornaby, W. A., and wife, C. I/. S., Shanghai. 
Corncross, Miss F., M. E. M., Chinkiang. 
Corn ford, C. E., Ind., Hangchow. 
Corriher, Miss E., A. P.M. So., Kashing. 
Cory, A. E., and wife, F. C. M., Nanking. 

Cottrell, R. F., and wife, Seventh D. A., Chowkiakow, Honan. 
Coultas, G. W., and wife, C. M. S., Hangchow. 
Coulthard, J. J., and wife, C. I. M., Chefoo. 
Cousins, C. D., and wife, L. M. S., Poklo, via Canton. 
Cousins, H. S., B.A., S. P. G., Weihsien, via Tsingtau. 
Cousland, Dr. P. B., M.B., C.M., and wife, E. P. M., Shanghai. 
Covert, Miss M. C., A. B. M. U., Ningpo. 
Cowan, Miss A. M., M.B., Ch.B., U. F. C. S., Asiho, via New- 

chwang. 

Cowen, J. L., and wife, Meth. Pub. House in China, Shanghai. 
Cowles, R. T., China Baptist Pub. S., Canton. 
Cox, G. A., L.R.C.P. and S., Ed., and wife, C. I. M., Chinkiang. 
Cox, J. R., M.D., and wife, C. M. M., Jenshow, via Chinkiang. 
Coxen, Miss, L. M. S., Hengchowfu, Hunan. 
Crabb, E., and wife, A. P. M., Hengchow, Hunan. 
Craig, Miss, C. M. S., Funingfu, via Foochow. 
Craig, Miss I. A., C. I. M., Chefoo. 
Crane, Miss E. M., M. E. M., Wuhu. 
Crawford, A. R., M.A., and wife, I. P. M., Chinchow, via New- 

chwang. 

Crawford, O. C., and wife, A. P. M!, Soochow. 
Crawford, W., M.D., and wife, C. M. M., Kiatingfu. 
Crawford, W. M., and wife, M. E. M., Chungking. 
Crawford, Miss L/., Unc., Tehnganhsien , via Kiukiang. 
Crawford, Miss L. J., A. B. M. U., Hanyang. 



DIRECTORY OF MISSIONARIES IN CHINA. XVli 

Crawford, Miss M. I}., \V. M. vS., Wuchang. 

Cream, Miss V S. A., C. I. M.. Ycncheng, Ho. 

Cree, Miss, C. M. S., Hongkong. 

Creighton, J. \V., A. P. M,, Yuengkong. 

Crocker, W. F,., and wife, A. So. B. Chinkiang. 

Crofoot, J. \V , M.A., and wife. Seventh I). B., Shanghai. 

Crofts, D. W., B.A., B.D., B.Sc., and wife, C. I. M., Chenyunn, 
via Yochow. 

Crooks, Miss F,., M.B., C.M., I. P. M , Kirin, via Newchwang. 

Crooks, Miss G., M. 1C. M., Chinkiang. 

Crossette, Mrs. M. M., A. P. M., Weihsien, via Tsingtau. 

Crouse, F. C., and wife. A. B. S., Kiukiang. 

Crowl, Miss A L., A. B. M. U., Hanyang. 

Crummer, Miss I v ., A. P. K., Shanghai. 

Crumpe, Miss, Ind., Foochow. 

Crutcher, A. T., and wife, C. M. M. Chengtu. 

Crystall, Miss K. J., C. I. M., Sisiang, via Hankow. 

Cu, Miss L. B., M.D., M. K. M., Hokchiang. via Foochow. 

Cuff, A., and wife Unc., Juichowfu, via Kiukiang. 
Culverwell, Miss K., C I. M., Yingshan, Sze., via Ichang. 
CulverweH, Miss F. II., C. J. M., Nanpn, via Ichang. 
Cumber, Miss Mira L., F. F. M.. Chungking. 
Cundall, K., L.R.C.S. and P., \V. M. S. , Anlu. via Hankow. 
Cunningham, A. M ., and wife, A. P. M., Peking. 
Cunningham, J. R.. and wife, C. and M. A.. \Vuchow. 
Cunningham, R., C. I. M., Luchow, via Chungking. 
Cunningham, W. R.. M.I).. A. P. M.. Yihsien. via Chinkiang. 
Curnow, J. ()., and wife. M. K. M., Suining, Sze. 
Currie, Miss M. S., C. I. M., Shanghai. 

Curphey, A. (;., M.B., L.R.C.P. and S., F.din., C. M. M.. Chung 
king. 

Curtis, H. H., C. 1. M., Kiangtsin, via Chungking. 
Curtis, J., C. M. S., Funingfu, via Foochow. 
Cushman, Miss C. F,., M. K. M.. Tientsin. 
C/ach. Miss T., Lieben/.ell M.. Ukang, via Yochow. 
Czerwinski, C., and wife, Lieben/ell M., Siangtan, via Yochow. 

Daehlen, I., and wife, A. L. M., Sinyangchow, Honan. 
Dahl, Miss B. H., Apos. F. M., Shanghai 
Dahlberg, Miss H. A.. vS. C. A., Saratsi, via Peking. 
Dale, Miss 1C. P., F. C. M., Wuhu. 
Dalland, ()., Nor. M. S., Ivang, via Changsha. 
Dannenberg, W. FC., and wife, F. C. M.. Chuchow, An., via Nan 
king. 

Darling, Miss A. R., C. I. M , Shanghai. 
Darlington, T., and wife. C. I. M.. Wanhsien. via Ichang. 
Darly, Miss, C K. Z. , Kienning, via Foochow. 



XV111 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Darroch, Miss M., C. I. M., Shanghai. 

Davenport, C. J., F.R.C.S., and wife, L. M. S., Shanghai. 

Davenport, E. C., M.U., South China Med College, Canton. 

Davey, Miss G. C., C. I. M., Yangchow. 

Davidson, A., and wife, F. F. M., Chungking. 

Davidson, A. W., and wife, F. F. M., Chungking. 

Davidson, D. C., M.A. U. F. C. S., Hnlan, via Newchwang. 

Davidson, R. J., and wife, F. F. M., Chentu. 

Davidson, W. H., M.R.C.S., Iv.R.C.l . (Loud.), and wife, F. F. 

M., Chungking. 

Davidson, Miss M. S., U. F. C. S., Moukden. 
Davies, C. F. , and wife, C. I. M., Kweiyang, via Chungking. 
Davies, H., M.A., P. C. N. Z., Canton. 

Davies, J. P., and wife, A. H. M. U.. Kiating, via Chungking. 
Davies, Miss H., C. I. M., Sintientsi (Paoning), via Ichang. 
Davies, Miss H., I v . M. vS., Hongkong. 

Davis, C. F. E., and wife, C. I. M., *. huhsien, Sze. , via Ichang. 
Davis, D. H., D.D., and wife, Seventh l>. B., Shanghai. 
Davis, F. W., and wife, C. and M. A., Wuchow. 
Davis, G. I v ., and wife, M. E. M., Changli, via Tientsin. 
Davis, G. R., and wife, M. E. M.. Tientsin. 
Davis, H. E., and wife, Seventh D. B., Shanghai. 
Davis, J. W., D.D., LL.D., A. P. M. So., Nanking. 
Davis, \V. W., M. E. M., Peking. 
Davis, W. G., C. and M. A., Wuchang. 
Davis, Miss A. A., C. I. M., latigkeo, via Ningpo. 
Dawes, J. V., and wife, G. M.. Taian, Shantung. 
Dawson, W. F., and wife, L. M. S., Peking. 
Dawson, Miss A., Unc., Nanchang, via Kiukiang. 
Day, D. J. S., and wife, R. C. in A., Ainoy. 
Day, F., S. P. G., Yungchunghsien. 
Day, I.. J., and wife, B. and F. B. S., Shanghai. 
De Greemv, Miss H. J. A., C. J. M., Anjen, via Kiukiang. 
De Haan, A. B., and wife, A. B. C. F. M., Paiigchun, via Tientsin. 
De Free, H. P., B.D., and wife, R. C. in A., Chiungchiu, via 

Ainoy. 

Dean, J. C., and wife, A. P. E., \Vuhu. 
Dean, Miss J., A. R. P. M. Takhing, via Canton. 
Deane, Mrs. A. M., F. F. M., Tungchwan, Sze. 
Deans, F. S., B. and F. B. S., Chengtu. 
Deans, W., and wife, C. S. M.. Ichnng. 
Deming, J. II., and wife, A. H. M. U., Hanyang. 
Dempsey, P. T., and wife, \V. .M. S., Tayeh, via Hankow, 
Denluun, J. 1C., and wife, C. M. S., Hangehow. 
Denham, Miss, W. M. S., Yungchowfn, Hunan. 
Derr, C. H., and wife, A. P. M., Chenchow, Hunan. 
Deutsch, I., S. C., Tamingfu. 



DIRECTORY OF MISSIONARIES IN CHINA. XIX 

Devol, G. F., M.D., and wife, A. F. M., Luho, via Nanking. 

Dewstoe, K., and wife, W. M. S., Canton. 

Dickie, Miss K. C., A. P. M., Ningpo. 

Dickie, F., C. L M., Kinhwafu, via Ningpo. 

Dickson, Miss A. I., B.A., C. P. M.. Kongmoon, via Hongkong. 

Diehl. F., and wife, Rlien. IVI S., Fukwing. via Hongkong. 

Dietrich, G., B.M., Nyenhangli, via Swatow. 

Dilcline, H. G., and wife, M. K. M., Yungchun, via Foochow. 

Dilley, F. K., M.D., A. P. M., Peking. 

Dinneen, Miss C. K. Z., Foochow. 

Dobson, G. F. C., M.A., and wife, C. M. S.. Shanghai. 

Dobson, YV. H., M.D., and wife, A. P. M. Yeungkong. 

Dodd, A. B. and wife, A. P. M., Tsinan, via Tsingtau. 

Dodson, Miss S. L., A. P. E. Shanghai. 

Dotnay, G., and wife, C. I. M., Linkiang, via Kiukiang. 

Doring, H., H. and F. B. S., Canton. 

Douglas. G., M.A., and wife, U. F. C. S., Liaoyang, via New- 
chwang. 

Douglass. C. W., and wife, A. P. M.. Shanghai. 

Dow, Miss J., M.B., C. P. M., Changteho, Ho. 

Dow, Miss Nellie K. , A. A. C., Nanking. 

Dowling, Miss M. A., A. B. M. U., Shaohingfu. 

Downing, Miss C. B. , Chefoo Miss. Home, Chrfoo. 

Draffin, G. F. , C. I. M., Nanchowting, via Yochow. 

Drake, Miss K., C. J. M., Yingshan, Sze. , via Ichang and Wan- 
hsien. 

Drake, Miss N., M. K. So., Soochow. 

Drane, Miss L. A., C. and M. A., Nanlinghsien, via \Vuhu. 

Draper, Miss F. I,., M.D., M. K. M., Sienyu, via Foochow. 

Dresser, Miss K. K., A. P. M., Nanking. 

Dreyer, F. C. H., and wife, C. I. M., Chaocheng, Sha., via Pe 
king. 

Dring, Miss G., C. I. M., lyang, Ki., via Kiukiang. 

Drummond, W. J.. and wife, A. P. M., Nanking. 

Drysdale. I. F., and wife, B. and F. B. S., Tientsin. 

DuBose, H. C., Mrs., A. P. M. So., Soochow. 

DuBose, P. C.. and wife, A. P. M. So., Soochow. 

Dubs, C. N., and wife, U. F/. C. M., Changsha, via Hankow. 

Duffy, A., and wife, C. I. M., Takutang. 

Duff us, Miss M., K. P. M., Wukingfu, via Swatow. 

Duncan, Miss A. N., K. P. M., Changchowfu via Amoy. 

Duncan, Miss H. M., C. I. M., Yungfenghsien, via Kiukiang. 

Duncan, Miss M. B., A. P. M., Ningpo. 

Duncanson, R., B.A., and wife, C. P. M., Kongmoon, via Hong 
kong. 
Dunk, Miss, C. M. S., Shiuhing, via Canton. 

Duulap, I., and wife, U. K. C. M., Liling, via Yochow. 



XX CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Dunlap, R. W., M.D., A. P. M., Tengchowfu, via Chefoo. 

Dunne, Miss, C. E. Z., Foochow. 

Dunphy, Miss H., Unc., Nanchang, via Kiukiang. 

Durham, Miss I,., A. P. M., Canton. 

Duryee, Miss A., R. C. in A., Tongan, via Amoy. 

Duryee, Miss L. N., R. C. in A., Tongan, via Amoy. 

Duthie, J., Unc., Pakou, via T angshan. 

Dyck, Miss M., Ind., Shanhsien. 

Dye, D., A. B. M. U., Suifu, via Chungking. 

Dyer, Miss C. P., M. K. M., Changli, via Tientsin. 

Dyer, Mrs. L., Ind., Shanghai. 

Dyer, Miss E., C. and M. A., \Vuchow. 

Dymond, F. J. and wife, U. M. C. M.. Tungchwan, Yun. 

Dzau, S. K., Chinese Y. M. C. A. of China, Shanghai. 

Kaclie, G., B.A., and wife, C. P. M., Changteho, Ho. 

Bagger, E., and wife, Unc., Pakow, via Tongshan. 

Eaines, C. M., A. P. M., Tsiningchow, via Chinkiang. 

Earle, J. R., B.A., and wife, C. M. M., Jenshow. 

Eastman, V. 1 ., and wife, A. B. C. F. M., Linching, via Tsing- 
tan. 

Easton, G. F., and wife, C. I. M., Hanchungfu, via Hankow and 
Sianfu. 

Ebeling, W. II. C., and wife, A. B. C. F. M., Tnngchow, Chi. 

Eberlein, O., B.M., Hoyun, via Canton and Weichpw. 

Eckart, K., Ber. M., Shiuchowfu, via Canton. 

Eckerson, F., M.A., R. C. in A., Tongan, via Amoy. 

Edgar, J. H., and wife, C. I. M., Batang, Sze. 

Eddon, W., and wife, U. M. C. M,, Wuting, Shantung. 

Edmonds, Miss A. M., M.D., M. K. M., Chungking. 

Edmunds, C. K., Ph.D., and wife, Canton Christian College, 
Canton. 

Edwards, D. \V., B.A., Y. M. C. A., Peking. 

Edwards, R. F., and wife, A. P. M., Limchowfu. 

Edwards, W., and wife, Aug., Fancheng, via Hankow. 

Edwards, Dr. E. H., and wife, E. B. M., Taiyuenfu, Shansi. 

Edwards, Miss A. S., C. M. S., Chungpa, Sze. 

Edwards, Miss M. A., C. I. M., Sisiatig, via Hankow. 

Ehn, P. E., and wife, S. C. A., Kweihwating, via Taiyuanfu. 

Fvhrstrom, Miss A. E., Fin. F. C. M., Yungsin, Ki., via Kiu 
kiang. 

F.ich, G., M.D., and wife, Rhen. M. S., Tuiigkun, via Canton. 

Ekeland, T. L., and wife, A. I v . M., Juning, Honan. 

Ekvall, D. P., and wife, C. and M. A., Titaochow, Kansuh. 

Ekvall, M. E., and wife, C. and M. A., Minchow, Kansuh. 

Eldridge, Miss A. E., C. I. M., Chefoo. 

Elgie, Miss H., A. B. M. U., Ningpo. 



aoning, 

igkong 

i. 

ching, via Tsingtao 



DIRECTORY OF MISSIONARIES IN CHINA. xxi 

Ellerhek, A., M.D.. D. I, M., Antung, via Newchwang. 

Klliott, C. C., M.I)., C. I. M.. Paoning, S/e. 

Klliott, T. M., K. So., Y. M. C. A., Hongkong. 

Klliott, W. S., A. B. S.. Tungchow, Chi. 

Kllis, K. W., and wife, A. B. C. F. M., Ivinc 
and Techou. 

Kllis, MissM.A., A.B.C.F. M.,Linching, via Tsingtao and Techou. 

Ellison, K. J., B.vSc., K. B. M., Sianfu, Shensi. 

KHison, K., W. M. S., Shiuchow, via Canton. 

Kilmers, Miss I. i\l. A., C. I. M., Aiitung, Ku., via Chinkiang. 

Elsenhans, Miss A., B. M., Hongkong. 

Kiterich, \V. ()., and wife, A. P. M., Cliefoo. 

Klthain, Miss G.. C. I. M., Liangchowfu, via Hankow and Sianfu. 

El win, Miss R., A. P. K., Shanghai. 

Kmbery, W. J., C. I. M., Tengyueh, via Mengt/.e. 

Kinslie, W., and wife, C. I. M., Chuchowfu, via Ningpo. 

Eudemann, G., and wife, Ber. M. S., Fayen, Shakkok, via 
Canton. 

Kndicott. J., B.A., and wife, C. M. M., Chengtu. 

Kncisson, Anna W., S. A. C. F., Canton. 

Eng, Miss H. K., M.I)., M. K. M., Foochow. 

Eugdahl, K. \V., and wife, S. M. S., Ichang. 

Kngesland. Miss A., Nor. L. M., Laohokow, Honan. 

Knglnnd, W., and wife, S. C. A., Lantien, via Tsingtan. 

Engstrom, Miss H. W. S. Sw. M. in C., Mienchih. 

Ensign, C. F., M.P., and wife, M. K. M ., Taianfu, via Tsingtau. 

Entwistle, W. K., and wife, C. I. M., Liuanchow, via Wuhu. 

Ericsson, A. A., Sw. M. in China, Ishih, via Taiyuanfu. 

Ericsson, Miss M ., S. A. C. M., Canton. 

Eriksson, Miss A., Sw. M. in China, Tungchowfu, She., via 
Taiyuanfu. 

Espeegren, ()., and wife, Nor. L. M., Nanyangfu, Honan. 

Espey, J. M., and wife, A. P. M., Shanghai. 

Estes, W. A., and wife, M. K. So.-, Huchowfu. 

Etchells, Miss K., Grace M., Tangsi, via Shanghai. 

Evans, A., I 7 . M. C. M., Tungchwan, YUM. 

Evans, A. K. , and wife, C. I. M. , Shunking, via Ichang. 

1C vans, K., and wife, Ind., Shanghai. 

Evans, P. S. , Jr., M.D., and wife, A. So. B., Yangchow, via 

Chinkiang. 

Ewald, Miss K.. S. C., Taniingfu. 
Ewan, R. B., M.D., and wife, C. M. M., Chengtu. 
Ewing, C. E., and wife, A. B. C. F. M., Tientsin. 
Ewing, Miss J., E. P. M., Engchun, via Anioy. 
Ewing, Miss M., E. P. M., Engchun, via Amoy. 
Eyestone, Rev. J. H., M. E. M., Mintsinghsien, Foochow. 
Ejre, Miss, C. M. S., Hongkong, 



XXI 1 CHINA MISSION YKAR BOOK. 

Faers, A. II., and wife, C. I. M., Chefoo. 

Fagerholm, A. D. , and wife, S. M. S., Wuchang, via Hankow. 

Fahuiy, A., M.B., C.M., and wife, L. M. S., Chiangchiu, via Aiuoy. 

Fairclough, C., C. I. M., Yenchow, via Hangchow. 

Faithful 1-Davies, Miss, C. E. Z., Foochow. 

Falls, J., and wife, C. I. INI., Pingyaohsien, via Peking. 

Faris, P. P., and wife, A. P. M., Ichowfu, via Chinkiang. 

Faris, Miss M., A. P. M., Yihsien, via Chinkiang. 

Fanner W. A., B.Ph.. and wife, C. and M. A., Wuchow. 

Farnham. J. M. W., I). 1).. and wife, A. P. M., Shanghai. 

Fauske. H., and wife, I,. Br. M. Taoyang. via Hankow. 

Favors, Miss A.. F. C. M., I v uchowfu, via Wnhu. 

Featherstone, Miss C., N. W. Kiangsi M., Wucheng, Ki., via 
Kiukiang. 

Fearn, J. B., .M.I)., and wife, M. K. So., Shanghai. 

Fearon, Miss M. K., C . I. M. Wanhsien, Sze., via Ichang. 

Fearon, Miss, C. K. Z., Foochow. 

Fell, J. W , A. P. K., Wuchang. 

Felt, C. A., and wife, M. 1C. M., Peking. 

Fenn, C. H., D.I)., and wife, A. P. M., Peking. 

Ferguson, H. S., and wife, C. I. M., Yingchowfu, via Wnhu. 

Ferguson, W. I)., M.D., and wife, C. M. M., Z,uchow, via Chung 
king. 

Fergusson, W. X., and wife, B. and F. B. S., Chengtu, via Chung 
king. 

Ferguson, MIPS M. R., C. M.. Ningpo. 

Fernstrom, K. A. and wife, Sw. M. S., Ichang. 

Fiddler, J. S., and wife, C. I. M., Ningsiafu, via Hankow and 
Sianfu. 

Field, F. K., A. P. M.. Tsiningchow, via Chinkiang. 

Fielden, Miss H. A. B. M. i:., Yachowfu, via Chungking. 

Finn, Miss K. N., Ind., Shanghai. 

Fishe, C. T., and wife, C. I. M., Wuhu. 

Fishe, Miss K. A., C. I. M.. Chefoo. 

Fishe, Miss M. H., C. I. M., Hokow, Ki., via Kiukiang. 

Fisher, A. J., and wife, A. P. M., Canton. 

Fisk, G., B.D., and wife, E. B. M., Tsowping, via Kiaochow. 

Fitch, G. F., D.I)., and wife. A. P. M., Shanghai. 

Fitch, George A., B. A., B.D., Y. M. C. A.. Shanghai. 

Fitch, J. A., and wife, A. P. M., Weihsien, via Tsingtau. 

Fitch, R. F., and wife, A. P. M., Hangchow. 

Fitch, Miss A., Y. W. C. A., Shanghai. 

Fittemore, Miss I,. H., A. Free M. M. in China, Kaifengfti, 
Honan. 

Flagler, Miss C., S. C., Tamingfn. 

Fleischer, A., B.Sc., M.A., B.D, and wife, Nor. M. S., lyacg, via 
Changsha. 



DIRECTORY OF MISSIONARIES IX CHINA- Xxiii 

Fleischmann, C. A., C. F. M., Yuntianfu, via Hokow and Mengtze. 

Fleisje, L,., Nor. I,. M., Chenping, IIo. 

Fleming, Miss K., A. P. M. So., Sooehow. 

Fleming, Miss K. K., M.I) , A. P. M., Ichowfu, via Chinkiang. 

Fleming. Miss H B., C. I. M.. Anjen, via Kinkiang. 

Fleming, Miss K., C. I. M.. Anjen, via Kiukiang. 

Fleming, Miss, C. K. Z., Nangwa. via Foochow. 

Fletcher, F. J., and wife, A. Free M. in China, Tsingkiangpu, via 

Chinkiang. 

Fletcher, Miss, C. M. S., Hongkong. 
Fletcher, Miss S., C. M. S., Hongkong. 
FoKgitt, Miss K., H.A., L. M. S., Shanghai. 
Folke, K., and wife, Sw. M. in China, Yuncheng, via Tai- 

yuanfu. 

Folmer, Miss K., I). L. M., Fenghwangcheng, via Newchwang. 
Fonda. Miss 1C. I,., M. K. M., Hinghwa. 
Ford, 1C. Iv., and wife, M. K. M., Fooehow. 
Ford, H. T., and wife. C. I. M., Taikang, via Hankow. 
Ford, Miss A., I,. M. S., Shanghai. 
Ford. ISIiss R. M., C. I. M., Lanchi, via Xing]K>. 
Forge, Miss, C. M. S. , Hinghwatu, via Foochow. 
Forge. Miss F. A.. C. M. S., Hinghwafu, via Fooehow. 
Forrler, Miss K., Ger. C. A. M., Chuehow, via Wenchow. 
Forssberg. Miss A. ().. Sw. M. in China, Ishih, via TaiytiHiifu. 
Forsyth, R.C., and wife, K. H. M.. Chowtsnn, vin Kiaochow. 
Foster, A.. B.A., and wife, L. M. S.. Wuchang, via Hankow. 
Foster, J. M., D.D., A. H. M. U., Swatow. 
Foster, Miss T.. M. 1C. So., Soochow. 

Foncar. H. 1C., and wife, C I M.. Ningkwofu, via Wiihu. 
Fonts, F., M.I)., and wife, A. P. M., Ichowfn. via Chinkiang. 
Fowle, Miss F. J., C. I. M., Suitingfu, via Ichang and \Van- 

h-ien. 
Fowler, H., L.R.C.P. and S., and wife, I.. M. S., Siaokan, via 

Hankow. 

Fowles. K. R., H. B. M^.. Shouyang. Shansi. 
Fox. Miss M.. B.vSc., F. F. M.| Chungking. 
Fradd, Miss K.. C. and M. A., Tsingyang, via Wnhn. 
Franck, G. M., and wife, C. I. M., Chengtn. 
Franke, A. H., and wife, Liebenxell M., I kang, via Yochow. 
Franklin, Miss, 1C. B. M., Sianfn. Shensi. 
Fran/., Miss A. K. M., A. P. M., Weihskn, via Tsingtau. 
Fran/.en, Rev. 1C.. S. M. vS., Kienli, via Hankow. 
Fraser, A L., and wife, A. H. M. U.. Shaohinxfu. 
Fraser, J. ()., B.Sc., C. I. M., Tengyueh, via Mengt/e. 
Fraser, MissC. G.. C. S. M., Ichang. 
Fra/ey. Miss L., M. K. M., Kucheng, via Fooehow. 
Frt-dberg. G. S., S. Holiness, Hniiyiian, via Peking. 



XXIV CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Freden, S. M., and wife, S. M. vS., Kingchow, Hupeh. 
Fredericks, Mrs. I,. P., A. P. K., Shanghai. 
Fredrickson, Miss A!., A. I,. M., Juning, Honan. 
Freeman, C. W., M.I)., and wife,*M. E. M., Chungking. 
Freidstrom, X. J., S. C. A., Paoteo, Wangjefu, via Peking. 
French, Miss K., C. I. M., Huochow, via Peking. 
French, Miss E. B., A. P. M. So., Hangchow. 
French, Miss F. I,., C. I. M., Hwochow, via Peking. 
Frewer, Miss B. L., C. M. S., Clmki. 
Froelich, L.D., B.A., Y. M. C. A., Peking. 
Froiland. T., M.I)., Nor. L. M., Tengchow, Honan. 
Fullerton, Miss K. C., M.D.. A. P. E., Shanghai. 
Fulton, A. A., I). I)., and wife, A. P. M., Canton. 
Fultor, T. C., M.A., and wife, I. P. M., Moukden. 
Fulton, Miss M. H., M.D., A . P. M., Canton. 
Funk, C. A., and wife, C. and M. A., Hankow. 
Funk, Miss G. A., A. B. C. F. M., Shaowu, via Foochow. 
Funk, Miss M. A., C. and M. A., Wuchang. 
Furness. Miss, C. M. S., Ningpo. 
Fuson, C. G., B.A., and wife, Canton Chr. College, Canton. 

Gaff, C. A., and wife, \V. M. S., Fatshan, via Canton. 

Gage, B., B.A., and wife, Yale M., Changsha, Hunan. 

Galley, R. R., and wife, Y. M. C. A., Peking. 

Gaither, Mrs. J. A., M. E. So.. Sungkiangfu. 

Galbraith, Miss A. E., C. and M. A., Titaochow, Kansuh. 

Gale F. G., and wife, M. E. M., Nanchang. 

Gallop, Miss E. M., C. M. S., Mienchow, Sze. 

Galloway, J. I,., and wife, Bible M., Macao. 

Galloway, Miss H. R., M. K. M., Chungking. 

Gait, H. S.. and wife, A. B. C. F. M., Tungchow, Chi. 

Gatnewell, F. I)., Ph.D., and wife, M. E. M., Peking. 

Gammon, G. F.. and wife, A. B. S., Shanghai. 

Gardiner, J., C. I. M., Nanchowting, via Yochow. 

Gardner, G. M., and wife, A. B. C. F. M., Foochow. 

Gardner, Miss, C. E. Z., Kienning, via Foochow. 

Garland, Miss A., C. I. M.. Tsingchow, Kan. 

Garland. Miss S., C. I. M., Tsingchow, Kan. 

Garner, A. I., E. B. M., Taiyuanfu, Shansi. 

Garner, Miss E., M. I).. W. lT. M., Shanghai. 

Garnet, Miss, C. 1C. Z., Pingnan, via Foochow. 

Garretson, Miss 1C. M., A. B. C. F. M., Foochow. 

Garrett. F., and wife, F. C. M., Nanking. 

Garriock, Miss R. T., V. F. C. S., Moukden. 

Garritt, J. C., D.I)., and wife, A. P. M.. Nanking. 

Gasser, F., Ger. C. A. M., Kienchang. via Kinkiang. 

GastoH, J. M., M.I)., and wife, A. So. B., Laichow, via Chefoo. 



DIRECTORY OF MISSIONARIES IN CHINA. XXV 

Gates, W. D.. M.A., and wife, A. B. M. U., Hanyang. 
Gates, Miss, Unc., Tuchiawop u, via Tongsban. 

Gates, Miss A. F., A. P. H., Wuchang. 

Gaunt, T., B.A., and wife, C. M. S., Taichowfu. 

Gay, Miss F., S. P. G., Pingyin, via Chefoo. 

Gay nor, Miss L. K., M.D., A. F. M., Nanking. 

Geary, Miss E., C. M., Ningpo. 

Gedye, E. F. , M.A., and wife, W. M. S., Wuchang, via Hankow. 

Gee, N. G., and wife, M. E. So., Sooehow. 

Gehman, Miss D., A. B. C. F. M., Taikuhsien, Shansi. 

Geller, W. H., and wife, L. M. S., Siaokan, via Hankow. 

Gelwicks, G. L., and wife, A. P. M., Hengchowfu, Hunan. 

Genahr, I., and wife, Rhen. M.S., Hongkong. 

Georg, H. L., Ger. C. A., Sungyang, via Wenchow. 

George, Miss E. C., C. M. S., Pakhoi. 

Gibb, G. W., M.A., and wife, C. I. M., Hweichow, via Tatung. 

Gibb, J. G., C.M., M.D., M.S., L. M. S., Peking. 

Gibb, J. McG., and wife, M. E. M., Peking. 

Gibson, J. C., M.A., D.D., E. P. M., Swatow. 

Gibson, O. J., S. I). A., Shanghai. 

Gibson, R. M., M.D., C.M., and wife, L. M. S., Hongkong. 

Gibson, W. W., W. M. S., Paoch ing, via Hankow. 

Giesel, R., and wife, Ber. M., Fuitschu, via Canton. 

Giesewetter, W., Rhen. M. S., Kangpui, via Canton. 

Giess, H., and wife, B. M., Kayinchow, via Swatow. 

Giffin, J. H., and wife, A. B. M. U., Raying, via Swatow. 

Giles, Miss, C. E. Z., Saiong, via Foochow. 

Giles, Miss E. L., C. I. M., Tsinciiow, Kan. 

Gill, J. M. B., A. P. E., Shanghai. 

Gillard, Miss M. E., C.M.S., Shaohingfu. 

Gillespie, W. H., M.A., I. M. P., Kwangchengtze, via New- 

chwang. 

Gillhespy, Miss, E. P. M., Chaochowfu, via Swatow. 
Gillies, R., and wife, C. I. M., via Peking. 
Gillisou, T., M.B., C.M., and wife, I,. M. S., Hankow. 
Gilman, A. A., B.A., and wife, A. P. E., Changsha. 
Oilman, F. P., and wife, A. P. M., Kacheck, via Hoihow, Hainan. 
Gilman, Miss G., M. E. M., Peking. 
Gilmer, W. T., and wife, C. I. M., Yoyang, via Peking. 
Gjelseth, A. B., S. C. A., Pinchow, Sze., via Hankow. 
Glanville, S., C. I. M., Fushun, Sze., via Chungking. 
Glass. W. B., and wife, A. So. B. M., Hwanghsien. via Chefoo. 
Glassburner, Miss M., M. E. M., Hokchiang, via Foochow. 
Gleditsch, MissB., Nor. M.S., Taohualuen, lyang, via Chaugsha. 
Glenton, Miss M. V., M.D., A. P. E., Wuchang. 
Gleysteen, W. H., and wife, A. P. M., Peking. 
Gloss, Miss A. D., M.D., M. E. M., Peking. 



XXvi CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Glover, R. H., M.D., and wife, C. and M. A., Wuchang. 

Glover, Miss E. E., M. E. M., Changli, via Tientsin. 

Goddard, A., A. P. E., Sliasi. 

Goddard, F. W., M.D., A. B. M. U., Shaohingfu. 

Goddard, J. R., D.D., A. B. M. U., Ningpo. 

Goforth, J., and wife, C. P. M., Chaugteno, Honan. 

Gohl, E., and wife, B. M., Chonglok, via Swatow. 

Goldie, Miss E. S., C. M. S., Foochow. 

Golisch, Miss A. L., M. E. M., Chungking. 

Gonder, R. K., and wife, C. I. M., Yoyang, via Peking. 

Gooch, Miss, W. M.S., Hankow. 

Goodall, T. W., and wife, C. I. M. (In Europe.) 

Goodchild, T., M.A., and wife, C. M. S., Ningpo. 

Goodchild, Miss E. L., E. B. M., Tsingchowfu, via Kiaochow. 

Goodrich, C., D.D., and wife, A. B. C. F. M., Peking. 

Goold, A., and wife, C. I. M., Mienhsien, via Hankow. 

Gardner, Mrs. A. D., Amer. Board Mission (absent). 

Gordon, J. A., and wife, Unc., Tukiapu, via Kiukiang. 

Gordon, K. M., A. B. C. F. M., Tientsin. 

Gordon, R. J., M.A., M.B., C.M., and wife, I. P. M., Kwang- 

chengtze, via Newchwang. 
Gornitzka, K. T. W., Nor. M. in C., Sihcheo (Tailing), Sha., via 

Peking. 

Gorsmen, Miss K., D. L. M., Antung, via Newchwang. 
Gossard, J. E., M.D., and wife, M. E. M., Yenpiugfu, via Foochow. 
Gothberg, N., S. C. A., Paot eo, Kweihwacheng, via Peking. 
Gothberg, Miss I. A., S. C. A., Saratsi, via Peking. 
Gotteberg, J. A. O., aud wife, Nor. M. S., Changsha. Hunan. 
Goudge, Miss E., C. M. S., Hangcliow. 
Gough. Miss H. A., C. I. M., Pachow, Sze., via Ichang. 
Gould, R. J., and wife, B. & F. B. S., Hankow. 
Gowans, Miss A. H., A. P. M., Paotingfu, via Tientsin. 
Gowdy, J., M. E. M., Foochow. 

Gracie, A., and wife, C. I. M., Yungkang, via Ningpo. 
Grafton, T. B., and wife, A. P. M. So., Suchowfu, via Chinkiang. 
Graham, A., L R.C P., and wife, C. S. M., Ichang. 
Graham, J., and wife, C. I. M., Yiiunanfu, via Hokow and 

Mengtze. 
Graham, J. R., and wife, A. P. M. So., Tsingkiangpu, via Chin- 

kiang. 

Graham, Miss A., C. M. S., Hangchow. 
Graham, Miss, C. E. Z., Pingnan, via Foochow. 
Graham, Miss M. F., U. F. C. S., Liaoyang, via Newchwang. 
Grainger, A., and wife, C. I. M., Chengtu. 
Gramatte, A., Berlin M., Hongkong. 

Grandin, Miss L., L.R.C.P. & S., E., U. M. F. C., Chaotung, Yun. 
Grant, J, B., and wife, L,. M. S., Chichow, via Peking. 



DIRKCTORY OF MISSIONARIES IN CHINA. XXV11 

Grant, J. S., M.D., and wife, A. B. M. U.. Ningpo. 

Grant, W. H., B.A., and wife, C. P. M., Weihwei, Ho. 

Graves, F. R., D.D., and wife. A. P. E., Shanghai. 

Graves, R. H., D.D., M.D., A. So. B., Canton. 

Graves, Miss L. J., A. P. E., Shanghai. 

Graves, Miss E. W., A. P. E., Shanghai. 

Gray, A. V., and wife, A. P. M., Nanking. 

Gray, H., A. P. M., Shanghai. 

Gray, Miss M., C. I. M., Chefoo. 

Graybill, H. B., M.A., Canton Chr. College, Canton. 

Green, C. H. S., and wife, C. I. M., Hwailu, via Tientsin. 

Green, Miss, C. M. S., Ningpo. 

Green, Miss K. R., R. C. in A., Chiangchin, via Amoy. 

Green, Miss M., E. B. M., Taiyuenfu, Shansi. 

Greene, G. W., D.D., and wife, A So. B., Canton. 

Greene, Miss P., A. So. B., Canton. 

Greening, A. E., and wife, E B. M., Peicheng, Putai City, via 

Kiaochow. 

Greening, E. B., E. B. M., Tsingchowfu, Shantung. 
Greg Miss J. G., C. I. M., Hwailu, via Tientsin. 
Gregory, Miss A. M., C. I. M.. Sintientsi (Paoning), via Ichang. 
GreiK A. i,., and wife, I,. M. S., Hengchowfu, Hunan. 
Greig, J. A., F.R.C.S., Ed., and wife, I. P. M., Kirin. via 

Newchwanjj;. 

Greiser, B., and wife, Ber. M., Yinfa, via Canton. 
Greschat, G., Ber. M., Hongkong. 
Gresham, Miss A., Unc., \Veihaiwei. 

Grier, M. B., and wife, A. P. M. So., Suchowfn, via Chmkianff. 
Grierson, R., and wife, C. I M., Pingyanghsieu, via Wenchow. 
Griesser, R. A., A. P. E., Shanghai. 
Griffin, Miss, C. M. S., Hongkong. 

Griffith J., B.A., and wife, C. P. M., Changteho, Ilonan. 
Griffith, M. L., and wife, C. I. M., Shuntehfu, via Peking. 
Griffith, Miss, C. E. Z., Lo-nguong, via Foochow. 
Grills, Miss B. A., I. P. M., Kwangchengtze, via Newchwang. 
Grimes, A. C., N.-C. Tract Society, Peking. 
Groesbeck, A. F., and wife, A. B. M. U., Chaoyanghsien, via 

Swatow. 

Groff G. \V., B.S., Canton Chr. College, Canton. 
Grohmann, I., Kieler C. M., Pakhoi. 
Groth Miss A. K. K., Iviebenzell Mission, Changsha. 
Groseth, Miss I. C., H. S. M., Fancheng, via Hankow. 
Groves, Miss E. R., C. M., Ningpo. 
Grotefend, Miss M., Ber. Fo. Ho., Hongkong. 
Grundy, W., C. I. M., ]u\an, via Wenchow. 
Gudal, J. M. O., and wife, A. L. M., Hankow. 
Guest Miss I,., C. I. M., Anshunfu, via Yochow and Kweiyang. 



XXV111 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Guex, Miss M., C. I. M., Changshan, Che., via Ningpo. 
Guiuness, G. W., B.A., M.B., B.Ch., and wife, C. I. M., Kaifeng, 

via Hankow. 
Guldbrandseu, Miss D., Nor. M. S., Taohualuen, lyang, via 

Changsha. 

Gunten, Miss E. von, C. and M. A., Wuhu. 
Gustafson, Miss A., S. Holiness, Tatungfu, via Taiyuanfu. 
Gustafson, F. A., and wife, S. C. A., Chongsin, Sianfu, via Hankow. 

Hacking, Miss C. M., C. I. M., Taikang, via Hankow. 

Hadden, J., M.B., B.Ch., W. M. S., Yungchowfu, Hunan. 

Haddeu, Miss M., C. S. M., Ichang. 

Haden, R. A., and wife, A. P. M. So. vSoochow. 

Hagelskaer, I v ., and wife, D. L. M., Fengbwangcheng, via New- 

chwang. 

Hager, C. R., M.D., D.D., A. B. C. F. M., Hongkong. 
Hagestande, Miss A., A. L. M., Sinyangchow, Honan. 
Hagqvist, W., and wife, S. C. A., Chienchow, Sianfu, via Hankow. 
Hagsten, Miss H. A., S. C. A., Luugchow, She., via Hankow. 
Hahne, A., and wife, Sw. M. in China, Ishih, via Taiyuanfu. 
Hail, W. J., B.A, Yale M., Changsha, Hunan. 
Halderman, Miss I., C. and M. A., Nanlinghsien, via Wuhu. 
Halsey, Miss R. R., A. P. E., Wuchang. 
Halthe, P. O., Nor. M. S., Ningsiang, via Changsha. 
Halthe, Miss H., Nor. M. S., Ningsiang, via Changsha. 
Halfield, Miss L., M.D., M. E. M., Foochow. 
Hal!, F. J., M.D., and wife, A. P. M., Peking. 
Hall, J. C., and wife, C. I. M., Kanchow, Ki., via Kiukiang. 
Hall, Miss A., C. P M., Weihweifu, Honan. 
Hall, Miss A. U., A. B. C. F. M., Foochow. 
Hall, Miss E. E., C. I. M., Yangchow. 
Hall, MissJ. D., A. P. M. So., Tsingkiangpu. 
Halley, Miss E., L. M. S., Shanghai. 
Hallin, E., S. Holiness, Soping, via Taiyuanfu. 
Hallin, Miss F., Sw. M. in China, Yuncheng, via Taiyuanfu. 
Hallock, Rev. H. G. C., Ph.D., Metropolitan M., Shanghai. 
Hainbley, Miss L. H., C. M. M., Jetishow. 
Hamill, F. P., C. and M. A., Wuchow. 
Hamilton, E. A., and wife, C. M. S., Sintu, Sze. 
Hamilton, G. W., M.D., and wife, A. P. M., Shuntehfu, Chihli. 
Hamilton, T., C. I. M., Hwangyen, via Ningpo. 
Hamilton, W. B., D.D., and wife, A. P. M., Tsinan, via Tsiugtau. 
Hamlett, P. W., A. So. B.. Soochow. 
Hammond, A., C. I. M., Yenchow, via Hangchow. 
Hampson, W. E., C. I. M., Changsha. 
Hancock, C. F., and wife, A. P. M. So., Chinkiang. 



DIRECTORY OF MISSIONARIES IN CHINA. xxix 

Hancock, Miss A. M., C. I. M., Chefoo. 

Hanna, \V. J., C. I. M., Pingi, via Mengtze. 

Hannah, C. B., C. I. M., Paoning, Sze. 

Hanington, Miss Mabel, M.K., C. M. S., Ningteh, via Foochow. 

Hankins, W. C., and wife, 8. D. A., Kulangsu, Amoy. 

Hansen, (7., and wife, Apos. F. M., Shanghai. 

Hansen, Miss K. H., Apos. F. M., Chengtingfu. Chi. 

Hanson, P. O., and wife, M. K. M., Taianfu, via Tsingtau. 

Harding, D. A. G., and wife, C. I. M., Tsinchow, Kan. 

Harding, D. J., and wife, C. I. M., Kntsingfu, via Mengtze. 

Hardman, M., and wife, C. I. M., Shanghai. 

Harkness, Miss M., E. P. M., Swatow. 

Harlow, J. C., and wife, K. B. M., Shonyang, Shansi. 

Harlow, Miss C. M., C. I. M., Nanpu, Sze., via Ichang. 

Harmon, F., and wife, K. B. M., Chowtsun, via Kiaochow. 

Harris, G. G., B.A., C. M. M., Chungking. 

Harris,}., E. B. M., Tsingchowfu, Shantung. 

Harris, Mrs. S. S., M. E. So., Sniigkiangfn. 

Harris, Miss L. E., M.B., F. F. M., Tungchwan, Sze. 

Harrison, Miss, C. M. S., Haitan, via Foochow. 

Harrison, Miss A., C. I. M., Sisiang, via Hankow. 

Harrison, Miss P., A. So. B. , Yingtak, via Canton. 

Harstad, Miss M., L. Br. M., Tsaoyang, via Hankow. 

Hart, E. H., M.D., and wife, M. E. M., Wnhn. 

Hart, S. L., M.A., D.Sc., and wife, L,. M. S., Tientsin. 

Hart, Miss E., A. P. E., Hankow. 

Hartford, Miss M. C., M. E. M., Yenpingfu, via Foochow. 

Hartwell, G. E., B.A., B.D., and wife, C. M. M., Chengtu. 

Hartwell, J. B., D.D., A. So. B., Hwanghsien, via Chefoo. 

Hartwell, Miss A. B., A. So. B.. Hwanghsien, via Chefoo. 

Hartwell, Miss E. S., A. B. C. F. M., Foochow. 

Harvey, C. W., B.A., and wife, Y. M. C. A., Tientsin. 

Harvey, E. D., M.A., and wife, Yale M., Changsha, Hunan. 

Harvey, Miss E. J., C. I. M., Paoning, Sze. 

Hasenpflug. Miss M. T., W. E. C. M., Changsha, via Hankow. 

Haskell, Mr., and wife, C. New Testament M., Pakhoi. 

Haslam, Miss M. E., C. I. M., Paoning, Sze. 

Hattrem, Miss R., Nor. M. in C., Hotsin, Kiangchow, via Peking. 

Havers, Miss E. I,., C. M. S., Pakhoi. 

Hawes, Miss C. E., A. P. M., Weihsien, via Tsingtau. 

Hawk, J. C., and wife, M. E. So., Changchow. 

Hawkins, Miss I., A. P. So., Kashing. 

Hawley, E. C., and wife, A. P. M., Shuntehfu, Chihli. 

Hawley, J. W., and wife, M. E. M., Yungchun, via Foochow. 

Hay, f. P., M.A., U. F. C. S., Moukden. 

Hayes, C. A., M.D., and wife, A. So. B., Wnchow, via Canton. 

Hayes, J. N., P.I)., and wife, A. P. M., Soochow. 



XXX CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Hayes, W. M., D.D., and wife, A. P. M., Tsingchowfu, via 

Kiaochow. 

Haynian, J. R., C. I. M., Paoning, Sze. 
Hayward, J. N., and wife, C. I. M., Shanghai. 
Hazard, Miss A., A. A. C., Nanking. 
Headland, I. T., Ph.D., and wife, M. E. M., Peking. 
Heal, J. A., and wife, Postal and Telegraph M., Shanghai. 
Heard, Miss A. M., C. M. S., Funingfu, via Foochow. 
Hearn, T. A., and wife, M. E. S., Huchowfu. 
Hearn, T. O., M.D., and wife, A. So. B., Pingtn, via Kiaochow. 
Hedley, J., F.R.^.S., and wife, E. U. M. F. C., Tientsin. 
Hedstrom, Miss H., S. C. A., Canton. 
Heebner, Miss F. K., A. B. C. F. M., Taikuhsien, Sha. 
Heidingsfeld, A., and wife, Ber. M., Fayen Thongau, via Canton. 
Heikinhehno, Dr. H., Fin. M. S., Tsing shih, via Shashi. 
Heinibeck, Miss H., Nor. M. S., Changsha. 
Heinrichsohn, F. K., and wife, R. C. in U. S., Chenchowfu, 

Hunan. 

Hellestad, O., A. L. M., Kiaoshan. Honan. 
Helps, J. S., and wife, W. M. S., Hankow. 

Hemingway, \V. A., and wife, A. B. C. F. M., Taiknhsien, Sha. 
Henderson; Miss M. T., A. P. E., Wusih. 
Hendry, J. L., and wife, M. E. So., Huchowfu. 
Henke, F. G., and wife, M. E. M., Kiukiang. 
Henriksen, Mrs. Ch., S. C. A.. Sianfu, via Hankow. 
Henry, James M., and wife, A. P. M., Canton. 
Henry, Miss A., C. I. M., Yangchow, via Chinkiang. 
Henry, Miss A. J., M.D., C. M. M., Chengtu. 
Henshaw, Miss B. D., C. and M. A., Siangtan. 
Hensley, Miss E., A. So. B., Chefoo. 

Herbert, W. T., and wife, C. I. M., Tatsienlu, via Chungking. 
Herbert, Miss F., C. I. M., Yangchow. 
Herman, A., C. I. M., Hwailu, via Peking. 
Hermann, Dr. H., Rhen. M. S., Tungkung, via Canton. 
Herring, W. F., and wife, A. So. B., Chengchow, Honan. 
Herriott, C. D., and wife, A. P. M., Hangchow. 
Herschel, Miss E., E. P. M., Changpu. via Amoy. 
Hersey, R. M., B.A., and wife, Y. M. C. A., Tientsin. 
Hertz, Rev., and wife, D. L. M., Hwaijen, via Newchwang. 
Hertzberg, A., M.A., M.Sc,, and wife, Nor. M. S., Taohualuen 

lyang, via Changsha. 
Hess," I. L., C. and M. A., Wuchow. 
Hesse, Miss S. E. E., Sw. M. in China, Chiehchow, via Tai- 

vuanfu. 
Hewett, J. W., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., and wife, C. I. M., Suitingfu, 

via Ichang. 
Hewett, Miss A., C. I. M., Paoning, Sze. 



DIRECTORY OF MISSIONARIES IN CHINA. XXXI 

Herwig, Miss E., B. M., Kayinchow, via Swatow. 

Hewitt, H. J., C. I. M. (In Europe.) 

Hewitt, W. H., and wife, C. M. S., Hongkong. 

Hey ward, Dr., W. M. S., Yungchowfu, Hunan. 

Hey wood, J. W., and wife, E. U. M. P. C., Ningpo. 

Hickinan, J., and wife, C. M. S., Shihehuan, Sze. 

Hicks, C. E., and wife, E. U. M. F. C.. Chaotung, Yun. 

Hicks, W. W., and wife, A. P. M., Peking. 

Higgs, Miss E., C. I. M., Hwochow, via Peking. 

Higgius, Miss S. H., A. P. E., Wuchang. 

Hill, E. N., and wife, Unc., Weihaiwei. 

Hill, J. K., and wife, W. M. S., Suichow, via Hankow. 

Hill, K. R. J., and wife, S. C. A., Fengchen, via Taiyuanfu. 

Hill, Dr., and wife, L. M. S., Peking. 

Hill, Miss M., A. P. E., Shanghai. 

Hill, Miss M. A., A. F. M., Nanking. 

Hills, O. F., M.D., and wife, A. P. M., Chefoo. 

Hilty, Miss L., C. and M. A., Wanchih, via Wuhu. 

Hind, J., and wife, C. M. S., Fuhning, via Foochow. 

Hind, Miss, C. M. S., Funingfu, via Foochow. 

Hinds, J., and wife, E. U. M. F. C., Chuchai, via Ningching. 

Kingston, Miss \V., C. I. M., Shekichen, via Hankow. 

Hinkey, P., C. and M. A., Kweilin, via Wuchow. 

Hipwell, W. E., C. M. S., Pakhoi. 

Hiort, Miss R., C. I. M., Kiehsiu, via Peking. 

Hobart, W. T., D.D., and wife, M. E. M., Peking. 

Hockin, A., and wife, C. M. M., Chengtu. 

Hockman, W. H., and wife, C. I. M., Kiatingfu, via Chung 
king. 

Hodnefield, Miss O., H. S. M., Fancheng, via Hankow. 

Hodous, L., and wife, A. B. C. F. M., Foochow. 

Hofmann, J. A. M.D., The J. G. Kerr Refuge for Insane, Canton. 

Hoffman, A. C., S.T.L., and wife, C. M. M., Jenshow. 

Hogg, A., M.A., M.D., and wife, C. I. M., Chefoo. 

Hoglander, J. D., S. Holiness, Hunyuan, via Peking. 

Hogman, N., and wife, Sw. M. in China, Tungchowfu, via 
Taiyuanfu. 

Holden, J., C. M. S., Yungchowfu. 

Holderman, Miss I., C. and M. A., Nanhnghsien, via Wuhu. 

Hole, P., Nor. M. in C., Sihcheo, via Peking. 

Hollander, T. J., A. P. E., Hankow. 

Hollenweger, O., Liebenzell M., Chaugsha. 

Hollis, Miss, C. M. S., Kowloon City. 

Holm, G., L. Br. M., Tsaoyang, via Hankow. 

Holme, Miss M. H., A. F. M., Luho, via Nanking. 

Holmes, T. IX, and wife, A. B. M. U.. Kinhwafu. 

Holuisten, Miss H., Apos. F. M., Chengtingfu, Chi. 



XXX11 CHINA MISSION YKAR BOOK. 

Holt, Miss S. A., Unc., Sinchanghsien, via Kiukiang. 

Holzniann, Miss L., Ber. Fo. Ho., Hongkong. 

Plouieyer, \V., and wife, Ber. M., Namhungchow, via Canton. 

Hong, T., Miss. Home and Agency, Shanghai. 

Honn, N. S., and wife, A. Free M M. in China, Chengchow, 

Honan. 

Honsin^er, Miss \V. B., M. E. M., Nanchangfu, via Kiukiang. 
Hood, Miss, M. K. So., Soochow. 
Hook, Miss, C. E. Z., Foochow. 

Hooker, A. W., M.D., W. M. S., Fatshan, via Canton, 
Hooker, W. C., and wife, A. B. S., Chungking. 
Hopkins, F. J., and wife, Unc., Nanchang, via Kiukiang. 
Hopkins, N. S., M.D., and wife, M. E. M., Peking. 
Hop wood, Miss E. A., C. M., Ningpo. 
Hopwood, Miss L. M., C. M., Ningpo. 

Home, W. S., and wife, C. I. M., Kanchow, Ki., via Kiukiang. 
Home, Miss A. M., L. M. S., Chiangchiu, via Amoy. 
Horner, Miss M. C., L.R.C.P. and S., U. F. C. S., Moukdeu. 
Horobin, Mrs. C.,- C. I. M. (In England.) 
Hosken, Miss E., C. C. Z., Shanghai. 
Hoskyn, Miss J. F., C. I. M., Pingyangfu, via Peking. 
Hosier, P., C. and M. A., Wuchow. 
Hoste, I). E., and wife, C. I. M., Shanghai. 
Hotvedt, I. M. J., M.D., and wife, H. S. M., Fancheng, via 

Hankow. 

Hotzel, G., and wife, Rhen. M. S., Taiping, via Canton. 
Houghton, H. S., M.D., and wife, M. E. M., Wuliu. 
Houlding, H. W., and wife, S. C., Tamingfii, via Tientsin. 
Houser, Miss B., M. E. So., Shanghai. 
Howden, H. J., M.A., and wife, C. M. S., Anhsien, Sze. 
Howe, Miss G., M. E. M., Nanchang. 
Howell, G. T., and wife, C. I. M., Shanghai. 
Howie, Miss L., U. F. C. S., Kaiyuen, via Newchwang. 
Hoy, W. E., and wife, R. C. in U. S., Yochow, via Hankow. 
Hu, Miss M., M. E. M., Foochow. 

Hubbard, G. H., and wife, A. B. C. F. M., Pagoda Anchorage. 
Hudson, G., and wife, A. P. M. So., Hangchow. 
Hudson, W. H., and wife, A. P. M. So., Kashing. 
Huelster, Miss L., M. E. M.. Nanking. 
Huey, Miss A., A. So. B., Laichow, via Chefoo. 
Hughes, F. S., M.A., S. P. G., Peking. 
Hughes, G. L., C. and M. A., Wuchow. 
Hughes, Miss, C. M.S., Ningpo. 
Hughes, Miss J., M. E. M., Kiukiang. 
Huhn, F., Ber. M., Shiuchowfu, via Canton. 
Hultkrantz. Miss A. M. L., Sw. M. in China, Sinanhsien. 
Hume, E. H., M.D., and wife, Yale M.. Changsha, Hunan. 



DIRECTORY OF MISSIONARIES IN CHINA. XXX111 

Hummel, W. F., M. E. M.. Nanking. 

Hunt, E., and wife, C. I. M., Wenchow. 

Hunt, W. R., and wife, F. C. M., \Yuhu. 

Hunt, Miss A., C. I. M., I v iianfu, via Peking. 

Hunt, Miss C. K. W., C. M. vS., Hongkong. 

Hunter, G. W., C. I. M., Tihwafu, Sin., via Lanchowfu, Kan. 

Hunter, J. W., S. P. G., Taian, via Tsingtau. 

Hunter, Mrs. G., C. I. M. (In England.) 

Huntington, D. T., B.A., A. P. E., Ichang. 

Huntley, G. A., M.D., and wife, A. B. M. U., Hanyang. 

Huntoon, Miss C. M., A. B. M. U., vShaohingfu. 

Hutcheson, A. G., M.D., and wife, A. P. M. So., Hashing. 

Hutchinson, A. J., and wife, L. M. S., Chiangchiu, via Amoy. 

Hutchingson, R., W. M. S., Shiuchow, via Canton. 

Hutson, J., and wife, C. I. M., Kwanhsien, Sze. 

Hutton, T., and wife, Ind., Hsinhwa, via Chinkiang. 

Hutton, Miss A. M.. Ind., Hsinhwa, via Chinkiang. 

Hyde, Miss J. A., A. P. M., Nanking. 

Hykes, J. R., D.D., and wife, A. B. S., Shanghai. 

Ibbotson, T. C., C. M. S., Kweilinfu. 

Iliff, G. D., D.D., Bishop, and wife, S. P. G., Chefoo and Taian. 

Inglis, J. W., M.A., and wife, U. F. C. S , Kaiyuen, via Newchwang. 

Ingman, Miss E. E., Fin. F. C. M., Yungsin, Ki., via Kiukiang. 

Ingram, J. H., M.D., and wife, A. B. C. F. M., Tungchow, Chi. 

Irish, H. H., and wife, C. M. M., Chengtu. 

Irvine, Miss G., C. I. M., langkeo, via Ningpo. 

Irvine, Miss E., W. U. M., Shanghai 

Irvine, Miss M. J., W. U. M., Shanghai. 

Irwin, J. P., and wife, A. P. M., Teugchowfu, via Chefoo. 

Isaksson, Miss E., S. M. S., Ichang. 

Istad, Miss S., Nor. Iy. M., Yunyang, Hupeh. 

Jackson, B. H. T., and wife, F. F. M., Tungliang, via Chungking. 
Jackson, J., and wife, A. P. E., Wuchang, via Hankow. 
Jackson, O. M., and wife, C. M. S., Mienchuhsien. 
Jackson, Miss, C. E. Z., Longuong, via Foochow. 
Jackson, Miss L., C. E. Z., Longuong, via Foochow. 
Jackson, Miss L. F. M., C. I. M., Kwangsinfu, via Ningpo. 
Jacobson, I. W., and wife, S. A. M. C., Nanchang, Hupeh. 
Jaffray, B. A., and wife, C. and M. A., Wuchow, via Canton. 
Jakobsen, Miss B., B.A., Nor. M. S., Sinhwa. via Changsha. 
James, T., and wife, C. I. M., Luchow, via Chungking. 
James, Miss J. B., C. I. M., Anjen, via Kiukiang. 
Janzon, Miss A., Sw. M. in China, Honanfu. 
Jaquit, Miss M., M. E. M., Peking. 



XXXIV CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Jefferys, W. H., M.U., and wife, A. P. E., Shanghai. 

Jenkins, G. F., and wife, A. P. INI., Taoyuan. 

Jenkins, H. S., M.D., F.R.C.S. (Eng.), E. B. M., Sianfu, Shensi. 

Jenkins. P., and wife, C. M.S., Canton. 

Jennings, A., and wife, C. I. M., Luchenghsien, via Peking. 

Jennings, W., C. I. M., Kweichowfu, via Ichang. 

Jensen, C. J., S. C. A.. Sianfu, via Hankow. 

Jensen, E., and wife, D. L. M., Kwantien, via Newchwang. 

Jensen, L., and wife, Kieler C. M., I^imchow, via Pakhoi. 

Jensen, Miss A.. Sw. Alliance M.. Kienyang, via Hankow. 

Jeter, Miss E., A. So. B., Pingtu, via Kiaochow. 

Jewell, Mrs. C. M., M. E. M., Peking. 

Jewell, Miss C. I., M. E. M., Foochow. 

Jewell, Miss M. W., Ind., Shanghai. 

Johannessen, Sister D., Nor. M. S., Taohualuen, lyang, via 

Changsha. 

Johannsen, Miss A. M., C. I M., Ynshan, via Ningpo. 
Johanson, A. T., S. C. A., Tungchowfu, Sianfu, via Hankow. 
Johanson, J. A.. M. E. M., Chungking. 
Johanson, Miss H. S., S. Holiness, Pachow, Sze. 
John, G., D.D., Iv. M. S., Hankow. 
Johnsen, Mrs. G., Nor. L. M., I^aohokow, via Hankow. 
Johnson, A., and wife, Apos. F. M., Shiuchiachuang. 
Johnson, C. F., M.D., A. P. M.. Tsinan, via Tsingtan. 
Johnson, E., S. C. A., Paoteo, Kweihwacheng, via Peking. 
Johnson, E. L., and wife, A. P. M., Peking. 
Johnson, J. S., S. A. M. C., Kingmen, via Hankow. 
Johnson, John, and wife, F. C. M., Nantungchow, via Shanghai. 
Johnson, O. S., A. B. C. F. M., Kingmen, via Siangyang, Hupeh. 
Johnson, V., and wife, W. M. S., Pingchiang, Hunan. 
Johnson, \V. R., and wife, M. E. M., Nanchang. 
Johnson, Miss, C. E. Z., Kienning, via Foochow. 
Johnson, Miss C., A. L. M., Kioshan, Honan. 
Johnson, Miss C., W. U. M., Shanghai. 
Johnson, Miss E. C., C. I. M., Kuwo, via Peking. 
Johnson, Miss H. M., S. A. M. C., Fancheng, via Hankow. 
Johnson, Miss T., S. C. A., Pingliang, via Hankow and Sianfu. 
Johnston, W. W., and wife, A. P. M., Tsinan, via Tsingtau. 
Johnston, Miss H., Ind., Kiukiang. 
Johnston, Miss I. B., Ind., Kiukiang. 
Johnston, Miss Margaret, Ind., Kiukiang. 
Johnston, Miss Mary, A. P. M. So., Sutsien, via Chinkiang. 
Jolliffe, R. O., B.A., and wife, C. M. M., Tzeliutsing. 
Jolliffe, C. J. P.. B.A., B.D., and wife, C. M. M., Chengtu. 
Jones, A. F., L.R.C.P. & S., Ed., and wife, E. U. M. F. C., 

Yungpingfu. 
Jones, E. C., M. E. M., Foochow. 



DIRECTORY OF MISSIONARIES IN CHINA. XXXV 

Jones, E. E., and wife, A. B. M. U., Ningpo. 
Jones, F. ( vS. P. G., Chefoo. 
Jones, F. D., E. U. F. M. C.. Wenchow. 
Jones, Dr. J., and wife, E. U. F. M. C., Ningpo. 
Jones, L., and wife, C. I. M., Hankow. 

Jones, R. E., and wife, Une., Tehnganhsien, via Kiukiang. 
Jones, S., and wife, Ind., Killing, via Kiukiang. 
Jones, U.K.. and wife, M. E. M., Hinghwa, via Foochow. 
Jones, Mrs. J. R., A. P. M., Nanking. 
Jones, Miss M. I., A. B. M. U., Hnchowfu. 
Jones, Miss, C. E. Z., Kntien, via Fooehow. 
Jones, Miss A. M., C. M. S., Canton. 
Jones, Miss D., M. E. M., Chengtu. 
Jones, Miss E., M. E. M., Miugchiang, via Foocbow. 
Jones, Miss E. F., A. Free M. M. in China, Kaifengfu, Honau. 
Jones, Miss F., A. So. B., Hwanghsien, via Chefoo. 
Jones, Miss I v . F., C. and M. A., Wanchih, via Wuhu. 
Jones, Miss Laura, A. B. C. F. M., Paotingfu, via Tientsin. 
Jones, Miss M. S., Y. M. C. A., Shanghai. 
Jones, Miss S. E.. C. I. M., Sinchanghsien, via Niugpo. 
Jonsson, Miss A., S. M. S., Wuchang, via Hankow. 
Joseland, F. P., Iv. M. S., Amoy. 
Jourolman, Miss R., A. P. M. So., Kiangyin. 
Jowett, H., W. M.S., Changsha, Hunan. 
Joyce, F. S., and wife, C. I. M., Hiangcheng, via Hankow. 
Joynt, Miss I). C., C. M. S., Hangchow. 
Judd, C. H., and wife, C. I. M. (In Europe.) 
Judd, C. Howard, and wife, C. I. M., Kiukiang. 
Judd, F. H., M.B., C.M., and wife, C. I. M., Jaochow, via Kiu 
kiang. 

Judson, J. H., and wife, A. P. M., Hangchow. 
Junk, T., Ind., Tsaohsien, Shantung. 

Junkin, W. F., and wife, A. P. M. So., Sutsien, via Chinkiang. 
Just, Mrs. Iy., C. I. M., Changshan, Che., via Ningpo, 

Kahn, Miss I., M.D., M. E. M., Nanchang. 

Kampuiann, F., and wife, Ivieben/.ell M., Hengchow, via Yochow. 

Kanne, Miss A. C., R. C. in U. S., Yochow, Hunan. 

Karlen, E., S. Mongol M., Halong, Osso, via Kalgau. 

Karlsson, A., S. Holiness, Tatungfu. via Taiyuanfu. 

Karlsson, A. A., S. Holiness, Tatungfu, via Taiyuanfu. 

Karr, Mrs. E. Iv., S. C., Taniiugfu. 

Karstad, J., and wife, Nor. Iv. M., I,ushan, Honan. 

Kastler, C. W., and wife, C. China Rel. Tract S., Hankow. 

Kauderer, J. G., and wife, C. I. M., Nanchang, via Kiukiang. 

Kauffman, I., C. and M. A., Taochow, Kansuh. 

Kearney, T. R., and wife, C. S. M., Ichang. 



XXXVI CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Keeler, J. Iv., M.D., and wife, M. E. M., Changli, via Tientsin. 

Keen, C. S., and wife, A. B. M. U., Kinbwafu. 

Kees, M. A., and wife, Y. M. C. A., Canton. 

Keller, F. A., B.A., M.D., and wife, C. I. M., Changsha. 

Keller, P. E., and wife, R. C. in U. S., Yochow, via Hankow. 

Kelly, J. P., M.D., and wife, A. P. M., Nodoa, via Hoihow, Hainan. 

Kelly, W., M.D., and wife, R. C. in U. S., Cheuchowfu, via 

Hankow. 

Kelly, Miss M., F. C. M., Nanking. 
Kelly, Miss W. H., A. So. B. M., Shanghai. 
Kelhofer, E., and wife, Ev. M., Shenchowfu, Hunan. 
Kember, A. T., F.R.C.S., C. M. S., Hangchow. 
Kemp, H. A., and wife, A. B. M. U., Chaochowfu, via Swatow. 
Kemp, R. A., A. P. E., Wuchang. 
Kempf, J., A. R. P. Al., Takhing, via Canton. 
Kempson, Miss F. A. B., C. M. S., Mienchow, Sze. 
Kennedy, A., and wife, Grace M., Tangsi, via Shanghai. 
Keunett, R. W., and wife, C. I. Al., Chengku, via Hankow. 
Kepler, A. R., and wife, A. P. M., Siangtan, Hunan. 
Kern, D. S., B.A., C. M. M., Chungking. 
Ker, Miss L. A., C. M. M., Chengtu. 

Kerr, Mrs. J. G., The J. G. Kerr Refuge for Insane, Canton. 
Ketring, M. E., M.D., M. E. M., Chungking. 
Keyte, J. C., M.A., E. B. M., Sianfu, Shensi. 
Kiehlnecker, K., B. M., Kayinchow, via Swatow. 
Kiehn, P., Ind., Tsaohsien, Shantung. 
Kilborn, O. I,., M.A., M.D., C. M. M., Chengtu. 
Kilen, D., and wife, I,. Br. M,, Tsaoyang, via Hankow. 
Kileu, R., and wife, L. Br. M., Tsaoyang, via Hankow. 
Killie, C. A., and wife, A. P. M., Paotingfu, via Tientsin. 
King, A., and wife, I v . M. S., Tientsin. 
King, H. E., and wife, M. E. M., Peking. 
King, N. E., and wife, C. I. M., Pingyangfu, via Peking. 
King, P. J., and wife, C. M. S., Shaohingfu. 
King, Miss I., M. E. So., Sungkiangfu. 
King, Miss M., C. I. M., Yangchow, via Chinkiang. 
Kingsmill, Miss, C. E. Z., Foochow. 

Kinnear, H. N., M.D., and wife, A. B. C. F. M., Foochow. 
Kip, Mrs. H. C., R. C. in A., Siokhe, via Amoy. 
Kirk, J., M.B., Ch.B., and wife, P. C. N. Z., Canton. 
Kirkland, Miss A. O., E. B. Z. M., Tsingchowfu, via Kiaochow. 
Kirkwood, T., M.A., M.B., C.M., and wife, L. M. S., Tientsin. 
Kirveskoski, Miss M., Finn. M. S., Tsingshih, via Shashi. 
Kistler, J., C. and M. A., Wuchow. 
Kitley, W., and wife, C. M.S., Mowchow, Sze. 
Kjorsvik, Miss, Nor. L. M., Kunchow, Hupeh. 
Klavenes, F., M.A., B.D., Nor. M. S., Changsha. 



DIRECTORY OF MISSIONARIES IN CHINA. XXXV ii 

Klein, H., and wife, Ger. C. A. M., Sungyang, via Wenchow. 

Knickerbocker, E. F. , and wife, A. P. M., Ningpo. 

Knight, W. P., and wife, C. I. M., Pingyangfu, via Peking. 

Knipe, W. L. L., and wife, C. M. S., Tehyang, Sze. 

Knott, C. W., M.Sc., L. M. vS., Hankow. 

Knox, Miss E., M. E. M., Tientsin. 

Kohler, Mrs. L. E. C. I. M., Kweiyang, via Chungking. 

Kolfrat. Miss E., A. P. M., Siangtan, Hunan. 

Kolkenbeck, Miss H. M., C. I. M., Yingshan, Sze., via Ichang. 

Kollecker, A., and wife, Ber. M., Canton. 

Koons, Miss S. L., M.D , M. E. M., Taianfu, via Tsingtau. 

Kranenberg, Miss M., R. C. in A., Anioy. 

Krause, G. J. , M. E. M., Tientsin. 

Krayl, R., and wife, B. M., Kucluik, via Canton. 

Krienke, G. F. A., and wife, Ger. C. A. M., Kienchang, via 

Kiukiang. 

Kristensen, Miss O., D. L. M ., Port Arthur. 
Kristiansen, N., and wife, I). L. M., Port Arthur. 
Krout, Miss G., Apos. F. M., Chengtingfu, Chi. 
Kruger, G. H., and wife, B. M., Kichung, via Hongkong. 
Krumling, F. C., M.D., and wife, Ev. M., Shenchowfu, Hunan. 
Kullgren, N., and wife, S. INI. S., Kienli, via Hankow. 
Kunini, Miss E. L. P., Liebenzell M., Changsha. 
Kunkle, J. S., A. P. M., Limchowfu. 
Kunst, Miss I., Liebenzell M., Changsha. 
Kunze, A., and wife, Ber. M., Kiaochow. 
Kupfer, C. F., Ph.D., and wife, M. E. M., Kiukiang. 
Kurz, Miss E., F. C. M., Nanking. 
Kuykendall, I., C. and M. A., \Vuchang. 
Kvamme, M. K., and wife. Apos. F. M., Shanghai. 

Lachlan, Mrs. H. N., C. I. M., Shanghai. 

Lack, C. N., and wife, C. I. M., Yencheng, Ho. 

Lacy, W. H., D.D., and wife, Meth. Pub. House in C., Shanghai. 

Lacy, W. N., and wife, M. E. M., Foochow. 

Lagerquist, A. W., and wife, C. I. M., Laohokow, via Hankow. 

Laidler, Miss A., E. P. M., \Vukingfu, via Swatow. 

Laine, Miss A., Finn. M. S., Tsingshih, via Shasi. 

Laird, C. N., M.A., Canton Clir. College, Canton. 

Laird, P. J., and wife, S. D. A., Changsha. 

Lajus, Miss B. H.. C. 1. M., Yushan, via Ningpo. 

Lake, J.. and wife, A. So. B., Canton. 

Lamb, N., and wife, Unc., Nganihsien, via Kiukiang. 

Lambert, Miss, C. M. S., Foochow. 

Lambert, Miss A., Unc., Xanchang, via Kiukiang. 

Lambert Miss M., S. P. G., Peking. 

Lammenraiita, Miss T., Finn. M. S., Tsingshih, via Shashi. 



XXXVlii CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Lampen, Miss S., Finn. M.S., Tsingshih, via Shaslii. 

Landahl, C. W., and wife, H. S. M., Taipingfu, via Hankow. 

Lande, I,., Nor. L. M., Shihwakai, Hupeh. 

Landis, M. L., and wife, C. and M. A., Nanning, via Wuchow. 

Landis, Miss L. L., C. and M. A., Nanning, via Wuchow. 

Landis, Miss M. L., C. and M. A., Kueilin, via Wuchow. 

Lane, Miss, C. E. Z., Ciongbau, via Foochow. 

Lane, Miss, E. B. M., Taiyuenfu, Shansi. 

Lang, Miss H., S. C., Tamingfu. 

Langford, F. H., B.A., C. M. M., Chungking. 

Langhorne, A., C. I. M.. Yicheng, via Peking. 

Langinan, A., and wife, C. I. M., Mokanshan. 

Lanneau, Miss S. S., A. So. B., Soochow. 

Large, A. W., C. I. M., Paoning, vSze. 

Larsen, L. K., M.D., and wife, D. L. M., Antung, Manchuria. 

Larson, F. A., and wife, B. and F. B. S., Kalgan. 

Larson, Miss F. L., S. A. C. F., Canton. 

Larsson, G. E., S. Holiness, Tatungfu, via Taiyuanfu. 

Lasell, S. L., M.D., A. P. M., Kacheck, via Hoihow, Hainan. 

Latimer, J. V., and wife, A. B. M. U., Huchowfu. 

Lalourette, K. S., Ph.D., Yale M., Changsha, Hunan. 

Lattiinore, Miss M., A. P. M., Soochow 

Latter, Miss H. M., C. P. M., Kongmoon, via Hongkong. 

Lavington, A., C. I. M., Shanghai. 

Law Keem, M.U., and wife, S. D. A., Fatshan. 

Lawrence, Mrs. A., C. M. S., Mowchow. 

Lawrence, Rev. B. F., and wife, M. K. M., Suining, Sze. 

Lawson, D., and wife, C.I.M.,U-u (Chen) (Luanfu), via Peking. 

Lawson, J., and wife, C. I. M., Yuanchow, Ki., via Kiukiang. 

Lawson, Miss L., C. M. M., Kiating. 

Lawton, W. W., and wife, A. So. B., Chengchow, Honan. 

Layton, E. A., M.I)., and wife, F. C. M., Nanking. 

Lea, H. A. H., M.A., C. I. M., Chefoo. 

Leach, Miss, Unc., Shihtao, via Chefoo. 

Leaman, C., and wife, A. P. M., Nanking. 

Leaman, Miss L., A. P. M., Nanking. 

Leaman, Miss M. A., A. P. M.. Nanking. 

Leander, A., and wife, Sw. B. M., Kiaochow. 

Leannonth, B. L. L., M.B., C.M., and wife, I. P. M., Siuniinfu, 

via Newchwang. 

Leathers, Miss M., C. M. S., Taichowfu. 
Leavens, D. H., B.A., Yale M., Changsha, Hunan. 
Leavens, Miss D. D.. A. B. C. F. M., Tungchow, Chi. 
Lebeus, Miss, M. E. M., Sienyu, via Foochow. 
Lechler, J. H., M.B., C. M. S. , Mienchuhsien, Sze. 
Lecky, Miss H., E. P.M., Changpu, via Amoy. 
Lee, C. M., M D , A. P. E., Wusih. 



DIRECTORY OF MISSIONARIES IN CHINA. XXXIX 

Lee, E. J., M.A., A. P. E., Anking. 

Lee, S., and wife, W. M. 8., Wusueh, via Kiukiang. 

Lee, Miss, C. E. Z. Foochow. 

Lee, Miss A., H. S. M., Fancheng, via Hankow. 

Lee. Miss V. J., M.D , A. P. M. vSo., Hangchow. 

Leete, Miss J. M.. C. M. S., Mienchow, Sze. 

Leggat, Miss B., C. I. M.. Chenchowfu, via Hankow. 

Leggate, A. R., M.B , Ch.B., U. F. C.S , Chaoyangchen, via New- 

chwang. 

Lehniann, Miss H., C. I. M., Nankangfu, via Kiukiang. 
Leiser, F. O M B.A., and wife, Y. M. C. A.. Canton. 
Leith, Miss A. G., C. I. M.. Kweiki, via Kiukiang. 
Lenander, Miss E., Apos. F. M., Chengtingfu, Chi 
Lennox, Miss C., N.-W. Kiangsi M., Wucheng, Ki. 
Lennox. Mrs. E. J.. N.-W. Kiangsi M., Wucheng, Ki. 
Leonard, Miss E. E., M.D., A. P. M., Peking. 
Leonhardt, T., and wife, B. M., Moilitn, via Swatow. 
Leqnear, H. R., R. C. in U. S., Yochow, via Hankow. 
Lerrigo, G. E., and wife, Y. M. C. A., Hongkong. 
Leslie, P. C., M.D., M .R.C.S., and wife, C. P. M., Changteho, Hon. 
Lester, W. H., and wife, Unc., Kiukiang. 
Lester, Miss E. S., M. E. So., Soochow. 

Leuschner, W., and wife, Ber. M., Shiuchowfu, via Canton. 
Leverett, W. J., A. P. M., Nodoa, via Hoihow, Hainan. 
Leveritt, Miss E. D.. M. E. S., Cliangchow. 
Lewin, Miss G., C. M.S., Hangchow. 

Lewis, A B., C. I. M , Hanchungfu, via Hankow and Sianfu. 
Lewis, Bishop W. S., D.D., LL.D.. and wife, M. E. M., Foochow. 
Lewis, Dr., E. B. M., Taiyuanfu. vShansi. 

Lewis, Charles G., and wife, A. B. M. U., Suifu, via Chungking. 
Lewis, Charles, M.D., and wife, A. P. M , Paotingfu, via Tientsin. 
Lewis, G. W., and wife, A. B. M. U., Ungkung, via Swatow. 
Lewis, S., D.D., and wife, M. E. M.. Chinkiang. 
Lewis, S. C., M.D., A. P. M., Chenchow, Hunan. 
Lewis, Miss E. F., M.D., A. P. M., Paotingfu. 
Lewis, Miss E., C. and M. A.. Wuchow. 
Lewis, Miss G. B., Broadcast P., Changsha, Hunan. 
Lewis, Miss H., A. P. M., Canton. 
Leybourn, Miss, C. M. S., Hokchiang, via Foochow. 
Lide, Miss J. W., A. So. B., Tengchowfu, via Chefoo. 
Liddell, J. D., and wife, L. M. S., Chichow, via Peking. 
Liddell, Miss M. M. E., C. I. M., Shekichen, via Hankow. 
Lifbom, J. A., S. Holiness, Tattingfu, via Taiyuanfu. 
Light, Miss K., L. M. S., Wuchang, via Hankow. 
Linam, Miss A., M. E. M., Yenpingfu, via Foochow. 
Lincoln, C. F. S., M.D., and wife, A. P. E., Shanghai. 
Lindblad, Miss A. C., M. E. M., Chungking. 



xl CHINA MISSIOX YEAR BOOK. 

Lindberg, J. E., and wife, Svv. B. M., Chucheng, Kiaochow. 
Linden, H., and wife, Khen. M. S., Thongtauha, Kuangtung, via 

Hongkong. 

Ivindenuieyer, Fr., and wife, B. M., Kayincliow, via Swatow. 
Linder, L. H. E., Svv. M. in China, Tungchowfu, She. 
Linflgren, Miss E., S. M. S., Wuchang, via Hankow. 
Lindsay, A. W., D.D.S., and wife, C. M. M., Chengtu. 
Lindsay, W. W., B.L., and wife, C. I. M., Kuling, via Kiu- 

kiang. 

Lindstrom, C. F., and wife, A. P. E., Kiukiang. 
Lindvall, Miss D., S. C. A., Sianfu, via Hankow. 
Lingle, W. H., and wife, A. P. M., Siangtan, Hunan. 
Linom, Miss G., C. I. M., Kuwo, via Peking. 
Lipp, E., and wife, B. M., Moilim, via Sw r atow. 
Leppin, Miss B. U. A., Liebenzell M., Ynanchow, via Yochow. 
Littell, S. H., B.A., and wife, A. P. E., Hankow. 
Little, L. L., and wife, A. P. M. So., Kiangyiii. 
Little, C., W. M. S., Changsha, Hunan. 
Little, Miss E. L., C. M. S., Foochow. 
Littlewood, G. P., E. U. M. F. C., Yuugpingfu. 
Livens, Miss, L. M. S., Peking. 
Lloyd, L., and wife, C. M. S., Foochow. 
Lloyd, Miss E., L. M. S., Peking. 
Lloyd, Miss F., C. I. M., Nanpu, via Ichang. 
Loydf, Miss M. A., C. I. M., Shekichen, via Hankow. 

Loader, Miss, C. E. Z., Saiong, via Foochow. 
Lobenstine, E. C., A. P.M., Hwaiyuan, An., via Nanking. 
Lochead, A. W., B.A., B.D., and wife, C. P. M., Weihwei, Ho. 
Locke, \V. T., A. P. M., Chenchow, Hunan. 
Locke-King, Miss, C. E. Z., Saiong, via Foochow. 
Lockwood, W. W., Ph.B., and wife, Y. M. C. A., Shanghai. 
Loehr, G. R., M.A., and wife, M. E. So., Sungkiangfu. 
Loftus, Z. C., M.D., F. C. M., Batang. 
Logan, O. T., M.D., and wife, A. P. M., Changteh, Hunan, via 

Hankow. 

Lohss, O. H., B.M., Hoshoowan, via Canton and Weichow. 
Longden, W. C., and wife, M. E. M., Chinkiang. 
Longley, R. S., and wife, C. M. M., Junghsien. 
Longstaff, Miss, \V. M. S., Taianfu, via Hankow. 
Longstreet, Miss I. D., M. E. M., Lekdu, via Foochow. 
Loosley. A. O., and wife, C. 1. M., Tientai, via Ningpo. 
Lorenz, Miss F. V., M. E. M., Kucheng, via Foochow. 
Loughlin, Miss M. E., S. C., Weihsien, Chi. 
Louthan, A. D., M.D., A. So. B., Chengchow, Honaii. 
Loveless, Miss A. M., C. I. M., Shanghai. 
Lovell, G., ai:d wife, A. P. M., Changteh, Hunan. 
Lowe, C. J., and wife, Bible M. S., Macao. 



DIRECTORY OK MISSIONARIES IN CHINA. xli 

Lowe, J. W., and wife, A. So. B., Laichow, via Chefoo. 

Lower, T. E., and wife, E. B. M., Hsinchow, Shansi. t 

Lowrie, J. VV., D.D., A. P. M., Paotingfu, via Tientsin. 

Lowry, G. D. N., M.D., and wife, M. E. M., Peking. 

Lowry, H. H.. D.D., and wife, M. E. M., Peking. 

Lowrey, Miss E., A. B. C. F. M., Canton. 

Lowrey, Miss V., A. B. C. F. M., Canton. 

Lucas. B. D., and wife, M. E. So., Soochow. 

Lucas, Miss G. M., A. P. M., Nanking. 

Lucas, Miss O. C., C. I. M., Chuhsien, Sze., via Ichang. 

Luce, H. W., and wife, A. P. M., Weihsien, via Tsinjjtau. 

Lund, F. E., and wife, A. P. E., Wtihu. 

Lundgren, G., and wife, Apos. F. M., Chengtingfu, Chi. 

Lundvall, Miss H., S. C. A., Tsingchow, Kan., via Hankow and 

Sianfu. 

Lutley, A., and wife, C. I. M., Hungtung, via Peking. 
Lutschewitz, W., and wife, Ber. M. S., Tsimo, via Tsingtau. 
Luttrell, H. P. S., and wife, C. P. M., Weihweifu, Honau. 
Lyall, A., M.B., C.M., and wife, E. P. M., Swatow. 
Lykkegaard, J., and wife, D. L. M., Fenghwangcheng, via New- 

chwang. 

Lynn. Miss N., C. and M. A., Pingtali, via Wuchow. 
Lyon, C., M.D., and wife, A. P. M., Tsiningchow, via Clnnkiang. 
Lyon, D. W., M.A., B.D., and wife, Y. M. C. A., Shanghai. 
Lyon, Mrs. M. E., A. P. M., Hangchow. 
Lyon, Miss E., F. C. M., Nanking. 
Lyon, Miss E. M., M.D., M. E. M.. Foochow. 
Lyon, Miss L. I)., A. P. M., Hangchow. 
Lyons, H., and wife, C. I. M., Piiigyangfu, via Peking. 
Lyons, Miss L. E., A. B. C. F. M., Pangchun, via Tientsin. 
Lyttle, W., and wife, K. U. M. F. C., Ningp>. 

Maag, E., and wife, Ger. C. A. M., Chuchow, via Wenchow. 

Mac Arthur, Miss, E. P. M.. Changchowfu, via Ainoy. 

MacBean, Miss J. A., M.D., C.M., C. P. M., Kongmoon, via 

Hongkong. 

Macdonald. Miss C. C., C. I. M., lyang, Ki., via Kiukiang. 
Macdonald, Miss J. E. McN., C. I. M., Liuanchow, via Wuhu. 
Macdonald, Miss M., C. I. M., Chowkiakow, via Hankow. 
MacEwan, H. G., C. I. M., Changteh, Hunan. 
MacFadyen, A. A., M.D., and wife, A. P. M. So., Suchowfu, via 

Chinkiang. 

Macfarlane, A. J., M.A., L. M. S., Hankow. 
MacGill, Miss C. B., C. S. M., Ichang. 

MacGillivray, D., M.A., I). I)., and wife, C. L. S., Shanghai. 
Macgowan, J , L. M. S., Ainoy. 
MacGown, Miss M. G., A. B. C. F. M., Tientsin. 



Xlll CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Machle, K. C., M.D., A. P. M., Canton. 

Macintyre, Mrs. \V., U. F. C. S., Haicheng, via Newchwang. 

Macintyre, INIiss B., U. F. C. S., Kaiyuen, via Newchwang. 

Mackay, Miss J., K. P. M., Changchowfvi, via Anioy. 

Mackey, Miss M. A., M.D., A. P. M., Paotingfu, via Peking. 

Mackenzie, A. R., M.A., B.D., U. F. C. S., Iviaoyang, via New 
chwang. 

Mackenzie, H., C. P. M., Weihweifu, Ho. 

Mackenzie, M., and wife, C. P. M., Changteho, Ho. 

Mackenzie, M., B.A., M.B., and wife, C. M. S., Foochow. 

Mackenzie, M. C., and wife, E. P. M., Samhopa, via Swatow. 

Mackenzie, N., C. M. S., Pakhoi. 

Mackenzie, Miss J. K., A. So. B., Yangchow, via Chinkiang. 

Macklin, W. E., M.D., and wife, F. C. M., Nanking. 

Maclagan, P. J., M.A., D.Phil., and wife, K. P. M., Swatow. 

Maclagan, Miss G. J., K. P. M., Changpu, via Anioy. 

Macl/aren, MissJ., C. I. M., Paoning, Sze. 

MacLeod, K., and wife, C. I. M., Ninghai, via Ningpo. 

MacNaughton, W., M.A., and wife, U. F. C. S., Chaoyangchen, 
via Newchwang. 

Macpherson, A. K., C. I. M., Fenghwa, via Ningpo. 

MacWillie, J., M.U., and wife, A. P. K., Wuchang. 

Maddison, Miss A., C. M. S., Ningpo. 

Madeley, F., M.A., and wife, E. B. M., Tsingchowfn, Shantung. 

Madsen, C., D. L. M., Antung, via Newchwang. 

Maggi, Miss, A. P. M., Shuntehfu, Chihli. 

Magnusson, A., and wife, S. C. A., Paoteo, Wangjefu, via Peking. 

Maier, M., and wife, B. M., Phyangtong, via Swatow. 

Maier, Miss B., Ind., Tsaohsien, vShantung. 

Maier, Miss. E. B. M., Taiyuenfu, Shansi. 

Maier, H., B.M., Chongtsun, via Swatow and Hsingning. 

Main, D., Iv.R.C.P. F.R.C.S., and wife, C. M. S., Hangchow. 

Main, W. A., and wife, M. F^. M., Foochow. 

Mair, A., C. I. M., Anking. 

Maisch, W.,aad wife, B.M., Hoshoowan, via Canton, andWeichow. 

Major, J. N., A. P. K., Shanghai. 

Malcolm, W., M.D., and wife, A. P. M. So., Hwaianfu, Kiangsu. 

Malcolm, W. R., and wife, C. I. M., Taiho, An., via Nanking. 

Malone, G. H., and wife, A. A. C., Nanking 

Malott, Miss D. R., Ind., Piyanghsien, Honan. 

Malpas, E. J., B.A., and wife, I* M. S., Shanghai. 

Manderson, Miss M., M.I)., M. E. M., Peking. 

Mandeville, Miss E. M., C. I. M., Hwochow, via Peking. 

Manger, Miss, E B. M., Hsinchow, Shansi. 

Manly, \V. E., and wife, M. E. M., Chengtu. 

Mann, E. J., and wife, C. I. M., Fukiang, Kan. 

Mann, I. J., Baptist M., Peking. 



DIRECTORY OF MISSIONARIES IN CHINA. xliii 

Manning, Miss E., M. E. M., Tzechow, Sze. 

Manns, Miss S., M. E. So., Shanghai. 

Manx, F., and wife, Ger. C. A. M., Fuchow, Ki. 

March, A. W., and wife, A. P. M., Hangchow. 

Marchbank, Miss N., C. I. M., Kweiki, via Kiukiang. 

Marriott, Miss J. A., M. E. M., Tehwa, via Foochow. 

Marrs, Miss A. S., F. F. M., Tungchwaii, Sze. 

Marshall, Dr. F. W., E. U. M. F. C., Chuchai, via Ningching. 

Marshall, G. J., and wife, C. I. M., Kauchow, Ki., via Kiukiang. 

Marshall, G. W., and wife, A. P. M., Canton. 

Marshall, Miss, C. M. S., I v ienkong, via Foochow. 

Marstun, Mrs. L. D., S. C., Tauiingfu. 

Martin, A. W., M.A., and wife, M. E. M., Nanking. 

Martin, J., C. M. S., Foochow. 

Martin, J. B., and wife, C.T.M. (In Europe.) 

Martin, \V. A. P., D.I)., IvIy.D., A. P. M., Peking. 

Martin, Miss E., M.D., M. E. M., Taianfu, via Tsitigtau. 

Martin. Miss R., C. and M. A., Wuchow. 

Martinson, A., and wife, A. I,. M., Kioshan, Honan. 

Maslin, T. P., B.A., and wife, A. P. E., Hankow. 

Mason, H. J., and wife, C. I. M., Kingtzekan, via Hankow. 

Mason, I., and wife, F. F. M., Saining, via Chungking. 

Mason, Miss B. O., Book Room and Ednc. Depository, Shanghai. 

Mason, Miss Pansy, A. B. M. U., Kiatingfu, via Chungking. 

Massey, Miss E. E., C. M. S., Foochow. 

Massey, Miss R., M.B., Ch.B., I,. M. S., Wuchang, via Hankow. 

Mateer, Mrs. C. W., A. P. M., Weihsien, via Tsingtau. 

Mateer, R. M., and wife, A. P. M., Weihsien, via Tsingtau. 

Mather, W. A., and wife, A. P. M., Paotingfu, via Tientsin. 

Mathews, H., and wife, S. 1 . G., Taian, via Tsingtau. 

Mathews, R. H., and wife, C. I. M., Sihwa, via Hankow. 

Mathews, Miss M. S., A. P. M. So., Hangchow. 

Matson, P., and wife, S. A. M. C., Siangyang, via Hankow. 

Mattox, E. Iy., and wife, A. P. M., Hangchow. 

Maurer, H., B. M., Chon^hangkang, via Hongkong. 

Maute, S., and wife, B. M., Nyenhangli, via Swatow. 

Maw, W. A., and wife, F. F. M., Chungking. 

Mawson, W., M.A., and wife, P. C. N. Z., Canton. 

Mawson, W. G., and wife, S. P. G., Pingyin, via Chefoo 

Mawson, Miss J., P. C. N. Z., Canton. 

Maxwell, J. P., M.B., B.Sc., F.R.C.S., and wife, E. P. M., Eng- 

chun, via Atnoy. 

Mayer, S., B.M., Fophin, via Swatow and Hsingning. 
McAll, P. I,., B.A., M.B., Ch.B., and wife, L. M. S., Hankow. 
McAlpine, R. M., Unc., Jeho, via Peking. 
McAnimoud, R. B., and wife, C. M. M., Junghsien. 
McBurney, Miss J. G., M.D., A. R. P. M., Takhing, via Canton. 



xliv CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

McBurney, Miss K. W., M.D., A. R. P. M., Takhing, via Canton. 

McCandliss, H.M., M.D., and wife, A. P. M., Hoihow, Hainau. 

McCann, J. H., and wife, A. B. C. F. M., Linehing. 

McCarthy, F., L. C. P., and wife, C. I. M., Chefoo. 

McCarthy, J., and wife, C. I. M., Yunnanfu, via Hokow and 
Mengtze. 

McCarthy, W., and wife, A. P. E., Anking. 

McCartney, J. H., M.D., and wife, M. E. M., Chungking. 

McClelland, Miss, C. M. S., Goosangche, via Foochow. 

McCliutock, P. W., and wife, A. P. M., Nodoa, via Hoihow, Hainan. 

McClure, W., M.D., B.A., and wife, C. P. M., Weihweifu, Ho. 

McCorniick, Mrs. M. P., A. P. M. So., Soochow. 

McCoy, Miss B. C., A. P. M., Peking. 

McCracken, J. C., M.D., and wife, Canton Chr. College, Canton. 

McCulloch, R. A., and wife, C. I. M., Jaochow, via Kiukiang. 

McCulloch, Miss F. E., C. I. M., Hokow, Ki., via Kiukiaug. 

McCutchan, H. W., A. P. M. So., Sutsien, via Chinkiang. 

McCutchan, J. T., and wife, A. P. M. So., Taichow, Ku., via Chin 
kiang. 

McDaniel, C. G., and wife, A. So. B., Soochow. 

McDonald, J. A., M.D., C.M., and wife, C. P. M., Kongmoou, 
via Hongkong. 

McDonald, Miss F. M., C. I. M., Luanfu, Sha., via Peking. 

McDowall, W. C., M.A., S. P. G., Peking. 

McEwen, Miss, P. C. N. Z., Canton. 

McFarlane, Miss C., C. J. M., Kwangsinfu, via Ningpo. 

McGill, Miss E., C. P. M., Hwaikingfu, Ho. 

McGinnis, J. Y., and wife, A. P. M. So., Tunghianghsien. 

McGregor, Miss M. B., E. P. M., Anioy. 

Mclntosh, G., and wife, A. P. M., Shanghai. 

Mclntosh, Miss I., C. P. M., Weihweifu, Ho. 

Mclntosh, Miss M. I., C. P. M., Changteho. 

Mclutyre, R. L., and wife, C. 1. M., Suifu, via Chungking. 

Mclntyre, Miss L., A. So. B., Chengchow, Honan. 

McKay, H., Jr., Book Room and Educ. Depository, Shanghai. 

McKay, W. R., M.A., B.D., and wife, C. P. M., Kongiiioon, via 
Hongkong. 

McKenzie, C. F., M.D., and wife, A. B. M. U., Kinhwafu. 

McKenzie, N., C. M. S., Shiuhing, via Canton. 

McKenzie, Miss R. , C. 1. M., lyang, Ki., via Kiukiang. 

McKie, G., and wife, C. I. M., Luanfu, via Peking. 

McKillican, Miss J. C., A. P. M., Peking. 

McLachlin, I,. E., B.A., and wife, Y. M. C. A., Foochow. 

McLean, H., and wife, C. I. M., Talifu, via Mengtze. 

McLean, Miss R., C. P. M., Konginoon, via Hongkong. 

McLennan, Miss E., B.A., C. P. M., Changteho. 

McMordie, Miss E., I. P. M,, Moukden. 



DIRECTORY OF MISSIONARIES IN CHINA. xlv 

McMullan, J., and wife, Chefoo Industrial M., Chefoo. 

McMurtry, S. O., B.A., M.D., C. P. M., Weiliweifu Ho 

McNeely, Miss M. V., C. L. S., Shanghai. 

McNeil), Miss E-, B.A., U. F. C. S., Moukden. 

McNeill, Miss M., L.R.C.P. and S., I. P. M., Kwangchengtzc via 

Newchwang. 

McNeur, G. H., and wife, P. C. N. Z. Canton 
McNulty, H. A., A. P. E., Soochow. 

McOwan, B. M., and wife, S. P. G., Taian, via Tsingtau. 
McPherson, J. L., M.A., Y. M. C. A., Hongkong. 
McPhun, J. F., M.B., C.M., E. P. M., Samhopa, via Swatow. 
McQuillan, Miss A., C. S. M., Ichang. 
McRae, C. F., and wife, A. P. E., Shanghai. 
McRae, J, D., and wife, C. P. M., Changteho, Ho. 
McRobert, Miss B., A. P. M. So., Sutsien, via Chinkiang. 
McRoberts, W. A., C. I. M., Fenghwa, via Ningpo. 
McWhirter, J., M.A., and wife, I. P. M., Kwangning, via New- 

chwang. 

McWilliams, Miss, I. P. M., Fakutnen, via Newchwang. 
Mead, A. W., C. I. M., Hweichow, via Tatung. 
Mead, Miss, C. E. Z., Foochow. 
Meade, J. L,., A. P. E., Shanghai. 

Meadows, J. G., M.D., and wife, A. So. B.,Wuchow, via Canton 
Meadowr T T ~ T ^ r ----< 



J. J., C. I. M , Shaohingfn. 

Miss J. t A. So. B., Wuchovv, via Canton. 

Miss I v . , C. I. M., Shaohingfu. 

Miss I v ili, C. I. M., Shaohingfu. 

Miss I/., Iv. M. S., Aiuoy. 

Miss A. J., A. B. C. F. M., Inghok, via Foochow 



Meadows 
Meadows 
Meadow. 1 
Medland 

Meebold, -, 

Meech, S. E , L. M. sV, Peking! 

Meedar, M., and wife, Finn. M. S., Yuingting, via Shasi. 

Meengs, Miss A. H., R. C. in A., Atnoy. 

Meigs, F. E , and wife, F. C. M., Nanking. 

Meikle, J., C. I M., Sinfenghsien, via Kiukiang. 

Mellodey, Miss I v ., C. M. S., Mienchuhsien, Sze. 

Mellor, Miss A. E., C. I. M., Iviangchowfu, via Hankow and Sianfu. 

Mellow, J. H., C. I. M., Yingchowfu, via Wuhu. 

Melrose, Mrs. M. R., A. P. M., Nodoa, Hainan. 

Melville, T., and wife, Unc., Fungsinhsien, via Kiukiang. 

Menzies, J., M.D., and wife, C. P. M., Hwaikiugfu, Ho. 

Menzies, Mrs. A., C. I. M., Wenchow. 

Merchant, Miss, C. M. S., Tosung, via Foochow. 

Merrill, L., M.D., M. E. M., Chinkiang. 

Merrill, Miss C. E., M. E. M., Kiukiang. 

Merrington, Mrs., Unc., Pakow, via Tangshan. 

Merrins, E. M., M.D., and wife, A. P. E., Wuchang. 

Merteus, Miss E. D., C. M. S., Chungpa, Sze. 



Xlvi CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Metcalfe, Miss G. E., C. M., Ningpo. 

Metcalfe, Miss E. E , C. M., Ningpo. 

Meyer, O., and wife, Rhen. M. S., Hongkong. 

Middleton, R. W., and wife, C. I. M., Meihsien, via Hankow. 

Miederer, C., C. I. M., L,inkiang, via Kiukiang. 

Miles, G., and wife, W. M. S., Teianfu, via Hankow. 

Miller, A., C. I. M., Fenghwa, via Ningpo. 

Miller, D., C. I. M., Ningkwofu, via Wuhu. 

Miller, E. D., S. D. A., Chowkiakow, Honan. 

Miller, E. P., A. P. E., Wuchang. 

Miller, G., and wife, M. E. M., Wuhu. 

Miller, H. W., M.D., and wife, vS. D. A., Shanghai. 

Miller, J. A., and wife, A. P. M., Shnntehfu, Chihli. 

Miller, J. B., and wife, C. I. M., Tunglu, via Hangchow. 

Miller, Mrs. B., S. D. A., Shanghai. 

Miller, Miss B., W. U. M., Shanghai. 

Miller, Miss B. F., R. C. in U. S., Yochow, via Hankow. 

Miller, Miss E. J., M.B., Ch.B., U. F. C S., Iviaoyang, via New 

chwatig. 

Miller, Miss C. A., A. So. B., Laichow, via Chefoo. 
Millican, F. R., and wife, A. Free M. M. in C., Chihsieu, Honan, 
Mills, D. J., and wife, C. I. M., Kiukiang. 
Mills, Mrs. A. T., M. to Chinese Deaf, Chefoo. 
Millward, W. . M. E. M., Nanking. 

Milsum, W. B., and wife, C. I. M., Pingyaohsien, via Peking. 
Milward, W., and wife, N. B. S. S., Amoy. 
Miner, G. S., and wife, M. E. M., P oochow. 
Miner, Miss L., A. B. C. F. M., Peking. 
Minniss, Miss L. V., A. B. M. U., Kinhwafu. 
Minty, C. S., W. M. S., Hankow. 
Miskelly, W., M.A., I. P. M., Kyushu, Kirin. 
Mitchell, E. C., and wife, A. R. P. M., Takhing, via Canton. 
Mitchell, I. E., M.I)., C.M., and wife, L. M. vS., Canton. 
Mitchell, R. A., B.A., and wife, C. P. M., Weilnveifu, Ho. 
Mitchell, T. W., and wife, A. P. M., Chenchow, Hunan. 
Mitchell, Miss Ida, M.D., I. P. M., Fakumen, via Newchwang. 
Mitchell, Miss M., M. E. So., Shanghai. 
Mitchell, Miss M. S., A. P. E., Shanghai. 
Mitchil, Mrs. C. W., W. M. S., Hanyang, via Hankow. 
Mjelve, H., and wife, Nor. L. M., Nanyangfu, Honan. 
Moherg, Miss S. O., S. C., Tamingfu. 
Moffett, L. I., and wife, A. P. M. So., Kiangyin. 
Moffett, Miss C., A. P. M. So., Soochow. 
Mohler, F. M., and wife, Y. M. C. A., Hongkong. 
Moler, Miss M.. C. I. M ., Pingyanghsien, via Wenchow. 
Molland, Mrs. C. E., F. C. M., Nanking. 
Molony, H. J., D.I)., Bishop, and wife, C. M. S., Ningpo. 



DIRECTORY OF MISSIONARIES IN CHINA. xlvii 



r, en C> A M " Tsu "KJen, via Kiukiang. 

Montfort, Miss, C. E. Z., Sien-iu, via FoocBow 
Montgomery, J. If., M.B., Ch.B., and wife, E. P. M., Changpu 

via Amoy. 

Montgomery , R. p., Presby. College, Hangchow. 
Montgomery, T. H., and wife, A. P. M., Tsinotati 
Montgomery, Miss H. M., A. P. M., Kiungchow, Hoihow, Hainan. 
Moody, Miss L., C. I. M., Anjen, via Kiukiang. 
Moomau, Miss A., Apos. F. M., Shanghai. 
Moon, Miss Lottie, A. So. B., Tengchowfu. via Chefoo. 
Moore, A., and wife, C. I. M., Liangchowfu, via Hankow and 

Sianfu. 

Moore, Miss, C. M. S., Foochow. 
Moore, Miss M. K., B.A., C. S. M., Ichang. 
Moorman, Miss M. E., A. So. B., Yangchow, via Chinkiang. 
Moran, H. A., B.A., Y. M. C. A., Hankow. 
Morgan, E.. and wife, C. L. S., Shanghai. 
Morgan, E. I v ., and wife, A. So. B., Chefoo. 
Morgan, E. W., C. M. M., Chengtu. 
Morgan, H. B., C. M. S., Hangchow. 
Morgan, I v . S., M.D., and wife, A. P. M. So., Tsingkiangpu, via 

Chinkiang. 

Morgan, Miss C., C. I. M., Talifu, via Mengt/.e. 
Morgan, Miss I. V., C. and M. A., Nanlinghsien, via Wnhu. 
Moritz, Miss S., H. M. for Blind, Kowloon. 
Morley, A., L.R.C.S. and P., Ed., and wife, W. M. S., Teianfu, 

via Hankow. 

Morris, D. B. S., A. P. M., Hwaiyuan, An., via Nanking. 
Morris, Miss Jean, C. M. S., Hangchow. 
Morris, Miss F. I,. C. I. M., Kiehsm, via Peking. 
Morris, Miss S., C. M. S., Hangchow. 

Morrison, Miss M. C., R. C. in A., Chian^chiu, via Amoy. 
Mort, Miss, C. M. S., Gengtau, via Foochow. 
Mortimore, W. J., 15. A., and wife, C. M. M., Kiatingfu. 
Morton, Miss A., A. P. M., Shanghai. 
Morton, Miss E. H.. A. P. M. So., Tsingkiangpu. 
Morton, Miss M., A. P. M., Shanghai. 
Mosher, G. F., and wife, A. P. E., Wusih. 
Mosson, Miss E. M., Chefoo Industrial M.. Chefoo. 
Mottley, F. \V., B.A., Canton Chr. College, Canton. 
Moule, A. E., Archdeacon, B.U., C. M. S., Ningpo. 
Moule, A. J. H., B.A., and wife, C. M. S., Shanghai. 
Moule, G. I-;., Bishop, D.D.. and wife, C. M. S., Hangchow. 
Moule, H. W., B.A., and wife, C. M. S.. Hangchow. 
Moule, W. A. If., and wife, C. M. S.. Shanghai. 
Moule, W. vS.. M.A., and wife, C. M. S.. Ningpo. 
Moule, Miss J. F., C. M. S., Hangchow. 



xlviii CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

Mountford, Miss B., W. M. S., Hankow. 

Mowntt, f. A., B.A., and wife, C. P. M., Hwaikingfti, Ho. 

Mower, Miss M., C. I. M.. Hwailu, via Peking. 

Muir, D. I)., L.R.C.P. and S., and wife, U. F. C. S., Tiehling, via 
Newchwang. 

Muir, J. R., and wife, C. I. M., Batang, Sze. 

Muir, Miss G. M., C. I. M., Shanghai. 

Muir, Miss W., M. K. M., Nanchang. 

Miiller, C., and wife, B.M., Lough eu, via Hongkong. 

Miiller, G., and wife, Ger. C. A. M., Lungchuan, Che., via Wen- 
chow. 

Miiller, H., and wife, Ber. M., Hongkong. 

Miiller, J., and wife, Ber. Fo. Ho., Hongkong. 

Miiller, W., and wife, C. M. S., Foochow. 

Mulloney, J. J., M.D., and wife, M. E. M., Peking. 

Mumford, D. C., M.D., and wife, U. K. C. M., Liling, via Yochow. 

Munn, W., C. M. S., Mienchow. Sze. 

Mundle, Miss S., U. F. C. S., Liaoyang, via Newchwang. 

Mungeam, H. J., C. I. M., Pingyaohsien, via Peking. 

Munro, J. M., C. I. M., Wenchow. 

Hun roe, E. R., and wife, Oriental M. S., Yaumatei, via Hongkong. 

Munson, Miss A. M., C. I. M., Kuwo, via Peking. 

Murdock, Miss A., M.D., A. P. M., Hwaiyuan, An., via Nanking. 

Murdock, Miss Margaret, A. P. M., Hwaiyuan, An., via Nanking. 

Murdock. Miss Mary, A. P. M., Hwaiyuan, An., via Nanking. 

Murfitt, Miss J. E., E. U. M. F. C., Ningpo. 

Murray, D. S.. and wife, L. M. S., Tsangchow, via Tientsin. 

Murray, E., and wife, C. I. M., Chefoo. 

Murray, J., A. P. M., Tsinan, via Tsiiigtau. 

Murray,}.. M. A., L. M. S., Tientsin. 

Murray, \V. H., and wife, M. for Chinese Blind, Peking. 

Murray, Miss C. K., C. I. M. (In England.) 

Murray, Miss E. M., A. P. M., Siangtan, Hunan. 

Murray, Miss H., M. for Chinese Blind, Peking. 

Murray, Miss M. C. I. M., Yangchow, via Chinkiang. 

Myers, C. M., and wife, A. P. M., Shanghai. 

Myers, Q. A., and wife M. E. M.. Chungking. 

Myers, Miss A. M., M.D., A. P. E., Shanghai. 

Myers, Miss B., U. Br. in C., Canton. 

Mylne, C., E. U. M. F. C., Chaotung, Yun. 

Myrberg, A. A., S. Holiness, Soping, via Taiyuanfu. 

Nagel, A., and wife, B. M., Lilong, via Hongkong. 

Nagel, Miss G., Kieler C. M., Pakhoi. 

Nance, W. B., and wife, M. E. So , Soochow. 

Napier, A. Y., and wife, A. So. B., Yangchow, via Chinkiang. 

Neal, J. B., M.I)., and wife, A. P. M., Tsiuan, via Tsingtau. 



DIRECTORY OF MISSIONARIES IN CHINA. xlix 

Neale. F. H., and wife, C. I. M. (In America.) 

Neave, J.. and wife, C. M. M., Chengtu 

Nelson, C. A., and wife, A. B. C. F. M., Canton. 

Nelson, C. J., and wife, S. A. M. C., Siangvang, via Hankow. 

S C S n> ?/ a r d Wlfe A L - M " Sinyangctow, Honan. 

Nelson Miss J., S. A. M. C., Pane-hens, via Hankow. 

Netland, Mrs. O., A. L. M., Kioshan, Honan 

Neubacher, M., and wife, B. M., Chongtsun, via Canton and 

Weichow. 

Neumann. J. H., and wife, M. K. M., Chengtu 
Neumann, Miss E., Ber. M., Shiuchowfu, via Canton 
Newcombe, Miss B, C. E. Z., Sangiong, via Foochow. 
Newcombe, Miss M., C. E. Z., Sangiong, via Foochow 
Newell, G. M., and wife, A. B. C. F. M., Foochow 
Newell, Miss M., M.D., W. U. M., Shanghai. 
Newman, Miss I,., A. P. M., Siangtan, Hunan. 
Newton, C. H., and wife, A. P. M., Kiungchow, via Hoihow, 

Hainan. 

Newton, W. C., and wife, A. So. B., Hwanghsien, via Chefoo. 
Newton, Miss, C. M. S., Lienkong, via Foochow. 
Newton, Miss G., A. P. M., Paotingfu. 
Ng, Y. C. Miss. Home and Agency, Shanghai. 
Niblock, H. B., Chefoo Miss. Home, Chefoo. 
Nicholaisen, Miss M., M. E. M., Sienyu, via Foochow. 
Nicholls, A. G., C. I. M.. Shapushan, Yunnanfu. 
Nichols, H. S., and wife, C. and M. A., Nanlinghsien, Anhwei via 

Wnhu. 

Nichols, J. W., and wife, A. P. E-, Shanghai. 
Nicholson. Miss, C. M. S., Ningteh, via Foochow. 
Nickalls, E. C., and wife, E. B. M., Tsingchowfu, Shantung. 
Nielsen, N., M.D., D. L. M.. Hsiuyen, via Newchwang. 
Nielsen, Miss E., D. L. M., Takushan, via Newchwang. 
Niles, Miss M. W., M.D., A. P. M., Canton. 
Nilsen, Miss Anne, H. S. M., Fancheng via Hankow. 
Nilsou, J. G., and wife, S. C. A., Lungchow, She., via Hankow. 
Nilson, P., and wife, S. C. A., Pinchow, via Hankow. 
Nilssen, J. E., M.A., M.D., and wife, Nor. M. S., Taohualuen, 

Lyang, via Changsha. 

Nilsson, K., S. M. S., Hwangchow, via Hankow. 
Nisbet, Miss, C. E. Z., Kutien, via Foochow. 
Nolterius, Miss D., E. P. M.. Atnoy. 
Norden, Miss L., S. C. A., Kienyang, via Hankow. 
Nordlund, V. L., and wife, S. C. A., Sianfu, via Hankow. 
Norgaard, P., Y. M. C. A., Fenghwangclieng, Manchuria. 
Norgaard, P., D. L. M., Hsiuyen, via Kiukiang. 
Norman, Miss R., Unc., Shangkaohsien, via Kiukiang. 
Norris, F. L., M.A., S. P. G., Peking. 



1 CHINA MISSION YEAR BOOK. 

North, T. E., B.A., and wife, W. M. S., Hanyang, via Hankow. 
North, Miss H. F., A. So. B., Shinning, via Samshui. 
Nourse, Miss M. A., A. B. M. U., Hangchow. 
Nowack, W. N.. and wife, Incl., Piyanghsien, Honan. 
Noyes, H. V., D.D., and wife, A. P. M., Canton. 
Noyes, Miss H., A. P. M., Canton. 
Noyes, W. D., and wife, A. P. M., Canton. 
Nyberg.-Miss L., Finn. M. S., Yuingting, via Shasi. 
Nyffenegger, Miss A., Ind., Tsaohsien, Shantung. 
Nylin, M ISS L. M., Sw. M. in China, Puchowfu, via Peking. 
Nystrom, C. F., and wife, C. I. M., Ningsiafn, via Hankow and 
Sianfu. 

Oakeshott, Miss R. E., C. I. M ., Shanghai. 
Oatway, Miss F. E., C. M. S., Gengtau, via Foochow. 
Oberg O. E., and wife, S. C. A., Saratsi, via Peking. 
Ockenden, E. C., and wife, Unc., Weihaiwei. 
Oehler, W., B. M., Chonghangkang, via Hongkong. 
Oehnie, Miss L. E., C. and M. A., Wuchow. 
Ogborn, Miss K. L., M. E. M., Wuhn. 
Ogden, J. C., and wife, F. C. M.. Batang. 
Ogden, Miss E. A., C. I. M.. Kianfu. Ki., via Kiukiang. 
Ogden, Miss M. R., A. P. E., Anking. 
Ohrset. Miss L, Nor. L. M.. Laohokow, via Hankow. 
Oisteso. I. B., and wife, Nor. L. M., Tengchow, Honan. 
Oldfield, W., C. and M. A., Wuchow. 
Oldham, H. W., E. P. M., Changpu, via Amoy. 
Oldham, J. H., B.A., C. M . M., Chungking. 
Oldt, F., M.D.. and wife, U. Br. in C., Canton. 
Olesen, O., and wife, D. L. M., Hsiuyen, via Newchwang. 
Olesen, P. O., C. I. M., Anshunfu, via Yochow and Kweiyang. 
Oliver, Miss E., A. F. M., Nanking. 

Olson, Miss A., S.C. A., Sangkiachwang, Wukung, via Hankow. 
Olson, Miss E , H. S. M., Fancheng, via Hankow. 
Olsen, C. A., S. Holiness, Tatungfu, via Taiyuanfu. 
Olseu, F.. and wife, C. I. M., Kiungchow, Sze. 
Olsen, Miss O., S. C. A., Pingliang and Sianfu, via Hankow. 
Omelvena, J., M.A., I. P. M., Sinminfu, via Newchwang. 
O Neill, F. S. W., M.A., and wife, I. P. M., Fakumen, via New 
chwang. 

O Neill, Miss A., C. P. M., Hwaichingfu, Honan. 
Onyon. Miss M., C. M. S., Lienkong. 

Openshaw, H